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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

LOUISIANA ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT
DOYLINE, WEBSTER PARISH, LOUISIANA


CONCLUSIONS

After evaluating environmental contamination data for LAAP and how people might come intocontact with that contamination, ATSDR has reached the following conclusions. Refer to theGlossary (Appendix A) for definitions of the hazard categories that ATSDR uses in theseconclusions.

  1. The shallow groundwater beneath LAAP is contaminated primarily with explosivecompounds and volatile organic compounds. No exposure has occurred on site becauseLAAP has never used the shallow groundwater as a source of drinking water. ATSDRconcludes that no harmful exposures to groundwater contaminants have occurred in thepast, nor are they expected to occur in the future for people working at LAAP.
  2. Some explosive contamination has migrated with groundwater beyond LAAP's southernboundary to the community of Doyline. People exposed to these low levels of explosivecompounds through ingestion of the local drinking water are not expected to develop illeffects. No LAAP-related contaminants were found in regular follow-up tests of the wellwater. The Army has removed contaminated soil and wastewater, potential sources ofgroundwater contamination, and continues to track groundwater contaminant flow atLAAP. These measures prevent current exposures to contaminants that may posepotential public health hazards.

    No information is available for private wells in the areas where low levels of explosivecompounds contamination migrated beyond the site's southern boundary. Low levels ofexplosive contaminants that possibly reached a private well in the past are not expected topose harm to people who drank water from the well. People who rely on private wellwater should not be at risk of current or future exposures because explosive contaminantshave not been detected in groundwater beyond the site boundaries since the late 1980s.

    Although exposure to contaminated groundwater via off-site drinking water suppliesmight have occurred in the past, exposures were not at levels expected to cause adversehealth effects. ATSDR therefore concludes that the groundwater pathway does not pose apublic health hazard. Because exposure was possible for certain residents of Doyline andGoodwill, ATSDR categorizes groundwater use as "No apparent public health hazard."

  3. Certain areas of LAAP contain high levels of explosive compounds and chromium insurface soil. A patrolled perimeter fence and gated entrance largely prevent public accessto these contaminated areas. Workers or trespassers (such as non-authorized hunters) maycontact contaminants in surface soil, however, contact is likely infrequent and brief.Intermittent contact with surface soil contaminants, even at the highest levels reported, isnot expected to cause harmful effects. ATSDR concludes that the surface soil pathwaydoes not pose a public health hazard. Nonetheless, because exposure is possible ATSDRcategorizes surface soil as "No apparent public health hazard."


  4. Shallow groundwater and runoff from several areas of concern at LAAP discharge intoBoone Creek, Caney Branch, and the Unnamed Ditch. Monitoring to date identified lowlevels of explosive compounds in the waterways on site, primarily near former processareas. Contaminant levels are not expected to reach or accumulate in Clarke Bayou andBayou Dorcheat that border the site. ATSDR concludes that any infrequent handling ofthe surface water or sediment in the waterways is not expected to be detrimental to one'shealth and thus this pathway does not pose a public health hazard. Because exposures arepossible, ATSDR categorizes the surface water and sediment pathway as "No apparentpublic health hazard."


  5. Fishing is not allowed at LAAP. Recreational fishing is common along Clarke Bayou andBayou Dorcheat that border the site. Fish sampling data are not available to describewhether or to what extent bayou fish contain explosive compounds. Nonetheless,available research suggests that explosive compounds typically dissipate quickly fromsurface water and do not accumulate in fish at high levels. Seasonal deer hunting ispermitted at LAAP. Information suggests that explosive compounds, such as thoseconcentrated in areas of LAAP, do not typically accumulate in deer tissue, or in otherwildlife. Considering this information, ATSDR concludes that fish from Clarke Bayou orBayou Dorcheat and venison from LAAP most likely have not accumulated harmfullevels of site-related compounds and categorizes the biota pathway as a "No public healthhazard."

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

The public health action plan (PHAP) for Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (LAAP) contains adescription of actions taken and those to be taken by ATSDR, the Army, the EnvironmentalProtection Agency (EPA), and Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ) at andin the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of this public health assessment. Thepurpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies potentialand on-going public health hazards, but also provides a plan of action designed to mitigate andprevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in theenvironment. The public health actions that are completed, ongoing/planned, or recommendedare as follows:

Completed Actions

  1. Under the Department of Defense's Installation Restoration Program, the Army hasidentified and conducted environmental investigations at 23 AOCs suspected of potentialhazardous releases.

