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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

D. L. MUD, INCORPORATED
ABBEVILLE, VERMILION PARISH, LOUISIANA


8. CONCLUSIONS

Based on the information provided in EPA's Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study andreviewed by the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, Office of Public Health, Sectionof Environmental Epidemiology and Toxicology, it is concluded that the site poses no publichealth hazard based on current site conditions. Prior to the 1987 remediation, the site may haveposed a health hazard but because of inadequate sampling data for that time period, we areunable to determine past exposure levels.

Arsenic was detected at elevated levels (levels that exceed ATSDR's comparison values) in someof the on-site monitoring wells and in some of the surrounding residential wells. The presence ofarsenic in the groundwater is believed to be unrelated to site contamination but ratherrepresentative of natural background conditions. Nonetheless, it is considered a completedexposure pathway. The estimated exposure, using the maximum level detected in a residentialwell, was found to be near the EPA chronic oral RfD for both children and adults. The chronicdose for children drinking water from arsenic contaminated residential wells, compared to levelsused in human studies on noncancerous effects, was found to be above the level where "noadverse health effects" can be expected. Therefore, adverse health effects from long-termexposure may result and chronic exposure to arsenic in the drinking water is a public healthconcern. With respect to cancer, it was determined that there is a slight increase in the possibilityof developing cancer over a lifetime from ingestion of arsenic at levels detected in the residentialwells.

The most prevalent contaminant remaining on site is barium. Barium, a common component of drilling muds, was detected at elevated levels in the surface soils where the process area and storage tanks were once located. It was also detected in the surface water and sediments of the on-site drainage ditches. Based on the assumptions used in the exposure scenarios for this public health assessment, it was determined that exposure to the levels of barium remaining on site does not exceed the EPA chronic oral RfD. Therefore, adverse health effects are unlikely.

Completed exposure pathways existed prior to remediation from exposure through ingestion ofand dermal contact with surface soils, sediments, and surface water. Past exposure may haveoccurred to former site workers, trespassers on-site and children who may have played in thecanals and ditches near the site.

The main concerns expressed by the local community were related to environmentalcontamination present at the site and possible health effects which might result from exposure tothese contaminants. Analysis of the health outcome data for cancer incidence in VermillionParish was based on eight years of data available at that time. As more data becomes availableespecially at the block group level, it should be reevaluated to address more specifically the health of the exposed community.


9. RECOMMENDATIONS

The following recommendations were made by OPH in earlier versions of the PHA. Bothrecommendations have been implemented at this time and are documented here forcompleteness.

  1. Deed restrictions on the D. L. Mud property have been instituted, restricting its future use for residential or agricultural purposes as described in the EPA's Final Close Out Report.

  2. Long-term groundwater monitoring is being performed on a quarterly basis to ensure that the groundwater from beneath the site is not further impacted by contaminants asdescribed in the EPA's Final Close Out Report.

  3. Private Wells should continually be monitored for arsenic, as levels indicated could be a public health concern.

Public Health Action

The following describes the actions taken by ATSDR and/or LOPH/SEET at the D. L. Mud site and the surrounding community. The purpose is to ensure that this public health assessment has not only identified public health hazards, but provided a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. The public health actions which have been implemented by ATSDR/SEET are as follows:

   Actions Taken

  1. In May of 1992, the Louisiana Office of Public Health (LOPH), in cooperation with the Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service conducted a Water Well Education Program for the residents of Vermilion Parish.

  2. As a follow-up to the Water Well Education Program, LOPH conducted residential water well sampling from February through May 1993 around the D.L. Mud/Gulf Coast Vacuum Superfund sites and the Pab Oil Superfund site (three miles north of Abbeville). Each resident was sent a copy of the results once they were finalized. Residents whose wells had elevated levels of arsenic were encouraged to limit its use for drinking and cooking.

  3. In May 1993, a public meeting was held in Abbeville to explain the private wellsampling results and the public health assessment process.

