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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

REFUSE HIDEAWAY
MIDDLETON, DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN


CONCLUSIONS

  1. Refuse Hideaway Landfill currently poses no apparent public health hazard to nearby residents who obtain their drinking water from private wells. People living in three houses or who worked at a nearby seed business were exposed for no more than four years to VOC contaminated groundwater provided by three private wells.
  2. No other nearby private wells are known to have been reached by contaminated groundwater coming from the site. The DNR is monitoring the movement of the contaminant plume for any changes. This should provide adequate warning of potential threats to nearby private wells.
  3. Refuse Hideaway Landfill might pose a future public health hazard to users of nearby private wells if no further action were taken to clean-up the site. Groundwater samples collected from some monitoring wells located on and around the site property reveal high levels of some VOCs. If the effect of existing on-site control measures were negligible and higher levels of groundwater contamination were to migrate away from the site and reach uncontaminated wells, nearby residents would have an increased risk of contacting cancer.
  4. There are no toxicological data available on the effects of simultaneous exposures for 1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride.
  5. Refuse Hideaway Landfill is an indeterminate public health hazard to people who worked inside a building at an adjacent sand and gravel business. Those who worked inside a building at the business breathed air that could have been contaminated with VOCs. However there was no data available on possible indoor air contamination, which represents a data gap. Estimates of worker exposure can be created only by making a number of assumptions. If these assumptions are correct, then workers are not expected to have any adverse health effects from breathing indoor air at the calculated levels.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The Wisconsin Division of Health offers the following recommendations concerning Refuse Hideaway Landfill:

  1. Private wells in use around the site should be regularly tested for contamination, as planned by the DNR.
  2. All private wells and monitoring wells should be tested for inorganic contaminants, particularly arsenic, as planned by the DNR as part of the Remedial Investigation. Samples collected from private wells with POE filtration systems should be unfiltered water.
  3. Monitoring of the contaminant plume and groundwater quality around the site should continue as planned by the DNR.
  4. The two private homes with Point-Of-Entry water filtration system should monitor and maintain their systems as recommended by the DNR.
  5. Landfill gas extraction from the site should continue to reduce the movement of landfill gas away from the site and toward any nearby buildings.
  6. Restrict access of unauthorized personnel to the site. Currently there are no hazard signs around the perimeter of the site, but there are "no trespassing" signs along the entry road. Fencing is limited to the gas flaring device, the buried leachate tank, and extraction well heads. The access road to the site has a gate that can be locked.

A. Need For Follow-up Health Activities

The ATSDR Health Activities Review Panel and the Wisconsin Division of Health evaluated the data on this site to determine what needs exist for additional research and/or local education about health related concerns. Such activities could include further studies on cases of disease in the vicinity of the site or providing residents with additional information about the health effects of exposures to specific toxic chemicals coming from the site. People living in three households and workers at an agricultural business were probably exposed to low-levels of contaminants from the site, but no adverse health effects are expected from these exposures. However, both the community and local health professionals need continuing information about public health issues related to the site. It was also determined that additional toxicological information is needed to evaluate how mixtures of contaminants might affect the health of people drinking contaminated groundwater.

B. Public Health Action

The following actions either have been or will be performed to meet the needs expressed by the recommendations of this public health assessment. The Wisconsin Division of Health, in cooperation with ATSDR, will:

  1. Continue to consult with the Wisconsin DNR and the U.S. EPA on public health issues that may arise as any action(s) happen at the site;
  2. Provide continuing health education as new information becomes available concerning public health issues related to the site;
  3. Continue to solicit the health concerns of citizens of the Town of Middleton directly or through the Wisconsin DNR, the Dane County Health Department, and through public meetings;
  4. Continue to cooperate with the Wisconsin DNR and Dane County Health Department to address environmental health and public health issues that pertain to the site and the community;
  5. Offer professional education opportunities about the site to practicing health care providers in the Town of Middleton and nearby areas.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Henry Nehls-Lowe, MPH
Epidemiologist
Environmental Health Section
Bureau of Public Health
Division of Health
Wisconsin Department of Health & Social Services


ATSDR Senior Regional Representative

Louise Fabinski
Regional Operations
Region V
Office of the Assistant Administrator


ATSDR Technical Project Officer

William J. Greim
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Remedial Programs Branch


CERTIFICATION

The Refuse Hideaway Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Wisconsin Division of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

William Greim
Technical Project Officer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

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  2. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures - 1992. Atlanta, Georgia: ACS, 1992.