  2. EPA placed the site on its National Priorities List of sites to be investigated on March 31,1989, due to groundwater contamination from the Area P 16 pink water lagoons.

  3. Environmental investigations found high levels of explosive compounds in soil andgroundwater at several areas of the site.

  4. Interim remedial actions were performed in 1989 and 1990 at Area P (16 pink waterlagoons) that included removal of over 100,000 cubic yards of explosive-contaminatedsoil and treatment of over 50,000,000 gallons of wastewater.

  5. Records of decisions (RODs) have been signed for the two OUs: 1) A RODrecommending no further action for the seven areas of concern (Area P, Burning Ground8 Landfill, Burning Ground Lagoon, Burning Ground 5, Landfill 3, Oily Waste Landfill,and the M-4 Lagoon) was approved and signed by the Army, EPA, and LDEQ in March1997; and 2) ROD recommending no further action at the Y-Line Facility was signed in2000.

  6. The Army found low levels of explosive compounds in initial tests of the local publicdrinking supply well water. No contaminants have been detected in follow-up monitoring.

Ongoing/Planned Actions

  1. The Army will continue to monitor groundwater quality and track contaminant movementbeneath LAAP.

  2. The public water suppliers regularly monitor their water supply to ensure that the waterdelivered to their customers is free of contamination at levels of health concern. Regularmonitoring includes collecting samples from groundwater supply wells and analyzing thesamples for explosive compounds.

  3. Members of the community and the LAAP participate in regularly scheduled technicaladvisory committee meetings. These meetings serve as a forum for communication ofongoing and planned activities at LAAP to the community and for communication ofcommunity concerns to LAAP personnel.

  4. ATSDR will re-evaluate the potential for public health hazards if ATSDR becomes awareof changes in proposed land use, remedial activities, or risk management actions (e.g.,institutional controls) that could possibly lead to future exposures.

PREPARER OF REPORT

Katherine E. Hanks
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


REFERENCES

American Cancer Society Facts and Figures. 2001. Cancer burden statistics for Louisiana in2001.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).1995a. Agency for ToxicSubstances and Disease Registry Toxicological Profile for RDX. June 1995.

ATSDR.1995b. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Toxicological Profile for2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene. June 1995.

ATSDR.1997. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Toxicological Profile forHMX. September 1997.

ATSDR.1998. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Toxicological Profile for 2,4-Dinitrotoluene and 2,6-Dinitrotoluene. December 1998.

ATSDR. 2002. ATSDR demographic statistics for 1-mile buffer around LAAP. 2002.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2000. Centers for Disease Control andPrevention National Center for Health Statistics. Birthweight and gestation for the U.S.www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/birthwt.htm.

Doyline. 2002. Personal Communication with the Doyline Clerk's Office. RE: Doyline schoolpopulation. September 29, 2002.

Environmental Science & Engineering, Inc. (ESE). 1992. Feasibility study for Louisiana ArmyAmmunition Plant. Final comprehensive remedial investigation. February 1992.

ESE. 1996. Final Record Decision (ROD) for Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant. Soil/SourceOperable Unit (OU). September 19, 1996.

ESE. 1997. Draft data evaluation report for the groundwater operable unit. Louisiana ArmyAmmunition Plant. February 28, 1997.

Engineering Technologies Associates, Inc. (ETA). 2000. Final Record Decision (ROD) for theY-Line Facility soils. Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant. Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant.February 2000.

International Technology Corporation (IT Corporation). 1999a. Human Health Risk Assessmentfor load/assemble/pack lines Line C. Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant. Chapter 9, AppendixM, N O, and P. March 1999.

IT Corporation. 1999b. Final Report. Site Investigation Report for the preliminary groundwatersite investigations at eight load/assemble/pack lines and three test areas Louisiana ArmyAmmunition Plant. August 1999.

Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (LAAP).2002a. Louisiana Army Ammunition Plantrestoration background. www.dtic.mil/envirodod/derpreport95/vol_2/nara118.html . July 9.2002.

LAAP. 2002b. Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant Installation Action Plant. 2002.

Louisiana Department of Health and Hospital (LDHH). 1999. Louisiana Department of Healthand Hospital, Office of Public Health. Parish Health Profiles 1999 for Webster Parish.

LDHH. 2000. Birth weights < 1500 grams and < 2500 grams as percentage of total births.Louisiana Department of Health and Hospital. www.dhh.state.la.us.

Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ). 2002. Personal correspondence withChris Piehler, LDEQ, Office of Compliance. RE: Fish sampling data for Webster County. August14, 2002.

