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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

RUSTON FOUNDARY
ALEXANDRIA, RAPIDES PARISH, LOUISIANA


APPENDICES

APPENDIX A-1: GLOSSARY OF TERMS

ATSDR:
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR is a federal health agency in Atlanta, Georgia that deals with hazardous substance and waste site issues. ATSDR gives people information about harmful chemicals in their environment and tells people how to protect themselves from coming into contact with chemicals.


CERCLA:
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act was put into place in 1980. It is also known as Superfund. This act concerns releases of hazardous substances into the environment, and the cleanup of these substances and hazardous waste sites. ATSDR was created by this act and is responsible for looking into the health issues related to hazardous waste sites.


Comparison Value (CVs):
Concentrations or the amount of substances in air, water, food, and soil that are unlikely, upon exposure, to cause adverse health effects. Comparison values are used by health assessors to select which substances and environmental media (air, water, food and soil) need additional evaluation while health concerns or effects are investigated. Also known as Comparison (Health Assessment Comparison)Values.


CREG:
The Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide is an estimated contaminant concentration that would result in no more than one excess cancer in a million (10E-6) persons exposed over a lifetime. CREGs are calculated from EPA's cancer slope factors (CSFs).


EMEG:
Environmental Media Evaluation Guides are based on ATSDR's minimal risk levels (MRLs). An MRL is an estimate of a daily human exposure to a chemical that is likely to be without an appreciable risk for noncarcinogenic effects over a specified duration of exposure (acute, intermediate, chronic).


LDEQ:
Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality


LDHH:
Louisiana Department of Health & Hospials


LTHA:
The Lifetime Health Advisory represents a contaminant concentration that EPA considers to be protective of noncarcinogenic health effects during a lifetime (70 years) of exposure.


LTR:
Louisiana Tumor Registry


MRL:
Minimal Risk Level. An estimate of daily human exposure - by a specified route and length of time -- to a dose of chemical that is likely to be without a measurable risk of adverse, noncancerous effects. An MRL should not be used as a predictor of adverse health effects.


NPL:
The National Priorities List. (Which is part of Superfund.) A list kept by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the most serious, uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites in the country. An NPL site needs to be cleaned up or is being looked at to see if people can be exposed to chemicals from the site.


PHA:
Public Health Assessment. A report or document that looks at chemicals at a hazardous waste site and tells if people could be harmed from coming into contact with those chemicals. The PHA also tells if possible further public health actions are needed.


OPH:
Office of Public Health


PRP:
Potentially Responsible Party. A company, government or person that is responsible for causing the pollution at a hazardous waste site. PRP's are expected to help pay for the clean up of a site.


Reference Dose (RfD):
An estimate, with safety factors (see safety factor) built in, of the daily, life-time exposure of human populations to a possible hazard that is not likely to cause harm to the person.


RMEG:
Similar to the EMEG but derived from EPA's reference dose. It is the concentration in a specific media at which daily human exposure is unlikely to result in adverse noncancerous effects.


SEET:
Section of Environmental Epidemiology & Toxicology


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):
The federal agency that develops and enforces environmental laws to protect the environment and the public's health.

APPENDIX A-2:

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
LDHH Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals
OPH Office of Public Health
SEET Section of Environmental Epidemiology & Toxicology
LDEQ Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
PHA Public Health Assessment
CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1990
SARA 1986 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
NPL National Priorities List
HACV Health Assessment Comparison Value
EMEG Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
CREG Carcinogenic Risk Evaluation Guide
RfD Reference Dose
RMEG Reference Dose-Based Media Evaluation Guide
MRL Minimal Risk Level
MCL Maximum Contaminant Level
LTHA Lifetime Health Advisory
MCLG Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
PMCLG Proposed Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
g/L Micrograms per Liter
g/kg Micrograms per Kilogram (equal to parts per billion)
mg/kg Milligrams per Kilogram (equal to parts per million)
VOCs Volatile Organic Compounds
Semi-VOCs Semi Volatile Organic Compounds


APPENDIX B-1:

EXPLANATION OF COMPARISON VALUES
Explanation of Comparison Values
Background Levels reported to exist in an uncontaminated environment.
Child A subscript child adjacent to the EMEG or RMEG indicate that the comparison value was determined using a child exposure scenario. Child EMEGs and RMEGs are lower for children.
EMEG Environmental Media Evaluation Guides are based on ATSDR's minimal risk levels (MRLs). An MRL is an estimate of a daily human exposure to a chemical that is likely to be without an appreciable risk for noncarcinogenic effects over a specified duration of exposure (acute, intermediate, chronic).
CREG The Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide is an estimated contaminant concentration that would result in no more than one excess cancer in a million (10E-6) persons exposed over a lifetime. CREGs are calculated from EPA's cancer slope factors (CSFs).
LTHA The Lifetime Health Advisory represents a contaminant concentration that EPA considers to be protective of noncarcinogenic health effects during a lifetime (70 years) of exposure.
MCL The maximum permissible level of a contaminant in a public water system.
RMEG Similar to the EMEG but derived from EPA's reference dose. It is the concentration in a specific media at which daily human exposure is unlikely to result in adverse noncancerous effects.