  3. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substance & Disease Registry). Public Comment Draft. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. Atlanta, Georgia: ATSDR. October 1991.

  4. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Benzene. Public Comment Draft. Atlanta, Georgia: ATSDR. October 1991.

  5. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. Public Comment Draft. Atlanta, Georgia: ATSDR. October 1991.

  6. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene. DHHS publication no. (PHS) TP-90-13. Atlanta, Georgia: ATSDR. December 1990.

  7. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene. Public Comment Draft. Atlanta, Georgia: ATSDR. October 1991.

  8. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene. Public Comment Draft. Atlanta, Georgia: ATSDR. October 1991.

  9. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Toluene. Public Comment Draft. Atlanta, Georgia: ATSDR. October 1992.

  10. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride. Public Comment Draft. Atlanta, Georgia: ATSDR. October 1991.

  11. ATSDR. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual. NTIS order no. PB92-147164. Atlanta, Georgia: ATSDR. March 1992.

  12. CACI Marketing Systems, Inc. The Sourcebook of Demographics and Buying Power for Every ZIP Code in the USA. Sixth Edition, Second Printing. Fairfax, Virginia: CACI. 1989.

  13. CACI Marketing Systems, Inc. The Sourcebook of ZIP Code Demographics, 1990 Census Edition - Volume One. Fairfax, Virginia: CACI. 1991.

  14. Creative Resource Ventures, Ltd. Infield Conditions Report on Refuse Hideaway Land. Prepared for the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. January 14, 1988.

  15. Creative Resource Ventures, Ltd. Correspondence from Robert Glebs to owners of 7734 and 7750 Highway 14, Middleton, Wisconsin, reporting results of private well testing. March 10, 1988.

  16. Dane County Regional Planning Commission. 1990 Census Information for Dane County Municipalities. Madison, Wisconsin: Dane County. June 1992.

  17. DeLorme Mapping Company. Wisconsin Atlas and Gazetteer. Freeport, Maine: Delorme Mapping Company. 1989.

  18. DNR (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources). Public Water Supply Data Book for 1985. Madison, Wisconsin: DNR. 1985.

  19. DNR. Correspondence from Bryan Grigsby, Southern District DNR office, reporting results of volatile organic water chemistry analysis of well water sample collected from 7750 Highway 14, Middleton, Wisconsin. August 29, 1986.

  20. DNR. Correspondence reporting results of volatile organic water chemistry analysis of well water sample collected from 4344 Twin Valley Road, Middleton, Wisconsin. August 29, 1986.

  21. DNR. Correspondence to residents reporting results of samples collected during March 25 1988 from contaminated private wells.

  22. DNR. Correspondence from Patrick McCutcheon reporting results of water samples collected from 4344 Twin Valley Road, Middleton, Wisconsin. March 28, 1988.

  23. DNR. Correspondence to residents reporting results of samples collected during 1988 from uncontaminated private wells. March 25, October 13, and November 8, 1988.

  24. DNR. Correspondence to residents reporting results of samples collected during 1989 from uncontaminated private wells. November 9, 1989.

  25. DNR. Correspondence to residents reporting results of samples collected during 1989 from contaminated private wells. October 10, October 24, November 10, and December 20, 1989.

  26. DNR. Correspondence from Terry Evanson to owners of 7734 and 7750 Highway 14, Middleton, Wisconsin, reporting effectiveness of installed water filtration systems. December 20, 1989.

