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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT (U.S. DOE)
PADUCAH, MCCRACKEN COUNTY, KENTUCKY


APPENDIX A: DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

ATSDR collects and analyzes demographic data as part of the health assessment process. We usethis information to characterize the people who live in the communities affected by the site. A reviewof demographic data provides information about who lives in the community, how long people havelived there, and what the current population trends are. The data are generally obtained from theU.S. Census Bureau, which conducts a nationwide census at the beginning of every decade. Data areavailable for different geographic units: county, city or town, census tract, and census block group.There are 15 census tracts in McCracken County, Kentucky [1]. The census tract containing PGDPconsists of five census block groups. We analyzed the data for these different areas and looked fortrends. Demographic information was also gathered during site visits and interviews withcommunity members and local officials. These site visits and interviews were especially useful inthat they gave us information on population trends within small geographic areas between Censusdates (e.g., 1990 through 1997).

Knowing the number of children and elderly people in a community is particularly important,because these people tend to be more sensitive to environmental exposures than the generalpopulation. Similarly, knowing the average length of residence is important, since people who havelived in the area longer may be at greater risk of exposures over longer periods of time.Occupational information lets us know if people spend most of their time working at home.Educational attainment, poverty status, and household income indicate the socioeconomic status ofthe population. This gives us clues about access to health care, and subsistence fishing, hunting, orfarming. Subsistence fishers, hunters, and farmers get the majority of their food supply from theseactivities and may be at greater risk for exposure to environmental contaminants.

This area of Kentucky is predominantly rural. However, information obtained from the CensusBureau and McCracken County Seat suggests that McCracken County's population is growing. Theaddition of new housing subdivisions west of Paducah City toward Ballard County characterizes thebulk of the growth. There is also an ongoing initiative to bring new industries into the area. Thesechanges will undoubtedly affect the make-up of the population near the site. The following is adescription of demographic trends in the communities closest to PGDP.

County Demographic Data

PGDP is located in northwestern McCracken County, Kentucky, near the border of Ballard Countyand across the Ohio River from Massac County, Illinois. The census data presented here cover allthree counties. The analysis covers the years 1980, 1990, and 1996.

Population Data (Table A-1 [1,2])

McCracken County has the largest population of the three counties, at over 60,000, mostly due to the city of Paducah. McCracken was the only county to gain population from 1980 to 1990. Thepopulation estimates for 1996 show a population increase of 3.3% from 1990 [3]. None of thecounties are densely populated; Ballard and Massac have well under 100 persons per square mile.

All three counties have populations that are around 90% or more white. There was very little changein the racial or ethnic structure of the area from 1980 to 1990. The percentages of the populationunder age 10 and age 65 or older are also similar for all three counties. There were more elderlypeople than children in the three counties, which is unusual (the 1990 national percentages are14.7% under age 10 and 12.6% age 65 and older [4]) but not necessarily uncommon for a ruralarea--many younger people leave for larger cities in search of better economic opportunities.

Housing and Socioeconomic Data (Tables A-2 and A-3 [1,2,5,6,7])

In 1990, 20% to 25% of the residents in these three counties had lived in their current housing unitsfor over 20 years. In Ballard County, Kentucky, and Massac County, Illinois, 37.2% of the residentshad moved into their current housing units within the past 5 years; in McCracken County,Kentucky, that percentage jumps to 46.7. (See Table A-2.)

As is typical of areas with low percentages of children, there are relatively few persons perhousehold in the three counties. (The national average is 2.63 [4], while the average for each ofthese counties is under 2.45). The vast majority of households in all three counties are owner-occupied, although there were slight increases in the percentages of renter-occupied households from 1980 to 1990. Again, this trend is typical of rural areas with static or declining populations. (See Table A-3.)

The percentage of the population age 25 and older with at least a high school education increased by10% to 12% for the three counties from 1980 to 1990. That increase is consistent with a nationaltrend toward higher educational levels as the technical skills needed for most jobs continue tobecome more complex. Median household income increased only modestly from 1980 to 1990, and17% to 21% of the population lived below poverty level in 1990. Between roughly half and overseven-tenths of employed persons in the three counties worked in "white-collar" occupations in 1990(managerial, professional, and administrative positions, as well as positions in the retail and servicesectors). (See Table A-3.)