APPENDIX C: FIGURES

Location of Ruston Foundry
Figure 1. Location of Ruston Foundry

Sketch of the Ruston Foundry Site
Figure 2. Sketch of the Ruston Foundry Site


APPENDIX D: TABLES

Table 1.

Population By Distance Table Ruston Foundry Site, Alexandria, Rapides Parish, Louisiana
Distance Categories Population
0 to mile 1,178
> mile to mile 1,750
> to 1 mile 6,111
>1 to 2 miles 21,047
>2 to 3 miles 14,681
>3 to 4 miles 19,597


Table 2.

Exposure Pathway Elements
Pathway NameContaminants of Concern Media Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Exposed Population Time Comments
Potential Exposure Pathways
Foodchain Possibly Heavy Metals
Possibly VOCs
Fish / Shellfish Chatlin Lake Canal Ingestion People who eat fish and shellfish caught in Chatlin Lake Canal Past
Present
Future
No apparent public health hazard.
Contaminants do not readily bioaccumulate.
Water bodies nearby limit amount and type of biota possibly ingested.
Water from canal is from upstream and would wash away contaminants. Sediments don't contain levels of concern
Air Heavy Metals
Possibly VOCs
Air On-Site
Off-Site
Inhalation Residents
On-Site Workers
Past
Present
Future
Indeterminate public health hazard. Lead was found 3X above background in some samples.
Groundwater Possibly Heavy Metals
Possibly VOCs
Groundwater Municipal and Domestic Wells Ingestion
Dermal Contact
Those utilizing water near the site. Past
Present
Future
Indeterminate public health hazard since groundwater has not been analyzed.
Surface Water Heavy Metals
Possibly VOCs
Surface Water Chatlin Lake Canal adjacent to the site Incidental
Ingestion
Dermal Contact
People who use the Chatlin Lake Canal for fishing and other recreational activities Past
Present
Future
No apparent public health hazard. Although contact with the surface water is possible it would most likely be minimal. Current contaminant concentrations are not known.
Sediment Heavy Metals
Possibly VOCs
Sediment Off-Site
(Chatlin Lake Canal)
Incidental Ingestion
Dermal Contact
On-Site Workers
Trespassers
Recreational Users
Past
Present
Future
No apparent public health hazard. Although people theoretically could contact contaminated sediment, such contact would be minimal and infrequent. Contamination levels are minimal
Surface Soil Arsenic
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Zinc
Surface Soil On-Site
Off-Site
Incidental
Ingestion
Dermal Contact
Residents
On-Site Workers
Trespassers
Past
Present
Future
Public health hazard. People could contact contaminated soils, and children are susceptible to health hazards based on levels of contamination.


Table 3.

Ruston Foundry Air Sampling Event (April 20-26, 1998)
Constituent Background Level (g/m3) Maximum Concentration Detected Comparison Value (CV) (ppm) Exceeds CV?
Copper

0.023

0.103 - NA
Lead 0.0051 0.039 - NA
Manganese 0.0126 0.059 0.05 EMEG Yes
Zinc 0.505 1.06 - NA

EMEG - Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (Derived from Reference Dose)
NA - Not Applicable
- - Designates that Comparison Value is not available
Background concentrations were taken from off-site locations within the site area.


Table 4.

Ruston Foundry Sediment Sampling Event (April 20-26, 1998)
Constituent Background Level (ppm) Maximum Concentration Detected (ppm) Comparison Value (CV) (ppm) Exceeds CV?
Aluminum 20,800 20,000

-

NA
Antimony 2 3.6 20 RMEG (child) No
Arsenic 10.5 11.6 0.5 CREG Yes**
Barium 257 501 4000 RMEG (child) No
Beryllium 1.2 1.4 100 RMEG (child) No
Cadmium 0.31 1.2 10 EMEG (child) No
Calcium 14,700 31,200 - NA
Chromium* 27.5 44.8 200 RMEG (child) No
Cobalt 10.5 13.9 - NA
Copper 25.3 60.1 - NA
Iron 23,000 20,200 - NA
Lead 114 302 400 EPA Action Level No
Magnesium 11,400 12,600 - NA
Manganese 530 949 7000 RMEG (child) No
Mercury 0.13 0.22 - NA
Nickel 21.5 64.5 1000 RMEG (child) No
Potassium 6,180 7,140 - NA
Selenium 2.8 5.1 300 EMEG (child) No
Silver 0.32 0.61 300 EMEG (child) No
Sodium 330 524 - NA
Thallium 0.66 0.97 - NA
Vanadium 34.4 34.6 200 EMEG (child) No
Zinc 126 359 20000 EMEG (child) No