Minden Water Supply (Minden). 2002. Personal communications with Charles Johnson, MindenWater Supply. RE: Minden drinking water supply and the potential for LAAP contaminants toreach Minden drinking water wells. July 16, 2002.

PMC Environmental (PMC). 2000. Ecological Risk Assessment, Screening Evaluation LouisianaArmy Ammunition Plant. September 18, 2002.

PMC. 2001a. Follow-on remedial investigation for soils and the site-wide groundwater operableunit. Volume 1. Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant. May 2001.

PMC. 2001b. Surface Water/Sediment field sampling plan. Addendum to the follow-on remedialinvestigation work plan. Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant. September 2001.

Professional Services Industries, Inc.(PSI). 2000a. Phase I and II environmental site assessmentfor buildings B-1455 and B-1452, Area B, LAAP, Webster Parish, Louisiana. February 1, 2000.

Professional Services Industries, Inc.(PSI). 2000b. Phase I and II environmental site assessmentfor buildings B-1450 and B-1464, Area B, LAAP, Webster Parish, Louisiana. February 1, 2000.

Shugart L, Griest WH, Tan E, et al. 1990. U.S. Army Medical Research and DevelopmentCommand. December 1991. The metabolites in animal tissue. Final report.

U. S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency (USAEHA). 1990. Water quality consultation No.,31-62-1045-90 Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant. February 26-March 2, 1990.

USAEHA. 1994. Health Risk Assessment for the Consumption of Deer Muscle and Liver fromJoliet Army Ammunition Plant, Joliet, Illinois. U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency(AEHA), Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. June 10, 1994.

U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHMA). 1989. Louisiana ArmyAmmunition Plant post remedial investigation resampling effort. Interim report. January 31,1989. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2001a. EPA Region 6. Site description ofLouisiana Army Ammunition Plant. April 2, 2001.

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA.) 2001. EPA Region 6. Louisiana ArmyAmmunition Plant Information Sheet. April 2, 2001.

USEPA. 2002. EPA web site. www.epa.gov/superfund/sites/npl/.

Williams, Doyle. 2002a. Personal communication with Doyle Williams, LAAP siterepresentative. RE: Groundwater contamination, drinking water supplies, and the National GuardYouth Challenge Camp. September 3, 2002.

Williams, Doyle. 2002b. Personal communication with Doyle Williams, LAAP siterepresentative. RE: Status of Webster Parish Prison. October 29, 2002.

Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Inc. (Woodward-Clyde). 1994. Final Louisiana ArmyAmmunition Plant Drinking Water Monitoring Report. May 1994.


TABLES

Table 1.

Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards at Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant
Site Site Description/Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/Environmental Monitoring Results Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Evaluation of Public Health Hazard
Groundwater Operable Unit (OU)
Base-wide Groundwater Groundwater beneath many Areas of Concern (AOCs) at Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (LAAP) is contaminated with releases from former installation activities. Groundwater: Explosive compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and metals have been detected in groundwater beneath various LAAP AOCs at levels above ATSDR comparison values (CVs). Investigations have been completed at LAAP that have identified contaminated groundwater from former process operations. Historical data were used to define the sampling in a 2001 follow-on addendum to the groundwater operable unit. No apparent public health hazards are associated with LAAP drinking water. There are no current or future plans to withdraw groundwater or use groundwater at any of the AOCs. Therefore, no direct contact with groundwater is occurring now nor will it occur in the future. Additional data collected during the fall 2001 and spring 2002 will be used to determine whether adequate measures are being taken to reduce contaminant discharges to area surface water bodies via groundwater, potential off-site migration, and transport of contaminants to the deeper aquifer.
Soil/Source Area OU
Area P Area P consists of 16 former pink water lagoons that were active from the early 1940s to March 1981. Pink water is the waste water created as a result of explosive manufacturing operations. The water turns pink or red when colored with explosive chemicals. Area P was also used as a burning area for many years. During a 1978 soil investigation, 86 samples were collected from surface soil and sediment and analyzed for explosive compounds. In 1986, another sample was collected from surface soil at Area P.

Surface Soil/Sediment: Explosive compounds, including RDX and HMX, were detected in surface soil at levels greater than 100 parts per million.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ) approved an interim remedial action at Area P in 1987-1990. The action was intended to protect the underlying groundwater by removing the explosive-contaminated soil containing more than 100 ppm of cyclotetramethylenetetra-nitriamine (HMX) or cyclotrimethylenetrinitriamine (RDX). The Army removed and incinerated the contaminated soil and sediment and treated the lagoon waste water. The lagoons were backfilled with the treated soil/sediment and covered with a 2-foot thick clay cap and 4 inches of vegetated top soil. A barbed wire fence encloses the areas.