Most housing units in Massac and McCracken received municipal or private water. However, abouthalf of all housing units in Ballard had water from other sources, mostly drilled wells. (See Table A-3.)

City or Town Demographic Data

The following is a description of the three major cities or towns near PGDP. Paducah (east ofPGDP) is the largest city in the area. The city of Metropolis and the town of Joppa are across theOhio River in Illinois.

Population Data (Table A-4 [1,2])

Paducah, Metropolis, and Joppa lost between 6% and 8% of their populations from 1980 to 1990.The vast majority of the residents in these towns are white, although in 1990 Paducah and Joppa hadpopulations that were 20.9% and 14.2% black, respectively. There was little evidence of change inthe racial and ethnic structure of these three towns during this 10-year period. In 1990 Paducah andMetropolis had many more persons age 65 and older than persons under age 10. In Joppa thepercentages were much closer, but the data suggest that all three towns will continue to "grow older"in the future.

Housing and Socioeconomic Data (Tables A-5 and A-6 [1,2,5,6,7])

In all three towns, between 20% and 30% of householders have lived in their current homes formore than 20 years. Nearly half of Paducah's householders moved into their homes between 1985and 1990, while less than 40% of the households in Joppa and Metropolis fell into that category.That trend is likely due to a larger percent of renter-occupied households in Paducah (renters tend tomove more frequently than do homeowners). (See Table A-5.)

As expected in places with larger elderly populations, there are relatively few persons per household,especially in Metropolis and Paducah. While over 70% of Metropolis households were owner-occupied in 1990, Paducah and Joppa were both under 60%. Joppa declined from 74.5% in 1980 to59.2% in 1990. (See Table A-6.)

As expected, the percentages of persons with at least a high school education increased substantiallyfrom 1980 to 1990. Median household income for Joppa declined in that decade, whichdramatically increased the number of persons below poverty level. Poverty also increased somewhatin Paducah and Metropolis. (See Table A-6.)

Nearly all housing units in all three towns are served by public or private-company water sources.

Census Tracts Surrounding Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

The following is a description of the census tracts that surround PGDP, an area of 5 to 10 miles ofthe site consisting of portions of Ballard, Massac, and McCracken counties.

Population Data (Table A-7 [1,2,8])

The area around the site gained just over 6% in total population between 1980 and 1990. No dataare available for 1996 at this level, except for the area in McCracken County. From 1990 to 1996,population increased 3% in the area of McCracken County excluding the city of Paducah. Most ofthis increase occurred in the area near the Plant [3]. A possible reason for the growth is themovement of people from the city of Paducah to outlying areas that fall within those tracts. Therewas little change in the racial make-up of the area--95% of the population is white. As with thecounties and cities in the area, there were more elderly residents than children under age 10; the gap between the two widened from 1980 to 1990.

Housing and Socioeconomic Data (Tables A-8 and A-9 [1,2,5,6,7])

In 1990, over 15% of the householders in the surrounding tracts had lived in their current housingunits for more than 30 years. Just under 40% had lived in their housing units for 5 years or less.Between 1988 and 1990 there was approximately a tenfold increase in the number of electricalpermits granted for single and mobile homes in McCracken County (excluding the city of Paducah)[9]. Most of the growth is occurring between Paducah and the Ballard County line; this is consistentwith the idea that a number of persons may have moved from Paducah to outlying areas. Therefore,there are substantial numbers of both long-term residents and relative newcomers to the area. (SeeTable A-8.)

The number of persons per household dropped by over 7% during the 10-year period. Three-quarters of all households were owner-occupied, although there was a slight decline in thatpercentage from 1980 to 1990. There was a modest increase in the value of owner-occupied housingunits during that period. (See Table A-9.)

Socioeconomic data were only available for 1990. In 1990, just over 70% of persons age 25 andolder had at least a high school education. About 15% of households were below poverty level. One-third of employed persons were in blue-collar occupations. (See Table A-9.)

About one-quarter of housing units got their water from drilled or dug wells or another source otherthan from a public source or private company. The Department of Energy has offered to providemunicipal water to residents of western McCracken County--in an area described in DOE's WaterPolicy [10]--who previously used private wells. (See Table A-9.)

