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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT (U.S. DOE)
PADUCAH, MCCRACKEN COUNTY, KENTUCKY
EPA FACILITY ID: KY8890008982

May 21, 2002

Prepared by:

Energy Section
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry


DOCUMENT NOTE

This public health assessment addresses potential off-site exposures to radioactive and non-radioactive substances released from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. It does not address on-site exposures of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant workers to radioactive or hazardousmaterials. Workers may be expected to be exposed to radioactive and hazardous materials that havebeen used at the site at higher levels than the general public. Workers should be trained in the use andsafe handling of hazardous materials, and their exposures should be monitored.

Since 1997, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), which currently operates the gaseousdiffusion plant, has been required to meet worker safety and health standards developed by theDepartment of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA); the plant also mustmeet standards developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Before the plant wasprivatized, however, the facility was subject to the U.S. Department of Energy regulations andstandards but was exempt from external regulation and enforcement.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, National Institutefor Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), is responsible for researching potential health hazardsexperienced in the workplace and for providing recommendations for exposure standards to OSHA.NIOSH is research-oriented, and is not a regulatory agency. NIOSH has conducted studies ofworkers in the gaseous diffusion plants at Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. For furtherinformation about worker studies, contact the NIOSH Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations,and Field Studies, in Cincinnati, Ohio, at (513) 841-4400.

Some of the terminology used in this document reflects the latest terminology and definitions as usedby the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) starting with ICRP Publication60: 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, Oxford (UK): Pergamon Press; 1991.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF APPENDICES

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

BACKGROUND

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION, EXPOSURE PATHWAYS, AND POTENTIALLY EXPOSED POPULATIONS

PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

HEALTH OUTCOME DATA EVALUATION

COMMUNITY HEALTH CONCERNS

CONCLUSIONS

RECOMMENDATIONS

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

PREPARERS OF REPORT

REFERENCES


LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

APPENDIX B: DESCRIPTION AND TABULATION OF COMMUNITY HEALTH CONCERNS

APPENDIX C: HEALTH GUIDELINES, COMPARISON VALUES, AND EXPOSURE FACTORS

APPENDIX D: ESTIMATION OF EXPOSURE DURATION FOR GROUNDWATER PATHWAY

APPENDIX E: EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE RADIONUCLIDES

APPENDIX F: EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE HYDROGEN FLUORIDE

APPENDIX G: AIRBORNE TRICHLOROETHYLENE DISTRIBUTION AND POTENTIAL OFF-SITE EXPOSURE

APPENDIX H: AIRBORNE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM DISTRIBUTION FROM THE PGDP WATER COOLING TOWERS AND POTENTIAL OFF-SITE EXPOSURE

APPENDIX I: EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF AIRBORNE NICKEL AND OTHER METAL PARTICULATES FROM HISTORIC SMELTER OPERATIONS AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

APPENDIX J: PUBLIC COMMENTS ON THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT AND ATSDR'S RESPONSES

APPENDIX K: ATSDR GLOSSARY OF TERMS


LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Groundwater contaminant sources at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

Table 2. Off-site groundwater contaminants

Table 3. Groundwater contaminants detected off site, comparison values, and locations

Table 4. Groundwater contaminants (on and off site) excluded from further analysis

Table 5. Summary of contaminants of concern and exposure doses in completed exposure pathways for off-site groundwater

Table 6. Summary of contaminants of concern and exposure doses in potential exposure pathways for off-site groundwater

Table 7. Airborne releases (from PGDP processes) and major release sources

Table 8A. Annual estimated release quantities of uranium and technetium 99 from process operations at PGDP for 1952 through 1993 and 1996

Table 8B. Annual estimated release quantities of major airborne contaminants other than uranium and technetium 99 for 1985 through 1993 and 1996

Table 9. Off-site estimated annual committed effective doses from uranium 234, uranium 235, uranium 238, and technetium 99 air releases from PGDP to the maximally exposedindividual (approximately 1,500 meters north of the source)

Table 10. Summary of completed and potential exposure pathways for airborne contaminants

Table 11. Estimated exposure doses for chemical contaminants in off-site surface water at PGDP and health guidelines