  4. SEET evaluated the most recent health outcome data (1988-1996) availablefor cancer incidence in the community surrounding the D. L. Mud site, using theLouisiana Tumor Registry Data.

  5. In December 1999, SEET conducted a Community Assistance Panel/ Public Meeting in Abbeville. The public comment version of the Public Health Assessment was released.

10. PREPARERS OF THE REPORT

Preparers of the Report:

Louisiana Office of Public Health/Section of Environmental Epidemiology & Toxicology:

Daniel J. Odem, MS
Geologist/Environmental Scientist

Lina Balluz, MPH, ScD
Environmental Scientist (PHA Supervisor)

Kabrina Smith, M.S. (Health Outcome Section)
Public Health Epidemiologist Supervisor

Revised and Updated by:

Louisiana Office of Public Health/Section of Environmental Epidemiology & Toxicology:

Erica M. Caesar, MSPH
Public Health Epidemiologist

Kimberly M. Gallo, MSPH
Public Health Epidemiologist

ATSDR Regional Representative:

George Pettigrew
Senior Regional Representative
ATSDR, Region VI

ATSDR Technical Project Officers:

William J. Greim
Environmental Health Scientist
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Superfund Site Assessment Branch

Tammie A. McRae, MS
Environmental Health Scientist
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Superfund Site Assessment Branch


11. CERTIFICATION

This D L Mud, Inc. Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Tammie McRae, MS
Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment and concurs with the findings.

Richard Gillig
Chief, State Program Section, DHAC, ATSDR


12. REFERENCES

  1. Remedial Investigation Report, D. L. Mud Inc., Site, Abbeville, Louisiana, CH2M HillSoutheast, Inc., December, 1992.

  2. Expanded Site Investigation, D. L. Mud Inc., Vermilion Parish Louisiana, Ecology & Environment, Inc., 1988.

  3. Sampling Inspection at Gulf Coast Vacuum Services, Inc. and D. L. Mud, Inc., Ecology& Environment, Inc., December 11, 1985.

  4. Preliminary Health Assessment (Interim), D. L. Mud, Inc., Prepared by LouisianaDepartment of Health and Hospitals, February 27, 1992.

  5. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual, ATSDR 1992.

  6. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic, Update (Draft for Public Comment) ATSDR, August1998.

  7. Toxicological Profile for Barium and Compounds, ATSDR, July 1992.

  8. Revised Work Plan for Additional EPA Requested Investigation-D. L. Mud, Inc. Site., October 1992.

  9. Final Close Out Report: D.L. Mud Superfund Site Abbeville, Louisiana, U.S. EPARegion VI, Superfund Division, June 1999.

13. APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: Tables 1-10

Table 1.

Population Distribution by Race and Sex1
  Caucasian American African American Other
Americans
Total Median
Family
Income
Median
Household
Income
Female Male Female Male Female Male
Abbeville 3,549 3,058 2,231 1,915 189 245 11,187 $14,769 $12,653
Vermilion Parish 21,686 20,551 3,721 3,122 394 581 50,055 $21,815 $18,202
Census Tract 9505 2,168 2,091 92 77 12 14 4,454 $24,464 $21,491
11990 U. S. Census data


Table 2.

Population Distribution by Age Groups1
  Age
<5 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75>
Abbeville 996 2,026 1,548 1,658 1,306 912 976 969 796
Vermilion Parish 3,998 9,062 6,866 8,003 6,504 4,725 4,316 3,664 2,917
Census Tract 9505 344 877 596 759 648 408 341 252 229
11990 U. S. Census data


Table 3.

Range of Contaminant Concentrations in On-site Surface Soil Samples1
Contaminant Concentration
Range (ppm2)
DateReference Comparison Value
ppmSource
barium210-13,5001992 14,000RMEG3
1child comparison value used
2ppm - parts per million
3RMEG - Reference dose media evaluation guide


Table 4.