Also, see BG-8 Landfill.

No apparent public health hazards are associated with Area P. The public had limited access to the contaminated surface soil in the past and the contaminated surface soil/sediment has since been removed. Access restrictions have also been implemented to prevent any current or potential future exposures.
BG-8 Landfill The 60-acre BG-8 Landfill was used during the late 1960s and 1970s for disposal of sanitary waste and industrial waste (i.e., used oils, wastewater treatment sludge). Landfilling occurred at the site between 1970 and 1987. The landfill was closed in 1988 and capped and covered with a clay cap and vegetative cover. Soil samples were collected during four investigations conducted between 1982 and 1990.

Surface Soil: Explosive compounds, metals, and VOCs were detected. Of the explosives, HMX and RDX concentrations were detected most frequently and ranged from non-detects to 348.32 ppm. Lead (up to 48 ppm) was also detected. All concentrations were below ATSDR CVs.

The preferred alternative as outlined in the ROD for Soil/Source Areas signed by EPA and LDEQ in 1999 calls for no further action. Existing Army regulations and protocol make the sale of LAAP property unlikely. The Army will, therefore, retain control of LAAP and access to the installation will remain restricted. In the unlikely event that the property is transferred in the future, the Army will reevaluate exposures. Based on a review of site data and potential exposure scenarios, no public health hazards are expected. The public has had limited access to the contaminated surface soil in the past and the concentrations of contaminants in surface soil are below health-based guidance levels/CVs.
BG-8 Lagoons The unlined BG-8 Lagoons located east of the landfill were used from the 1960s to the 1970s for the disposal of pink water until 1984. The lagoons were filled in in 1997, though no closure records exist. The area was then used for landfarming of sludges from the on-site wastewater treatment plant. See the description for the BG-8 Landfill. See the description for the BG-8 Landfill. See the description for the BG-8 Landfill.
BG-5 Starting in 1947, BG-5 was used for open burning of explosive compounds. By 1955, the area encompassed 4.5 acres, housing six burning cages and several detonation areas. Three raised earthen berms were added by 1966. The berms sloped toward a concrete basin that collected rainfall from the burn pads. The rainwater was collected and treated in the wastewater treatment system, then discharged. The Army discontinued the basin from service and removed it from the site in 1983. Since 1986, underground detonations of explosives have occurred at the site. BG-5 has not been active since 1996. Soil samples were collected from the former and current burn areas at BG-5 during three investigations conducted between 1982 and 1989.

Surface Soil: Explosive compounds, metals, and VOCs were detected. Of the explosives, RDX was detected in the highest concentrations (up to 100 ppm). All concentrations were, however, below health-based guidance levels/ATSDR CVs. Concentrations of constituents dropped substantially with depth.

See the description for the BG-8 Landfill. Based on a review of site data and potential exposure scenarios, no public health hazards are expected. The public has had limited access to the contaminated surface soil in the past and the concentrations of contaminants in surface soil are below health-based guidance levels/CVs.
LF-3 The 7.5-acre area of LF-3 contains nine former pink water lagoons that were used between the 1950s and the 1960s. After the 1960s, the lagoons were used for landfilling of non-explosive materials, such as building debris. By the 1970s, landfilling at LF-3 stopped and the site was eventually abandoned with no formal closure plan. Soil samples were collected from LF-3 during three investigations conducted between 1982 and 1989. Samples were analyzed for explosive compounds.

Surface Soil: No explosive chemicals were detected in the surface soil at LF-3.

See the description for the BG-8 Landfill. Based on a review of site data and potential exposure scenarios, no public health hazards are expected. The public had limited access to the contaminated surface soil in the past and the concentrations of contaminants in surface soil are below health-based guidance levels/CVs.
Oily Waste Landfarm (OWL) The 4-acre OWL area consisted of three pits used between the early 1960s to 1975 for the treatment of oily residues generated from the Y-Line production process for 155 mm metal parts. Water from the settling process was allowed to flow over-land and into Boone Creek. Sludge from the pits was removed and worked into the surrounding soil. The pits were filled in with clean dirt in 1975. Today the area is overgrown with shrubs and brush. Surface soil samples were collected from the OWL during investigations conducted in 1989 and 1990. Samples were analyzed for VOCs and metals.