* Assume Hexavalent Chromium (Poses Greater Hazard)
** Arsenic exceeds the Comparison Value, however, the amount found is not greater than 2X the background level.
ppm - parts per million
EMEG - Environmental Media Evaluation Guides
RMEG - Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (Derived from Reference Dose)
NA - Not Applicable
Background concentrations were taken from off-site locations within the site area.
Bold type indicates an exceedence of a comparison value.


Table 5.

Ruston Foundry Foundry Sand Sampling Event (April 20-26, 1998)
Constituent Background Level (ppm) Maximum Concentration Detected (ppm) Comparison Value (CV) (ppm) Exceeds CV?
Aluminum 12900 3930

-

NA
Antimony 1.6 3.8 20 RMEG (child) No
Arsenic 5.5 8.5 0.5 CREG Yes**
Barium 187 66.7 4000 RMEG (child) No
Beryllium 1 0.19 100 RMEG (child) No
Cadmium 0.32 0.61 10 EMEG (child) No
Calcium 5050 1240 - NA
Chromium* 17.2 16.9 200 RMEG (child) No
Cobalt 9.2 2.8 - NA
Copper 48 144 - NA
Iron 13400 15400 - NA
Lead 74.2 217 400 EPA Action Level No
Magnesium 8900 641 - NA
Manganese 522 215 7000 RMEG (child) No
Mercury 0.13 0.35 - NA
Nickel 19.4 58.2 1000 RMEG (child) No
Potassium 4020 1470 - NA
Selenium 2.1 4.1 300 EMEG (child) No
Silver 0.31 0.25 300 EMEG (child) No
Sodium 170 271 - NA
Thallium 0.65 0.53 - NA
Vanadium 23.6 9.6 200 EMEG (child) No
Zinc 130 192 20000 EMEG (child) No

* Assume Hexavalent Chromium (Poses Greater Hazard)
** Arsenic exceeds the Comparison Value, however, the amount found is not greater than 2X the background level.
ppm - parts per million
EMEG - Environmental Media Evaluation Guides
RMEG - Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (Derived from Reference Dose)
NA - Not Applicable
Background concentrations were taken from off-site locations within the site area.
Bold type indicates an exceedence of a comparison value.


Table 6.

Ruston Foundry Foundry Slag Pile Sampling Event (April 20-26, 1998)
Constituent Background Level (ppm) Maximum Concentration Detected (ppm) Comparison Value (CV) (ppm) Exceeds CV?
Aluminum 12900 13500

-

NA
Antimony 1.6 17.9 20 RMEG (child) No
Arsenic 5.5 76.2 0.5 CREG Yes
Barium 187 237 4000 RMEG (child) No
Beryllium 1 0.81 100 RMEG (child) No
Cadmium 0.32 8.9 10 EMEG (child) No
Calcium 5050 9450 - NA
Chromium* 17.2 156 200 RMEG (child) No
Cobalt 9.2 30.2 - NA
Copper 48 27200 - NA
Iron 13400 207000 - NA
Lead 74.2 35200 400 EPA Action Level Yes
Magnesium 8900 8990 - NA
Manganese 522 2170 7000 RMEG (child) No
Mercury 0.13 0.22 - NA
Nickel 19.4 177 1000 RMEG (child) No
Potassium 4020 4850 - NA
Selenium 2.1 41.6 300 EMEG (child) No
Silver 0.31 5.7 300 EMEG (child) No
Sodium 170 16700 - NA
Thallium 0.65 7.6 - NA
Vanadium 23.6 30.7 200 EMEG (child) No
Zinc 130 13800 20000 EMEG (child) No

* Assume Hexavalent Chromium (Poses Greater Hazard)
ppm - parts per million
EMEG - Environmental Media Evaluation Guides
RMEG - Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (Derived from Reference Dose)
NA - Not Applicable
Background concentrations were taken from off-site locations within the site area.
Bold type indicates an exceedence of a comparison value.


Table 7.

