PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
HIGHWAY 71/72 REFINERY
BOSSIER CITY, BOSSIER PARISH, LOUISIANA
- The Highway 71/72 Refinery site has been classified as a public health hazard because there are (a) areas of soil lead contamination on site that would pose a health threat to young children, (b) benzene levels reported in the indoor air, that if representative of long term exposures, would pose an unacceptable cancer risk for long term residents, and (c) methane levels measured under buildings onsite may pose a future physical hazard.
- There were elevated levels of lead in the Alexis Park Apartment complex grounds (old playground and volleyball court) that are of health concern. However, these areas have been remediated, and are currently covered with grass and no longer contain playground or volleyball equipment.
- Results of voluntary blood lead testing indicated that the blood lead levels of the 68 children tested were below 10 ug/dL and do not require medical follow up.
- Arsenic, mercury, and PAHs were detected in soil below levels that may cause adverse health effects.
- More air data is needed to determine if the indoor air contaminants are (a) originating from soil gas, buried waste, or other sources and (b) to determine if the levels are representative of contaminant concentrations over time.
- Methane and other volatile organic compounds detected in the soil gas need to be monitored during future soil excavation.
- Contaminants found in soil gas were found in indoor air samples.
- The levels of toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene reported in indoor air were below levels of health concern for long term exposures.
- The groundwater is contaminated with PAHs and volatile organic compounds. The residents on site do not obtain their drinking water from the groundwater. The public water which is supplied from the Red River is a safe water supply.
- Monitoring wells placed between the site and the Red River have not shown groundwater contamination that would present a contamination problem for the river.
- A tar material has been found several feet underground during on-site construction. The tar material has been reported in residential areas, apartment complexes, and hotel parking lots. The tar material is high in PAHs and lead.
- Exposures to elevated levels of lead in the soil should be limited.
- The soil gas should be tested for a wide range of contaminants related to oil refineries. Analysis of soil gas should include priority pollutant volatile organic compounds such as benzene, xylene, toluene, and as vinyl chloride; organic sulfur compounds such as mercaptans; and inorganic volatile sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and sulfur dioxide.
- Based on the results obtained from the soil gas investigations, indoor air sampling should be conducted for targeted soil gas contaminants.
- Continuous methane monitoring should be conducted in selected residences and buildings for several months to ensure that a fire and explosion condition is not a possibility.
- An annual statistical review of cancer rates associated with site contaminants should be conducted if residents are being exposed to indoor air contaminants at levels which could cause health effects.
- Areas where soil is being excavated should be monitored for methane and other site related volatile organic compounds to protect workers and nearby residents.
- Monitoring wells should be tested regularly to determine the migration of contaminants in the groundwater and to ensure the safety of public water supplies.
In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, the data and information developed in the Hwy 71/72 Refinery site have been evaluated by the Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) for appropriate follow-up activities. HARP made the following determinations:
- Education for health professionals should be offered to local public health officials and the medical community to advise them of the nature and potential health effects of exposure to the site contaminants.
- Community health education should be conducted to inform area residents about the nature of the site and the potential health effects resulting from exposure to contaminants.
- As additional data becomes available, SEET and ATSDR will reevaluate the site for additional follow-up activities.
The following are a description of actions to be taken by SEET and ATSDR at the Hwy 71/72 Refinery site. The purpose is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse health effects resulting from exposure to site contaminants. The public health actions completed or to be implemented by SEET/ATSDR are as follows:
- Several hundred area physicians were contacted by letter in which the site history and contaminants of concern were described. The letter included a request for case studies on the contaminants which could be completed to obtain continuing education credits for physicians.
- A Fact Sheet addressing site history and the contaminants of concern has been developed for the site was be distributed to the community when the health assessment was made available to the public.
- The Public Health Assessment for the site was presented at a public meeting. Representatives from SEET and ATSDR discussed the conclusions and recommendations as well as answered community members' questions.
- A lead exposure investigation was conducted in July 1995. As part of the investigation, SEET and ATSDR representatives did a door-to door survey. During the survey, pamphlets addressing lead poisoning were distributed to residents. Residents with young children were asked to complete a questionnaire and to participate in the blood lead testing provided by SEET and ATSDR.