Surface Soil: Metals were present, with lead (up to 18 ppm) present in the highest concentrations. No VOCs were detected.

See the description for the BG-8 Landfill. Based on a review of site data and potential exposure scenarios, no public health hazards are expected. The public had limited access to the contaminated surface soil in the past and the contaminant concentrations are generally below health-based guidance levels/CVs. Furthermore, direct contact with surface soil is minimized since the area has become overgrown with vegetation.
M-4 Lagoon The 0.2-acre M-4 Lagoon area was used from the 1960s until the early 1990s for manufacturing of ammunition metal parts. Some of the processes included machining and metal plating of grenade components. An unlined lagoon was used between 1962 and 1964 for collecting treated wastewater containing cyanide, cadmium, chromium, and zinc. The lagoon is still present and contains water. Soil samples were collected from the M-4 Lagoon during a 1989 investigation. Samples were analyzed for VOCs and lead.

Surface Soil: According to site documentation, no metals or cyanide were detected in the M-4 lagoon soil samples.

See the description for the BG-8 Landfill. Based on a review of site data and potential exposure scenarios, no public health hazards are expected. The public had limited access to the contaminated surface soil in the past and contaminant concentrations are generally below health-based guidance levels/CVs.

OU: Y-Line

Y-Line Facility The Y-Line Facility was constructed between 1952 and 1953 for manufacturing metal parts. The facility housed an assembly line for forging, machining, and painting 155- mm shells. From the early 1960s until 1994, shells were etched in a chromium etching bath at the west end of Building 2600 and then rinsed with a chromic acid solution. Excess solution was cycled into the floor sumps. Two spills of chromic acid were reported at LAAP. The first, in October 1986, consisted of seepage of about 50 gallons of chromic acid from cracks in the dock retainer wall into the soil beneath the building floor. Another release occurred on November 23, 1987, when chromium-containing liquid again seeped through the soil beneath the building. Piping was installed to collect and transport the liquid to a catchment tank. Soil samples were collected from the Y-Line area during several investigations between 1987 and 1996. Samples were analyzed for VOCs, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), metals, and total petroleum hydrocarbons.

Surface Soil: During a 1991 investigation, chromium concentrations were detected at levels up to 5,300 ppm, with the highest concentrations detected near the chromic acid bath. VOCs were detected but at concentrations below CVs. A 1996 Final RI also found other metals (arsenic, nickel) at levels above CVs. Chromium concentrations ranged up to 1,800 ppm. Hexavalent chromium was measured at a maximum concentration of 13.68 ppm. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected above the CV for benzo(a)pyrene.

The preferred alternative, as outlined in the February 2000 ROD signed by EPA and LDEQ for soils at the Y-Line, calls for no remedial action. Existing Army regulations and protocol make the sale of LAAP property unlikely. The Army will, therefore, retain control of LAAP and access to the installation will remain restricted. In the unlikely event that the property is transferred in the future, the Army will reevaluate potential exposure. The area is currently not operating, but is maintained for future industrial uses. Based on a review of site data and potential exposure scenarios, no public health hazards are expected. The public has restricted access to the contaminated surface soil at the Y line.

OU: Load-Assemble Pack Lines and Test Areas

Line C Line C is contained within 107 acres located in the west-central area of LAAP. The line was constructed in 1941 and was used consistently from the time it went into service in 1942. Line C is currently inactive. Two hundred and thirty-seven (237) surface soil samples were collected in 1996. Samples were analyzed for explosives, VOCs, SVOCs, metals, and total petroleum hydrocarbons.

Surface Soil: SVOCs and arsenic occurred in surface soil at levels above CVs. No VOCs were detected above industrial screening levels. Arsenic was likely associated with historical pesticide uses at LAAP. The sampling also indicated that there was not wide-spread contamination at Line C, but rather isolated pockets of high concentrations of explosive compounds.

A 1996 investigation and a 1999 follow-on RI provided sufficient data for the Army to conduct a human health risk assessment and assist in determining the need for further action at each of the AOCs. The Army is also in the process of preparing an ecological risk assessment for soils. Based on information in the 2001 Follow-on Remedial Investigation report, no further action for soils was recommended for Lines F, G, H, J, K, and S. Actions may be undertaken at Lines C, D, and E. Based on a review of site data and potential exposure scenarios, no public health hazards are expected. The public had limited access to the contaminated surface soil in the past, contamination is generally not widespread, and contamination occurs infrequently at levels above health-based guidance levels/CVs.
Line D Line D is contained within an approximately 113-acre area in the southwestern part of the site. The line was constructed in 1941 and has operated frequently since 1942 as a major production line. Thirty-three (33) surface soil samples were collected in 1996. Samples were analyzed for metals, VOCS, SVOCs, and explosive compounds.