Ruston Foundry Soil Sampling Event (April 20-26, 1998)
Constituent Background Level (ppm) Maximum Concentration Detected On-Site (ppm) Maximum Concentration Detected Off-Site (ppm) Comparison Value (CV) (ppm) Exceeds CV?
Aluminum 12900 5710 25000

-

NA
Antimony 1.6 38 30.7 20 RMEG (child) Yes
Arsenic 5.5 84.8 87.5 0.5 CREG Yes
Barium 187 130 585 100 RMEG (pica child)
4000 RMEG (child)
Yes
No
Beryllium 1 0.37 1.6 4 RMEG (pica child)
100 RMEG (child)
No
No
Cadmium 0.32 4.4 4.7 0.4 EMEG (pica child)
10 EMEG (child)
Yes
No
Calcium 5050 2010 18000 - NA
Chromium* 17.2 129 55.3 6 RMEG (pica child)
200 RMEG (child)
Yes
No
Cobalt 9.2 20.6 21.6 - NA
Copper 48 4300 5790 - NA
Iron 13400 336000 189000 - NA
Lead 74.2 2250 1560 400 EPA Action Level Yes
Magnesium 8900 1470 14000 - NA
Manganese 522 2520 1040 300 RMEG (pica child)
7000 RMEG (child)
Yes
No
Mercury 0.13 0.91 0.21 - NA
Nickel 19.4 58.5 30.9 40 RMEG (pica child)
1000 RMEG (child)
Yes
No
Potassium 4020 2930 7520 - NA
Selenium 2.1 60.7 38.8 10 EMEG (pica child)
300 EMEG (child)
Yes
No
Silver 0.31 1.1 0.33 10 EMEG (pica child)
300 EMEG (child)
No
No
Sodium 170 924 1310 - NA
Thallium 0.65 9.6 7.7 - NA
Vanadium 23.6 37.6 43.1 6 EMEG (pica child)
200 EMEG (child)
Yes
No
Zinc 130 811 1260 600 (pica child)
20000 EMEG (child)
Yes
No

* Assume Hexavalent Chromium (Poses Greater Hazard)
NA-Not Applicable
ppm - parts per million
EMEG - Environmental Media Evaluation Guides
RMEG - Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (Derived from Reference Dose)


Table 8.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Public Health Conclusion Categories
CATEGORY A.
URGENT PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD

This category is used for sites that pose an urgent public health hazard as the result of short-term exposures to hazardous substances.

Criteria:

Evidence exists that exposures have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur in the future; and

the estimated exposures are to a substance or substances at concentrations in the environment that, upon short-term exposures (less than 1 year), can cause adverse health effects to any segment of the receptor population. The adverse health effect can be the result of either carcinogenic or noncarcinogenic toxicity from a chemical exposure. For a noncarcinogenic toxic effect, the exposure exceeds an acute or intermediate minimal risk level (MRL) established in the ATSDR Toxicological Profiles or other comparable value; and /or community-specific health outcome data indicate that the site has had an adverse impact on human health that requires rapid intervention; and /or

physical hazards at the site pose an imminent risk of physical injury.

CATEGORY B.
PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD

This category is used for sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.

Criteria:

Evidence exists that exposures have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur in the future; and the estimated exposures are to a substance or substances at concentrations in the environment that, upon long-term exposures (greater than 1 year), can cause adverse health effects to any segment of the receptor population. The adverse health effect can be the result of either carcinogenic or noncarcinogenic toxicity from a chemical exposure. For a noncarcinogenic toxic effect, the exposure exceeds a chronic MRL established in the ATSDR Toxicological Profiles or other comparable value; and/or community-specific health outcome data indicate that the site has had an adverse impact on human health that requires intervention.

CATEGORY C.
INDETERMINATE PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD

This category is used for sites with incomplete information.

Criteria:

The limited available data do not indicate that humans are being or have been exposed to levels of contamination that would be expected to cause adverse health effects. However, data or information are not available for all environmental media to which humans may be exposed; and there are insufficient or no community-specific health outcome data to indicate that the site has had an adverse impact on human health.

CATEGORY D.
NO APPARENT PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD

This category is used for sites where human exposure to contaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, but the exposure is below a level of health hazard.

Criteria:

Exposures do not exceed an ATSDR chronic MRL or other comparable value; and data are available for all environmental media to which humans are being exposed; and there are no community-specific health outcome data to indicate that the site has had an adverse impact on human health.

CATEGORY E.
NO PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD

This category is used for sites that do not pose a public health hazard.

Criteria:

There is no evidence of current or past human exposure to contaminated media; and future exposures to contaminated media are not likely to occur; and there are no community-specific health outcome data to indicate that the site has had an adverse impact on human health.

         


CERTIFICATION

This Ruston Foundry Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures exisiting at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Alan W. Yarbrough
Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR


The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health consultation and concurs with the findings.

Roberta Erlwein
Chief, State Program Section, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR


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