  27. DNR. Newsletter reporting on status of Refuse Hideaway Landfill. February 1990.

  28. DNR. Correspondence to residents reporting results of samples collected during 1990 from uncontaminated private wells. February 14 and March 1, 1990.

  29. DNR. Correspondence from Terry Evanson to owners of 7734 and 7750 Highway 14, Middleton, Wisconsin, reporting effectiveness of installed Point-Of-Entry water filtration systems. June 21, 1990.

  30. DNR. Newsletter reporting on status of Refuse Hideaway Landfill. July 1990.

  31. DNR. Correspondence to residents reporting results of samples collected during 1990 from contaminated private wells. January 11, February 13, June 21, July 4, August 8, September 14, and November 2, 1990.

  32. DNR. Correspondence to residents reporting results of samples collected February and March 1991, from uncontaminated private wells. April 24, 1991.

  33. DNR. Environmental Response and Repair Program. Final Screening Site Inspection Report for Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Town of Middleton, Dane County, Wisconsin. USEPA WID #980610604. August 4, 1991.

  34. DNR. Superfund Site Nomination for Refuse Hideaway. Correspondence from Wisconsin DNR Secretary Besadny to U.S. EPA Administrator William Reilly. August 30, 1991.

  35. DNR. Correspondence to residents reporting results of samples collected during 1991 from contaminated private wells. January 4, January 16, February 6, May 10, August 11, September 3, and November 7, 1991.

  36. DNR. Correspondence from Robert W. Schaefer to owners of 7734 and 7750 Highway 14, Middleton, Wisconsin, transferring ownership of Point-Of-Entry water filtration systems. July 14, 1992.

  37. DNR. Newsletter reporting on status of Refuse Hideaway Landfill. July 1992.

  38. DNR. Correspondence to residents reporting results of samples collected during 1992 from contaminated private wells. March 10 and July 14, 1992.

  39. DNR. Correspondence to residents reporting results of samples collected during 1992, from uncontaminated private wells. January 6, January 10, February 12, June 10, June 29, August 17, November 11, and December 14, 1992.

  40. DOH (Division of Health, Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services). Memorandum to file reporting July 1, 1992 Site Visit to Refuse Hideaway Landfill. July 6, 1992.

  41. DOH. Memorandum to file reporting July 7, 1993, telephone conversation with Tom DeBeck.

  42. DOH. Memorandum to file reporting health-related comments and questions pertaining to the DNR Community Relation Plan Interviews conducted from June 28 to July 2, 1993. July 6,1993.

  43. DOH. Correspondence to residents of 4344 Twin Valley Road concerning well contamination and community health concern. October 11, 1993.

  44. Hellenbrand Water Conditioners, Inc. Stoppleworth/Pauze Water Analysis. Correspondence to DNR Bureau of Hazardous Waste. September 1993.

  45. Hennings, R, Lindorff, DE, and Lemcke, MD. The Condition of Our Groundwater Resource. Proceedings of March 1991 Conference "Working Together to Manage Wisconsin's Groundwater - Next Steps?". Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin - Extension. August 1991.

  46. Hydro-Search, Inc. Groundwater Monitoring Study at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Middleton, Wisconsin. Prepared for the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Brookfield, Wisconsin: Hydro-Search. June 24, 1991.

  47. Hydro-Search, Inc. Numerical Model Simulation and Assessment of Contaminant Plume Migration, Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Middleton, Wisconsin. Prepared for the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Brookfield, Wisconsin: Hydro-Search. March 17, 1992.

  48. Moschella, SL, Pillsbury, DM, & Hurley, HJ. Dermatology. Two Volumes. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company, 1975.

  49. Mostardi-Platt Associates, Inc. Landfill Gas System Destruction Efficiency Tests. A Gaseous Study Performed for Warzyn Engineering, Inc. Refuse Hideaway landfill. Middleton, Wisconsin. Bensenville, Illinois: Mostardi-Platt. September 30, 1991.