Surface Soil: VOCs and arsenic occurred in surface soil at levels above CVs. No SVOCs were detected above CVs. Arsenic was likely associated with historical pesticide uses at LAAP. The sampling also indicted that there was not wide-spread explosive contamination at Line D, but rather isolated pockets of high concentrations of explosive compounds occurring close to buildings.

See the description for Line C. See the description for Line C.
Line E Line E is located in the southwest-central portion of LAAP. After its construction in 1941, Line E was used periodically until the early 1990s. Samples were collected in 1996 and 1999 and analyzed for metals, VOCS, SVOCs, and explosive compounds.

Surface Soil: Arsenic occurred in surface soil at levels above CVs. Arsenic was likely associated with historical pesticide uses at LAAP. VOCs were not detected and SVOCs were below CVs. The sampling also indicted that there was not wide-spread explosive contamination at Line E, but rather isolated pockets of explosive compounds at levels below CVs near process buildings.

See the description for Line C. See the description for Line C.
Line F Line F is located in the southwest portion of LAAP. Beginning in May 1942, this line was used as a heavy-duty line, primarily for processing of mines and bombs. In August 1968, an explosion and fire damaged the line. The line was never rebuilt. At the time of the explosion, Line F had melt/pour, screening, and steamout/washrack capabilities. After the explosion, the Army implemented an extensive soil sampling program. Samples were analyzed for explosive compounds.

Surface Soil: The sampling indicted that there was not wide-spread explosive contamination. RDX was detected up to 1,400 ppm near the sump at the Melt/Pour Building. Trinitrotoluene (TNT) (up to 100 ppm) and tetryl (up to 270 ppm) were also detected, but at levels below ATSDR's CVs for adults. Most detections of explosive compounds, however, were below 1 ppm.

See the description for Line C. See the description for Line C.
Line G Line G is located in the northeast portion of LAAP. From 1942 until 1968, it served as a component assembly and fuze line plant and a supplier of parts for Line F. Line G was reactivated in 1998 and is currently operated by GOEX, Inc. (a tenant) for the production of black powder. No soil samples were collected during the 1996 investigation and the 1999 follow-on remedial investigation, and no other information about soil contamination exists for Line G. Line G was configured identically and operated in a similar manner to Line H. The Army notes that any soil contamination at Line G is, therefore, suspected to be similar to contamination patterns at Line H. See the description for Line C. See the description for Line C.
Line H Line H is located in the western portion of LAAP. Starting in May 1942, Line H was used as a fuze and grenade line. Eventually, the line was converted to an extruder, renovation, and demilitarization facility. Limited sampling was conducted in 1999. Samples were analyzed for metals and explosive compounds. [Note: The data did not state whether the samples were surface or subsurface samples.]

Soil: Arsenic occurred in one soil sample at levels above CVs. Arsenic was likely associated with historical pesticide uses at LAAP. No explosive compounds were detected.

See the description for Line C. See the description for Line C.
Line J Line J is located in the western portion of LAAP. The line served as a booster pellet line from 1942 to 1987, producing items for use at other lines. Limited sampling was conducted in 1999. Samples were analyzed for metals and explosive compounds. [Note: The data did not state whether the samples were surface or subsurface samples]

Soil: Arsenic occurred in all soil samples at levels above ATSDR's CV. Arsenic was likely associated with historical pesticide uses at LAAP. Explosive compounds in only one sample exceeded its ATSDR CV.

See the description for Line C. See the description for Line C.
Line K Line K is located in the southwestern portion of LAAP. The line was active from 1942 until 1990, primarily for use as a fuse and primer load line and for producing bomb nose and tail MT fuse assemblies and precision primers. Sampling was conducted in 1999. Samples were analyzed for metals and explosive compounds; select samples were analyzed for VOCs. [Note: The data did not state whether the samples were surface or subsurface samples.]

Soil: Arsenic occurred in one soil sample at levels above ATSDR's CV. Arsenic was likely associated with historical pesticide uses at LAAP. Tetryl was detected in one sample, but at levels below ATSDR's CV.