Louisiana Department of Health & Hospitals
Office of Public Health
Section of Environmental Epidemiology & Toxicology
Ellen Blanker, MSPH
Barbara Cooper, MSPH
Kimberly M. Gallo, MSPH
Margaret Metcalf, Sc.D.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Superfund Site Assessment Branch
Tina Forrester, PhD
Lynn Wilder, CIH
ATSDR Senior Regional Representative:
Office of the Assistant Administrator
Regional Operations, Region VI
ATSDR Technical Project Officer:
Division of Health Assessment & Consultation
Environmental Health Scientist
William J. Greim
Tammie McRae, MS
This Highway 71/72 Refinery Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.
Tammie McRae, MS
Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC
The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment and concurs with the findings.
Chief, State Program Section, DHAC, ATSDR
- Surface Soil Sampling Results, Volume III, Remedial Investigation, Former Arkansas Fuel Oil Refinery Site, Tables 3-2A, 3-2B, 3-2C, 3-3A, 3-3B, 3-3C, Appendix B, Table 1- Surface Soil Analytical Results, Alexis Park Playground, Bossier City, Louisiana, ERM-Southwest, August 30, 1994.
- Deep Boring and Ground Water Sampling Results, Volume II, Remedial Investigation, Former Arkansas Fuel Oil Refinery Site, Tables 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 5-5, 5-6, 5-7, Bossier City, Louisiana, ERM-Southwest, W.O.# 89-29, August 30, 1994.
- Soil Vapor Investigation, Former Arkansas Fuel Oil Refinery Site, Figure 2-Methane Concentrations, Figure 7-Liquid Gas, Soil Gas and Monitoring Well Location Map, Plate 1-Soil Gas Site Location Map, Tables 1, Bossier City, Louisiana, Exploration Technologies, September 15, 1993.
- Report of Indoor Air Quality Monitoring and Sampling Services at the Residence Inn, 1001 Gould Drive, Bossier City, LA--For Marriott Corporation. Law Engineering, March 6, 1990.
- Indoor Air Monitoring Report, Alexis Park Apartment Complex, Bossier City, LA (includes Volumes II and III, Appendices A-H), August 15, 1990, ERM-Southwest.
- Bossier City Indoor Air Data, ENTEK, 1990-91.
- Indoor Air Data, ALCHEM, January 30, 1990.
- Bossier City Indoor Air Data Sheets (Carriage Square and Alexis Park Data), LDEQ Air Toxics Lab, 1993.
- Final Indoor Air Monitoring and Analysis Supplement to the Site Investigation Work Plan, Former Arkansas Oil Refinery Site, Bossier City, LA. Law Environmental, Inc., January 1994.
- Indoor Air Monitoring and Analysis Report, Former Arkansas Fuel Oil Refinery Site, Bossier City, LA. Law Environmental, Inc., May 1994.
- Remedial Investigation Summary Report, ERM-Southwest, Inc., August 30, 1994.
- Volume VIII, Soil Gas Survey Results Remedial Investigation, Former Arkansas Fuel Oil Refinery Site, Bossier City, LA. ERM-Southwest, Inc., June 7, 1995.
- Resource Document, Volume 2, Appendix 5, July 1988.
- Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Lead. Atlanta, Georgia: Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, April, 1993: DHHS publication no. ATSDR/TP-92/12.
- Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Benzene. Atlanta, Georgia: Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, August 1995: DHHS publication no. ATSDR/TP-9.
- Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Toluene. Atlanta, Georgia: Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, May, 1994 : DHHS publication no. ATSDR/TP-93/14.
- Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Xylene. Atlanta, Georgia: Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, August 1995: Update.
- Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Ethylbenzene. Atlanta, Georgia: Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, August, 1995 : Update.
- Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Atlanta, Georgia: Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, August, 1995: Update.
- Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. Atlanta, Georgia: Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, April, 1993: DHHS publication no. ATSDR/TP-92/02.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual: Atlanta Georgia. March 1992.