Site Area

The following is a description of the immediate area containing the site: census tract 0315, block group 2, in McCracken County west of the city of Paducah.

Population Data (Table A-7 [1,2,8])

The site area experienced very moderate population loss from 1980 to 1990. The block group wasover 90% white in both censuses and changed little in racial make-up. There were slightly moreelderly persons than children under age 10 in 1990, as the percentage of children declined and thepercentage of elderly people increased slightly during that time.

Housing and Socioeconomic Data (Tables A-8 and A-9 [1,2,5,6,7])

In 1990, nearly 19% of householders had lived in their current homes for over 30 years, nearly one-quarter had lived in their current homes for over 20 years, and over one-half had lived in theircurrent homes for 5 years or less. Those numbers, together with the high percentage of owner-occupied housing units, suggests a relatively stable, non-transient population in the area; however,the population is now increasing significantly. (See Table A-8.)

Average persons per household declined substantially from 1980 to 1990, from over 2.8 to under2.6. Nearly 90% of all households were owner-occupied in both decades, which is typical of manyrural areas. Nearly one-quarter of all households were mobile homes in 1990; there was a 5%increase in mobile homes from 1980 to 1990. Median value of owner-occupied homes and medianrent were both relatively low for both decades. However, there is evidence that the composition ofthe area may be rapidly changing. In an article in the Paducah Sun, McCracken County EngineerVan Newberry cites an increase in the development of new subdivisions in the area [11]. Accordingto Mr. Newberry, much of the growth is occurring in western McCracken County from Concord toKevil. There were 21 new subdivisions being developed in this area, between Cairo Road-WoodvilleRoad and U.S. 62, in 1995. The prices of homes range from $120,000 to $150,000. The values ofthe residential lots have increased dramatically also. Virtually all of these new homes are beingprovided with public water. (See Table A-9.)

Socioeconomic data for the site area were only available for 1990. Over 71% of persons age 25 andolder had at least a high school education. Under 13% lived below poverty level, which is relativelylow for the area. Over three-quarters of housing units in the area had water from a public water source or private company. (See Table A-9.)

Site Information Map
Figure A-1. Site Information Map

Table A-1.

County population data table
  McCracken County, Ky Ballard County, Ky Massac County, Il
  1980 1990 Change (%) 1980 1990 Change (%) 1980 1990 Change (%)

Total persons

Total area (in square miles)

Persons per square mile

61,310

251.14

244

62,879

251.14

250

2.6

 

2.5

8,798

251.2

35

7,902

251.2

31

-11.3

 

-11.4

14,990

239.05

63

14,752

239.05

62

-1.6

 

-1.6

% white

% black

% other races

89.5

9.9

0.5

89.4

10.1

0.6

-0.1

0.2

0.1

96.2

3.5

0.3

96.7

3.0

0.4

0.5

-0.5

0.1

93.5

6.1

0.3

93.6

5.9

0.6

0.1

-0.2

0.3

% under age 10

% age 65 and over

14.4

14.3

13.1

16.2

-1.3

1.9

14.0

17.3

11.7

18.1

-2.3

0.8

13.9

16.9

12.6

19.3

-1.3

2.4

Sources: [1,2]


Table A-2.

Length of residence in current household, 1990: Ballard, McCracken, and Massac Counties
  Ballard Massac McCracken
Total households 3,191 5,908 25,625

Percent householders moving into current housing unit by time period

1989-1990

1985-1988

1980-1984

1970-1979

1960-1969

Before 1960



14.1

23.1

12.8

24.2

11.1

14.7


13.2

24.0

14.3

20.9

12.0

15.6


19.0

27.7

12.8

20.0

9.2

11.3
Source: [5]


Table A-3.