Table 12. Past and current maximum estimated exposure doses (annual committed effective doses) for radioactive contaminants in surface water

Table 13. Summary of potential exposure pathways for off-site surface water contaminants of concern

Table 14A. Estimated exposure doses to WKWMA workers and visitors for chemical contaminants in buffer zone soil and sediment (Scenario 1)

Table 14B. Estimated exposure doses (annual committed effective doses) to WKWMA workers and visitors for radioactive contaminants in buffer zone soil and sediment (Scenario 1)

Table 15A. Estimated exposure doses to residents for chemical contaminants in off-site soil (Scenario 2)

Table 15B. Estimated exposure doses (annual committed effective doses) to residents for radioactive contaminants in off-site soil (Scenario 2)

Table 16. Summary of potential exposure pathways for contaminants of concern in off-site soil and sediment

Table 17. Biota Categories

Table 18A(1). Maximum concentrations of chemical contaminants (except PCBs) in biota (fish, game, and food crops) near PGDP (in g/g or ppm)

Table 18A(2). Average concentrations of PCBs in biota (fish and game) near PGDP (in g/g or ppm)

Table 18B. Maximum concentrations of radioactive contaminants in biota near PGDP (in pCi/g)

Table 19. Average food consumption rates for children and adults

Table 20A. Maximum estimated child exposure doses and health guidelines for consumption of biota near PGDP for chemical contaminants (in milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day)

Table 20B. Maximum estimated adult exposure doses and health guidelines for consumption of biota near PGDP for chemical contaminants (in milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day)

Table 21A. Estimated child exposure doses (annual committed effective doses) for annual consumption of biota near PGDP in millirems (and in millisieverts)

Table 21B. Estimated adult exposure doses (annual committed effective doses) for annual consumption of biota near PGDP in millirems (and in millisieverts)

Table 22. Summary of potential exposure pathways for human consumption of contaminants of concern in biota near PGDP

Table 23. Probabilities of Occurrence for Different Magnitude Earthquakes

Table 24. Summary of completed and potential exposure pathways for each contaminant

Table 25. Estimated number of persons potentially exposed per exposure pathway based on 1990 Census data and potential exposure pathways

Table 26. Range of Possible Exposure Doses to Hexavalent Chromium

Table 27. Estimated lead doses in adults and infants from various water concentrations

Table 28. Maximum estimated annual committed effective doses for radiation exposure near PGDP

Table 29. Range of sample detection limits for vinyl chloride in residential well water

Table 30. Agencies that may be contacted for other concerns

Table A-1. County population data table

Table A-2. Length of residence in current household, 1990: Ballard, McCracken, and Massac Counties

Table A-3. County housing and socioeconomic data

Table A-4. City or town population data table

Table A-5. Length of residence in current household, 1990: cities of Paducah, Metropolis, and Joppa

Table A-6. City or town housing and socioeconomic data

Table A-7. Census tract population data

Table A-8. Census tracts: length of residence in current household, 1990

Table A-9. Census tract housing and socioeconomic data, 1990

Table B-1. Community concerns

Table C-1. Dose equations and factors used in calculating exposure doses at PGDP

Table D-1. Estimated plume migration rates based on plume locations for different time periods

Table D-2. Estimated exposure durations, based on 125 meters per year migration rate and distance of plume migration downgradient of residential wells

Table E-1. Annual radionuclide emissions for selected isotopes and years

Table F-1. Summary of RASCAL 3.0 model for assessing accidental releases of HF from November 17, 1960, UF6 cylinder rupture

Table H-1. Maximum estimated airborne hexavalent chromium concentrations

Table I-1. Maximum estimated nickel air concentrations for different weather years and distances

Table I-2. Comparison of amounts of various metals smelted at PGDP with Inhalation Health-Based Comparison Values

Table J-1. Age-Adjusted Total and Bladder Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population (Average Rates for 1991 through 1999)

Table J-2. Estimated Bladder Cancer Crude Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population

Table J-3. Age-Adjusted Skin Melanoma and Digestive Tract Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population (Average Rates for 1991 through 1999)

Table J-4. Estimated Skin Melanoma and Digestive Tract Cancer Crude Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Plant location and vicinity

