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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

RIPON CITY LANDFILL
RIPON, FOND DU LAC COUNTY, WISCONSIN

CONCLUSIONS

The Ripon FF/NN landfill has caused environmental contamination both on and off-site. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have migrated from the landfill to the groundwater near the site. Leachate from the landfill has seeped into a depression adjacent to the landfill.

A private water supply approximately 500 feet south of the site was contaminated with VOCs. Vinyl chloride levels in the water supply wells at this residence posed a public health hazard to the residents. Such an exposure can cause an increased cancer risk and possible liver damage. Both water supply wells on this property have been abandoned and the home is no longer occupied.

There are currently no exposures to contamination from this site. Existing private wells in the area have been tested and are not impacted by the site. Though the potential is quite low, a public health hazard could exist in the future if contaminated groundwater migrated to other private wells at levels of health concern. Future exposures to the leachate seeps on-site pose an indeterminant public health hazard.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the conclusions developed in this report the WDOH and ATSDR make the following recommendations:

  1. A monitoring plan should be developed that will provide the nearby well users warning of exposure to contamination above levels that could cause health effects.
  2. Leachate in the landfill should be controlled to prevent the potential for exposure to seeps and additional contribution of groundwater contamination.
  3. Site access should be limited to prevent contact with leachate seeps that exist at this time.

NEED FOR FOLLOW-UP HEALTH ACTIVITIES

The WDOH and the ATSDR Health Activities Recommendation Panel evaluated the data on this site to determine what needs exist for additional research and/or local education about health related concerns. Such activities could include conducting further studies on cases of disease in the area or providing information about exposure to toxic chemicals.

The WDOH will provide community education about this site as part of its ongoing efforts at Wisconsin's Superfund sites. The Health Activities Recommendation Panel determined that follow-up health studies are not appropriate for the single residence exposed to vinyl chloride in the past. If the remedial investigation of this site shows that exposure to toxic substances is more widespread than previous sampling found, the Wisconsin Division of Health and ATSDR will reconsider the need for other activities.

If future WDOH evaluations indicate that additional completed exposure pathways exist or that the community has expressed specific health concerns, then WDOH will consider reviewing health outcome databases.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

The WDOH, in cooperation with ATSDR, will conduct the following activities to respond to the recommendations of this assessment:

  1. Provide continuing public health education as new information related to public health issues becomes available;
  2. Review and comment on public health aspects of the remedial design for the site.
  3. Provide site information and offer health information to primary care physicians and public health professionals in the geographic region of the site.
  4. Advise and consult with the WDNR on public health concerns that may arise as new information about the site becomes available.
  5. Work with the WDNR to ensure that a groundwater monitoring plan is developed is protective of the private well owners in the area.

Preparer of the Report:

    Chuck J. Warzecha
    Hydrogeologist
    Section of Chronic Disease & Health Assessment
    Bureau of Public Health
    Division of Health
    Wisconsin Department of Health & Social Services

ATSDR Regional Representatives

    Louise Fabinski
    Regional Services
    Region V
    Office of the Assistant Administrator

ATSDR Technical Project Officer

    William Greim
    State Programs Section
    Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

CERTIFICATION

The Ripon FF/NN Landfill Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Wisconsin Division of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

William Greim
Technical Project Officer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Richard Gillig
For Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR



RESPONSE TO PUBLIC COMMENTS

The following comments were received durring the public comment period for the public health assessment. After each comment is an explanation of how it has been addressed in bold type.

  1. Neighborhood private wells should be tested twice yearly during the rainy season (April and October) for VOCs.

    WDOH will discuss this recommendation with the WDNR. A groundwater monitoring plan will be developed by the responsible party group and must be approved by the DNR and DOH. If this monitoring plan doesn't include appropriate sampling frequency of private wells to be protective of public health, DOH will recommend the appropriate changes.

  2. General comment expressed by more than one commentor: The City of Ripon should run a public water main to the neighborhood.

    The water quality problem in local private wells is not related to this or other landfill sites.

  3. Replace the testing well owned by the power company that was removed.

    Additional monitoring wells have been added that now sufficiently monitors this area.


APPENDIX

RMEG - Reference Media Evaluation Guide derived from EPA Reference dose concentration. This concentration was calculated from an exposure dose below which no adverse health effects are expected. This value is lower for children than for adults and can be considered protective for both.

LTHA - EPA's drinking water Lifetime Health Advisory.

EMEG - Environmental Media Evaluation Guide. This concentration has been developed as a threshold level below which no adverse systemic health effects are expected. This value is lower for children than for adults and can be considered protective for both.

MRL - ATSDR Minimal Risk Level.

Rfd - Reference dose. This concentration was calculated from an exposure dose below which no adverse health effects are expected. This value is lower for children than for adults and can be considered protective for both.

CREG - Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide. Exposure to this level over a lifetime may increase a persons risk of developing cancer by a factor of 1 in 1,000,000.


REFERENCES

  1. Williams-Fleetwood, Sharon (ATSDR). Letter to Kim Bro, WDOH. Notice of Federal Register listing of Ripon FF/NN Landfill NPL listing. August 31, 1993.

  2. Simon Hydro-Search. Technical Memorandum #1 Source Characterization, Ripon FF/NN Landfill. October 19, 1993.

  3. Simon Hydro-Search. Technical Memorandum #1 Source Characterization, Ripon FF/NN Landfill. October 19, 1993.

  4. Simon Hydro-Search. Technical Memorandum #1 Source Characterization, Ripon FF/NN Landfill. October 19, 1993.

  5. Young, Mary. "Ripon FF/NN Site Visit Notes". April 20, 1993.

  6. Simon Hydro-Search. Technical Memorandum #1 Source Characterization, Ripon FF/NN Landfill. October 19, 1993.

  7. Simon Hydro-Search. Technical Memorandum #1 Source Characterization, Ripon FF/NN Landfill. October 19, 1993.

  8. Simon Hydro-Search. Recommendations for Additional Well Locations Ripon FF/NN Landfill. January 10th, 1994.

  9. WDNR Ripon FF/NN File. "Attachment #5 - Comparison of VOC Chemical Analysis for S.W. Corner Wells & Falkenberg Wells." Southern District Headquarters Office, Fitchburg.

  10. State Laboratory of Hygiene. "VOC Sample Results". Private Well Sample Taken September 11th, 1989. October 2, 1989.

  11. Simon Hydro-Search. Recommendations for Additional Well Locations Ripon FF/NN Landfill. January 10th, 1994.

  12. Lindauer, Gary (WDOH). Letter to Private Resident Regarding September 28, 1989 Indoor Air Monitoring Results. October 12, 1989.

  13. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride. April, 1993.

  14. Smith, Roy L.. USEPA Region III Risk-Based Concentration Table. April 20, 1994.

  15. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride. April, 1993.

  16. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Benzene. February 18, 1992.

  17. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. December, 1990.

  18. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for 1,1 Dichloroethylene. February 19, 1993.

  19. ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. December, 1990.

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