County housing and socioeconomic data
  McCracken County, KY Ballard County, KY Massac County, IL
1980 1990
(% change)
1980 1990
(% change)
1980 1990
(% change)
       
Total households* 23,459 25,625 (9.2) 3,267 3,191 (-2.3) 5,731 5,908 (3.1)
Persons/household 2.58 2.41 (-6.6) 2.66 2.44 (-8.3) 2.57 2.44 (-5.1)
% households owner-occupied 71.1 68.2 (-2.9) 85.0 82.3 (-2.7) 79.7 77.6 (-2.1)
       
Persons 25 and older 38,187 42,531 (11.4) 5,521 5,328 (-3.5) 9,449 10,068 (6.6)
% with at least a high school diploma 62.9 73.1 (10.2) 53.4 64.2 (10.8) 53.1 65.3 (12.2)
Median income, $ 15,172 22,606 (49.0) 12,492 19,371 (55.1) 13,144 19,632 (49.4)
% below poverty level NA 17.2 NA 21.0 NA 18.2
       
Employed persons 16 and older NA 27,571 NA 3,222 NA 5,757
% in blue-collar jobs NA 29.0 NA 45.1 NA 36.0
% in white-collar jobs NA 71.0 NA 54.9 NA 64.0
       
Housing units 28,312 27,581 (-2.6) 3,528 3,553 (0.7) 6,188 6,446 (4.2)
% with water supplied from a public source or private company 89.9 91.9 (2.0) 51.9 51.1 (-0.8) 80.3 80.4 (0.1)
% with water supplied from a drilled or dug well or other source 10.1 8.1 (-2.0) 48.1 48.9 (0.8) 19.7 19.6 (-1.0)
       
* A household is an occupied housing unit, but the term does not include group quarters such as military barracks, prisons, and college dormitories.
Sources: [1,2,5,6]


Table A-4.

City or town population data table
  Paducah, KY Metropolis, IL Joppa., IL
1980 1990 Change
(%)
1980 1990 Change
(%)
1980 1990 Change
(%)
Total persons

Total area (in square miles)

Persons per square mile

29,315

17.56

1,669

27,256

17.56

1,552

-7.0

----

-7.0

7,171

4.91

1,460

6,734

4.91

1,371

-6.1

----

-6.1

535

0.49

1,092

492

0.49

1,007

-8.0

----

-7.8

% white

% black

% other races

80.6

18.7

0.6

78.4

20.9

0.7

-2.2

2.2

0.1

92.3

7.3

0.4

91.9

7.4

0.7

-0.4

0.1

0.3

85.0

14.6

0.4

85.4

14.2

0.4

0.4

-0.4

0.0

% under age 10

% age 65 and over

13.3

19.4

13.0

22.2

-0.3

2.8

11.6

22.1

11.7

25.6

0.1

3.5

15.7

13.5

14.8

16.1

-0.9

2.6

Sources: [1,2]


Table A-5.

Length of residence in current household, 1990: cities of Paducah, Metropolis, and Joppa
  Paducah, KY Metropolis, IL Joppa, IL
Total households 11,955 2,889 202
Percent householders moving into current housing unit by time period

1989-1990

1985-1988

1980-1984

1970-1979

1960-1969

Before 1960



20.6

28.3

13.1

16.9

10.0

11.1



14.4

23.5

14.8

19.3

11.1

16.8



21.3

17.3

11.4

20.8

12.4

16.8

Source: [5]


Table A-6.

City or town housing and socioeconomic data
  Paducah, KY Metropolis, IL Joppa, IL
1980 1990 Change (%) 1980 1990 Change (%) 1980 1990 Change (%)
Total households1

Persons/household

% owner-occupied

12,050

2.37

59.2

11,955

2.21

54.4

-0.8

-6.8

-4.8

2,892

2.39

75.9

2,889

2.24

71.9

-0.1

-6.3

-4.0

204

2.62

74.5

201

2.45

59.2

-1.5

-6.5

-15.3

Persons 25 and older

Median income, $

% below poverty

19,003

11,848

18.7

19,007

17,196

24.4

0.0

45.1

5.7

4,799

11,753

15.9

4,776

16,954

17.4

-0.5

44.3

1.5

318

11,667

24.1

309

10,313

43.5

-2.8

-11.6

19.4

Employed persons 16 and older

% blue-collar jobs

% white-collar jobs

NA

NA

NA

10,489

75.2

24.8

-----

-----

-----

NA

NA

NA

2,478

27.2

72.8

-----

-----

-----

NA

NA

NA

129

34.9

65.1

-----

-----

-----

Housing units

% with water supply

% with water fromdrilled or dug well

12,749

99.7

0 .3

13,150

99.8

0.2

3.1

0.1

-0.1

3,085

99.6

0 .4

3,137

99.8

0.2

1.7

0.2

-0.2

229

98.7

1.3

222

100

0.0

-3.1

1.3

-0.3

1 A household is an occupied housing unit, but the term does not include group quarters such as military barracks, prisons, and college dormitories.
Source: [1,2,5,6]


Table A-7.