See the description for Line C. See the description for Line C.
Line S Production facilities at Line S cover about 106 acres near the southern boundary of LAAP, in the central portion of the site. Line S was in continuous operation as a large caliber loading line from 1945 to May 1996. Sampling (48 surface soil samples) was conducted in 1999. Samples were analyzed for metals and explosive compounds; select samples were analyzed for VOCs.

Surface Soil: Arsenic occurred in one soil sample at levels above ATSDR's CV. Arsenic was likely associated with historical pesticide uses at LAAP. VOCs were not detected above ATSDR CVs. SVOCs were detected above screening levels, but only in one sample. RDX and TNT were detected near the process buildings at levels above ATSDR CVs.

See the description for Line C. See the description for Line C.
Test Area 6 (T-6) Test Area 6 is located in the northwestern portion of LAAP. Operation began in the 1950s for testing, detonation, and burning of munitions. Test Area 6 is currently used by the Louisiana Army National Guard as a tank laser sighting range. Sampling was conducted in 1996. Samples were analyzed for metals and explosive compounds; select samples were analyzed for VOCs. [Note: The data did not state whether the samples were surface or subsurface samples.]

Soil: No metals, VOCs, or SVOCs were detected above industrial screening levels. Explosive compounds were detected primarily in the samples from the burning beds. Only TNT was present at levels above ATSDR's CV.

The Army evaluated data collected from a 1996 investigation and/or a 1999 follow-on remedial investigation to assist in providing sufficient data for evaluation. Ultimately, the data will be used to assist in determining the need for further action at each of the AOCs. The Army is also in the process of preparing an ecological risk assessment for soils. Based on information in the 2001 Follow-on Remedial Investigation report, no further action for soils was recommended for Test Area 6, Test Area 7, and the Central Proving Ground. Based on a review of site data and potential exposure scenarios, no public health hazards are expected. The public had limited access to the contaminated soil in the past and the concentrations of contaminants in surface soil are generally below health-based guidance levels/CVs.
Test Area 7 (T-7) Test Area 7 was constructed in the 1950s within the northeastern portion of LAAP. The test area was actively used until the 1990s for testing, detonation, and burning of munitions. Sampling was conducted in 1996. Samples were analyzed for metals and explosive compounds; select samples were analyzed for VOCs. [Note: The data did not state whether the samples were surface or subsurface samples.]

Soil: All analytes were detected at levels below industrial screening levels.

See the description for Test Area 6. See the description for Test Area 6.
Central Proving Ground

(CPG)

The Central Proving Ground located in the north-central portion of the site was used from the early 1950s until the early 1990s for testing, detonation, and burning of munitions. Sampling was conducted in 1996. Samples were analyzed for metals and explosive compounds; select samples were analyzed for VOCs. [Note: The data did not state whether the samples were surface or subsurface samples.]

Soil: Analytes were detected at levels below ATSDR's CVs.

See the description for Test Area 6. See the description for Test Area 6.

Sources: ESE 1996, ETA 2000, PMC 2001.

Key:

AOC
CV
CPG
EPA
HMX
LAAP
LDEQ
OWL
area of concern
comparison value
Central Proving Ground
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
cyclotetramethylenetetranitriamine
Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant
Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality
oily waste landfarm
ppm
RDX
RI
ROD
SI
SVOC
TNT
VOC
parts per million
cyclotrimethylenetrinitriamine
remedial investigation
record of decision
site investigation
semi volatile organic compound
Trinitrotoluene
volatile organic compound


Table 2.

Exposure Pathways Evaluation Table
Pathway Name Exposure Pathway Elements Comments
Source of Contamination Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Potentially Exposed Population
Completed Exposure Pathways
Consumption of Groundwater/
Drinking Water
LAAP activities have affected the shallow groundwater underlying the plant with explosive compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Groundwater On site: None. The shallow contaminated groundwater underlying LAAP has never been used as a source of domestic water, nor will it be used for potable water in the future.

Off site: Residential taps in Doyline and Community of Goodwill.

Ingestion and dermal contact Residents of Doyline and Goodwill who received water from public supply wells in (and possibly before) 1989. Past: No exposures have occurred on site. Some Doyline and Goodwill residents may have been exposed to low levels of explosive compounds in drinking water from municipal wells in the past. No data are available for private wells in the areas where low levels of explosive compounds migrated beyond the site's southern boundary. Any short-term exposure to the low levels of explosives in the public wells or in areas of possible private wells, however, should not pose a health concern.

Current and Future: No exposures are occurring at LAAP. Routine tests since 1991 indicate that the public wells and areas of possible private wells are free of explosives.