Figure 2. Property boundaries and other features

Figure 3. Pathways to exposure from contamination

Figure 4. TCE concentrations in residential wells

Figure 5. Tc-99 concentrations in residential wells

Figure 6. TCE and Tc-99 groundwater contamination, 1997

Figure 7. Areas of contamination and potential human exposures

Figure 8. Effects of lead on children and adults--lowest-observable-adverse-effect levels

Figure A-1. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (demographics)

Figure D-1. TCE isocontours (1991-1995) and contaminated off-site well locations

Figure F-1. Correlation coefficient of PGDP uranium emissions and hydrogen fluoride measurements at the perimeter north station

Figure F-2. Measured and predicted HF concentrations at the perimeter north and one mile north sampling stations

Figure I-1. Average annual airborne nickel concentration estimated using EPA ISC Short Term air dispersion model (1984-1986 emission data; 1990 weather data)


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ABS Absorption factor
ACT Active Citizens for Truth
Am-241 Americium 241
AT Averaging time
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
BW Body weight
Bq Becquerel
BTU British Thermal Unit (unit of heat)
ºC Degrees Celsius (or Centigrade)
CAP-88 Clean Air Act Assessment Package, 1988 (air model)
CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
CF Conversion factor
Ci Curie
CREG ATSDR's Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
CST Central Standard Time
CVs Comparison values
DL Detection limit
DNAPL Dense nonaqueous-phase liquid
DOD U.S. Department of Defense
DOE U.S. Department of Energy
DOT U.S. Department of Transportation
d Day
ED Exposure duration
EF Exposure frequency
EMEG ATSDR's Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
ESADDI Estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake
ºF Degrees Fahrenheit
FFOU Federal Facilities Oversight Unit
g/sec Grams per second
GIS Geographic information system
HF Hydrogen fluoride
ICRP International Commission on Radiological Protection
IDLH NIOSH Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health
IR Ingestion rate
ISC Industrial Source Complex (air model)
KDAQ Kentucky Division of Air Quality
KDEP Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection
kg Kilogram
KOW Kentucky Ordnance Works
KRCP Kentucky Department for Public Health's Radiation Control Program
KY Kentucky
L Liter
LMES Lockheed Martin Energy Systems
LMUS Lockheed Martin Utility Services
LOAEL Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level
- Micro-
mCi Millicurie
MCL Maximum contaminant level
mg/kg Milligrams per kilogram
mg/kg/day Milligrams per kilogram per day (also mg/kg/d)
g/L or g/kg Micrograms per liter or micrograms per kilogram
mg/m3 Milligrams per cubic meter
mrem Millirem
MRL Minimal risk level
mSv Millisievert
MW Monitoring well
NA Not applicable
NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards
ND Non-detect or Not Detected
NE Northeast
NESHAP National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NOAEL No-observed-adverse-effect level
NOx Nitrogen oxides
Np-237 Neptunium 237
NPL National Priorities List
NRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NT Not tested
NW Northwest
ORGDP Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant
ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PAHs Polyaromatic hydrocarbons
PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls
PGDP Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant
PHA ATSDR public health assessment
pCi Picocurie
PN Perimeter north (monitoring station)
ppb Parts per billion (equivalent to g/L or g/kg)
ppm Parts per million (equivalent to mg/kg or g/ml)
Pu-239 Plutonium 239
RGA Regional Gravel Aquifer
RMEG ATSDR's Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
Rn-222 Radon 222
SO2 Sulfur dioxide
SSAB DOE's Site Specific Advisory Board
SWMUs Solid waste management units
Tc-99 Technetium 99
1,1,1-TCA 1,1,1-trichloroethane
TCE Trichloroethylene
Th-230 Thorium 230
TNT Trinitrotoluene
TVA Tennessee Valley Authority
U-234, U-235, U-238 Uranium 234, uranium 235, uranium 238
UCRS Upper Continental Recharge System
UF4 Uranium tetrafluoride
UF6 Uranium hexafluoride
USACE U.S. Army Corp of Engineers
USEC United States Enrichment Corporation
WAGs Waste area groups
WKWMA Western Kentucky Wildlife Management Area
yr (or y) Year
# number
<; > less than; greater than
& and


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