Range of Contaminant Concentrations in On-site Sediment Samples1
Contaminant Concentration
Range (ppm2)
DateReference Comparison Value
ppmSource
barium355-18,4001992 14,000RMEG3
1child comparison value used
2ppm - parts per million
3RMEG - Reference dose media evaluation guide


Table 5.

Range of Contaminant Concentrations in On-site Surface Water Samples1
Contaminant Concentration
Range (ppb2)
DateReference Comparison Value
ppbSource
barium89-6,0901992 1700RMEG3
1child comparison value used;
2ppb - parts per billion;
3RMEG - Reference dose media evaluation guide.


Table 6.

Range of Contaminant Concentrations in On-site Groundwater Samples.
Contaminant Concentration
Range (ppb1)
DateReference Comparison Value
ppbSource
arsenic1.1-431992

1

0.02CREG2
1ppb - parts per billion;
2CREG - Cancer risk evaluation guide.


Table 7.

Range of Contaminant Concentrations In Residential Water Supply Wells Sampled by EPA.
Contaminant Concentration
Range (ppb1)

DateReferenceComparison Value

ppbSource
arsenic9.5-481991

1

0.02CREG2
1ppb - parts per billion
2CREG - Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide


Table 8.

Completed and Potential Exposure Pathways
PATHWAY NAME EXPOSURE PATHWAY ELEMENTS TIME
SOURCE ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA POINT OF EXPOSURE ROUTE OF EXPOSURE EXPOSED POPULATION
Completed Exposure Pathways:
surface soil DL Mud, Gulf Coast Vacuum surface soil site ingestion, dermal contact workers, trespassers past
sediments DL Mud, Gulf Coast Vacuum sediments on-site, canals,
ditches
ingestion, dermal contact children, trespassers past
surface water DL Mud, Gulf Coast Vacuum surface water on-site canals, ditches ingestion, dermal contact children, trespassers past
groundwater
(private wells)
unknown ground water residential taps ingestion residents using private wells past, present, future
Potential Exposure Pathways:
sediments D. L. Mud, Gulf Coast Vacuum sediments on-site, canals,
ditches
ingestion, dermal contact children, trespassers present, future
groundwater
(private wells)
D. L. Mud, Gulf Coast Vacuum ground water residential taps ingestion residents using private wells future



Table 9.

Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR) for D. L. Mud (Census Tract 9505), 1988-1996. Comparison of Observed and Expected Cancer Incidence Using Louisiana Region IV Rates (1988-1992). All Races.
Cancer Type Sex Cases SIR p-value
Observed Expected

All Cancers Male
Female
19
4
88.92
74.98
0.21
0.05

0.0000
0.0000

Lung/Bronchus Male
Female
6
0
21.67
9.83
0.28
-
0.0008
-
Prostate Male 3 19.82 0.15 0.0002



Table 10.

Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR) for D. L. Mud (Census Tract 9505), 1988-1996. Comparison of Observed and Expected Cancer Incidence Using Louisiana Region IV Rates (1988-1992). Whites Only
Cancer Type Sex Cases SIR p-value
Observed Expected

All Cancers Male
Female
18
4
83.02
71.17
0.22
0.06

0.0000
0.0000

Lung/Bronchus Male
Female
5
0
19.37
9.28
0.26
-
0.0011
-
Prostate Male 3 18.55 0.16 0.000


APPENDIX B: Figures 1-8

General Location Map
Figure 1. General Location Map

Surficial Soil Sampling Locations
Figure 2. Surficial Soil Sampling Locations

Contour Intervals of Barium in Surficial Soil
Figure 3. Contour Intervals of Barium in Surficial Soil

Soil Boring Locations
Figure 4. Soil Boring Locations

Area of Discolored Soil in Former Impoundments
Figure 5. Area of Discolored Soil in Former Impoundments

Monitoring Well Locations
Figure 6. Monitoring Well Locations

Surface Water Sample Locations
Figure 7. Surface Water Sample Locations

Residential Water Supply Well Locations
Figure 8. Residential Water Supply Well Locations


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