Potential Exposure Pathways
Surface Soil Certain areas of LAAP where releases contaminated soil with explosive compounds and metals. Surface soil LAAP areas of concern Dermal contact and incidental ingestion LAAP personnel, hunters, and trespassers Past, Current, and Future: Exposure to contaminated surface soil at LAAP is largely prevented because the majority of the land's surface is paved, covered with vegetation, fenced, and/or lies in restricted land use locations. Workers, hunters, and trespassers may have contacted low levels of contaminants in surface soil. Sporadic contact with and/or incidental ingestion of the contaminants detected in the surface soil is not expected to have resulted in harmful effects.
Surface Water/
Sediment
LAAP areas of concern. Contaminants include primarily explosive compounds. Surface water and sediment of Boone Creek, Caney Branch, and the unnamed ditch. Boone Creek, Caney Branch, and the unnamed ditch Dermal contact and incidental ingestion Workers, people trespassing into the ditch, and people using the stream for fishing. Past, Current, and Future: No apparent public health hazard is expected for this pathway. The stream is not used for drinking water, nor is it used for recreation, and the waterways have restricted accessibility. Sporadic contact with contaminants at the levels detected in the surface water/sediment is not expected to result in adverse health effects.
Consumption of Local Fish/Deer LAAP-related contaminants that have been released to local waterways or to the ground surface. Local fish and deer populations Consumption of locally-caught fish and deer Ingestion Local anglers and hunters and their families Past, Current, and Future: Fish and game are not expected to accumulate harmful levels of site-related contaminants. People who eat these foods in a varied diet are therefore not likely to experience ill effects.


Table 3.

LAAP Groundwater Contaminant Plumes
AOCs Contaminant Concentrations by Plume Potentially Impacted Wells
On Site Off Site Nearest Off-Site Drinking Well to AOC Drinking Water Monitoring Results
Area P Explosives
   RDX-up to 27,000 ppb
   TNT-up to 25,000 ppb
RDX (up to 63 ppb) and trace levels of 1,3,5-TNB (up to 1.71 ppb) were detected during 1988 sampling of monitoring wells located beyond LAAP's southern boundary, south of Area P.1 No explosives have been detected in those wells since 1990 sampling. Doyline #1, about 1,000 feet southeast of Area P. No contaminants were detected
BG-5 Explosives
   RDX-up to 3,231 ppb
None detected Doyline #2, about 4 miles southwest of BG-5. HMX at levels below ATSDR's CV was detected in 1989. 2
BG-8 Explosives
   RDX-up to 531 ppb
   TNT-up to 103 ppb
RDX (up to 31 ppb) and trace levels of 1,3,5-TNB (up to 0.3 ppb) were detected during 1988 sampling in monitoring wells located beyond LAAP's southern boundary, south of BG-8.3 No explosives have been detected in the wells since 1990 sampling. Doyline #2, about 2 miles west of BG-8. see above

Sources: PMC 2001a; USATHAMA 1989.

1 Trace levels of explosive contaminants were first detected along LAAP's southern boundary, south of Area P, in the Upper Terrace in 1984 and in the Lower Terrace in 1986. Off-site groundwater monitoring was not conducted during this time period. Sampling of two off-site monitoring wells south of Area P in January 1988 found RDX at levels up to 63 ppb, and above ATSDR's CV (CREG) of 0.3 ppb. RDX was not detected upon repeat sampling of the wells in October 1988; 1,3,5-TNB was detected, but at trace levels (up to 1.71) well below ATSDR' CV of 300 ppb (PMC 2001, USATHAMA 1989).
2 Note that HMX was detected in groundwater at BG-5 and BG-8 at levels far below ATSDR CVs.
3 RDX was found in off-site monitoring wells in 1986, but was considered anomalous.

Key: AOC = area of concern; BG-5 = Burning Ground 5; BG-8 = Burning Ground 8; HMX = high melting explosive (or cyclotetramethylenetetra-nitriamine); ppb = parts per billion; RDX= research and development explosive (or cyclotrimethylenetrinitriamine); TNB = trinitrobenzene; TNT = trinitrotoluene.


FIGURES

Area Map
Figure 1. Area Map

Site Map
Figure 2. Site Map

Demographics Within 1-Mile Buffer Around LAAP
Figure 3. Demographics Within 1-Mile Buffer Around LAAP

ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process
Figure 4. ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process

Location of Drinking Water Wells
Figure 5. Location of Drinking Water Wells


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