  50. National Cancer Institute, Public Health Service, Dept of Health & Social Services. Incidence of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in the United States. Prepared by Scotto, J, Fears, TR, & Fraumeni, JF. NIH Publication 82-2433. December 1981.

  51. Otto, William H. 1990. Inhalation exposure from volatile organic compounds found in drinking water. In Environmental issues: today's challenge for the future; proceedings of the fourth environmental health conference at San Antonio, Texas, June 20-23, 1989. John S. Andrews, Jr., Lydia Ogden Askew, Jeanne A. Bucsela, Barry L. Johnson, and Charles Xintaras, Eds. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, Georgia. November, 1990. pp. 69-78.

  52. RMT, Inc. Private Water Supplies Affected by Ground Water Quality Problems Near the Refuse Hideaway Landfill. Correspondence from Lee Bartlett to Ray Tierney of the DNR. October 24, 1988.

  53. RMT, Inc. Remedial Action Report under Consent Order SOD-88-02A for Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Middleton, Wisconsin. November 1988.

  54. Simon Hydro-Search, Inc. Analysis Results from Round 1 Sampling for Semi-Volatiles, Inorganics, PCBs, and Pesticides for Refuse Hideaway Landfill. Brookfield, Wisconsin: Simon Hydro-Search. June 22, 1993.

  55. State Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Wisconsin Center for Health Sciences. Inorganic chemistry laboratory report of unfiltered water sample collected from 7750 Highway 14, Middleton, Wisconsin. January 20, 1993.

  56. University of Wisconsin - Extension. Home Water Safety. Publication G3558 (1 through 5). Madison, Wisconsin: UW-Extension, 1992.

  57. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Hazard Ranking System Documentation Record for Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Middleton, Wisconsin. No. NPL-U12-2-16. August 30, 1991.

  58. USEPA. 1992. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) document for Arsenic.

  59. USEPA. 1992. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) document for cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene.

  60. USEPA. Health Effects Assessment Summary Table - Annual FY 1992. NTIS No. PB92-921199. March 1992.

  61. Warzyn (Warzyn Engineering, Inc). Gas Monitoring Program, Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Town of Middleton, Dane County, Wisconsin. Report 13709. Prepared for the Wisconsin DNR. Madison, Wisconsin: Warzyn. June 1989.

  62. Warzyn. Point-of Entry Water Treatment, Interim Remedial Measures, Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Town of Middleton, Dane County, Wisconsin. Report 13928.10. Prepared for the Wisconsin DNR. Madison, Wisconsin: Warzyn. November 1989.

  63. Warzyn. Alternative Water Supply Interim Remedial Measures, Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Town of Middleton, Dane County, Wisconsin. Report 13928.11. Prepared for the Wisconsin DNR. Madison, Wisconsin: Warzyn. December 1989.

  64. Warzyn. Sampling and Analysis of Residential Wells, Interim Remedial Measures, Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Town of Middleton, Dane County, Wisconsin. Report 13928.20. Prepared for the Wisconsin DNR. Madison, Wisconsin: Warzyn. February 1990.

  65. Warzyn. Gas Monitoring Program, Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Town of Middleton, Dane County, Wisconsin. Project 13928.87. Prepared for the Wisconsin DNR. Madison, Wisconsin: Warzyn. January 1990.

  66. Warzyn. Community Relations Activities, Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Town of Middleton, Dane County, Wisconsin. Report 13928.70. Prepared for the Wisconsin DNR. Madison, Wisconsin: Warzyn. April 1990.

  67. Warzyn. Gas and Leachate Extraction System. Refuse Hideaway Landfill, Town of Middleton, Dane County, Wisconsin. Engineering Design 13928.48. Prepared for the Wisconsin DNR. Madison, Wisconsin: Warzyn. August 1990.

  68. Warzyn. Annual Report of the Gas Monitoring Program to the Wisconsin DNR on Refuse Hideaway Landfill. Project 13928.87. February 12, 1991.

  69. Wisconsin Administrative Code, Groundwater Quality, Chapter NR 140, Subchapter II, 10/90, No. 418.

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