Census tract population data
  Census Tracts Surrounding PGDP1 McCracken County, Census Tract 315, Block Group 2
1980 1990 Change
(%)
1980 1990 Change
(%)
Total persons

Total area (in square miles)

Persons per squaremile

23,733

366.13

65

25,177

366.13

69

6.1

-----

6.1

1,383

30.12

46

1,366

30.12

45

-1.2

-----

-2.2

% white

% black

% other races

94.9

4.7

0.4

95.0

4.5

0.5

0.1

-0.2

0.1

91.4

8.5

0.2

92.9

6.9

0.2

1.5

-1.6

0.0

% under age 10

% age 65 and older

14.1

15.8

12.5

17.4

-1.6

1.6

16.1

11.5

12.4

13.0

-3.7

1.5

1 Census tracts surrounding PGDP include 9501 in Ballard County; 9701, 9702, and 9704 in Massac County;and 314 and 315 in McCracken County.
Sources: [1,2]


Table A-8.

Census tracts: length of residence in current household, 1990
(percent householders moving into current housing unit by time period)
  Census Tracts Surrounding PGDP McCracken County, Census Tract 315, Block Group 2
Total households 11, 619 519
Years householder moved into current housing unit

1989-1990

1985-1988

1980-1984

1970-1979

1960-1969

Before 1960



14.5

24.9

12.9

22.1

10.4

15.2



8.1

26.5

15.3

26.1

5.3

18.7

Source: [5]


Table A-9.

Census tract housing and socioeconomic data, 1990
  Census Tracts Surrounding PGDP1 McCracken County, Census Tract 315, Block Group 2
Total households2

Persons per household

% households owner-occupied

10,008

2.47

78.7

531

2.57

88.5

Persons age 25 and older

% with at least a high school diploma

Median income, $

% below poverty level

17,105

70.1

22,630

15.2

927

71.4

27,560

12.7

Employed persons age 16 and older

% in blue collar jobs

% in white collar jobs

10,872

36.7

63.3

673

38.6

61.4

Housing units

% with water supplied from a publicsource or private company

% with water supplied from drilled ordug well or other source

10,840

75.6

24.4

580

75.7

24.3

1 Census tracts 9501 in Ballard County; 9701, 9702, and 9704 in Massac County; 314 and 315 in McCracken County.
2 A household is an occupied housing unit, but the term does not include group quarters such as military barracks, prisons, and college dormitories.
Source: [5]

References

  1. Bureau of the Census. Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 1A(Illinois and Kentucky) [machine-readable data files]. Washington: US Department ofCommerce, 1991.

  2. Bureau of the Census. Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 1A(Illinois and Kentucky) [machine-readable data files]. Washington: US Department ofCommerce, 1982.

  3. Bureau of the Census. County and City Data Book 1996. Washington: US Department ofCommerce, 1997.

  4. Bureau of the Census. Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 1C(United States) [machine-readable data files]. Washington: US Department of Commerce,1991.

  5. Bureau of the Census. Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3(Illinois and Kentucky) [machine-readable data files]. Washington: US Department ofCommerce, 1991.

  6. Bureau of the Census. Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3(Illinois and Kentucky) [machine-readable data files]. Washington: US Department ofCommerce, 1991.

  7. Bureau of the Census. Census of Housing, 1980: Characteristics of HousingUnits--Detailed Characteristics of Housing Units, Kentucky, Part 19, Vol. 1, Chapter B.Washington: US Department of Commerce, 1983.

  8. Bureau of the Census. Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Selected Areas--CensusTracts, Kentucky, Vol. 19. Washington: US Department of Commerce, 1983.

  9. Boston University. Trip Report for June 17 Through June 20, 1997.

  10. Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. Action Memorandum for the Water Policy at the PaducahGaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. Kevil (KY): Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc;1994 Jun. Document No. DOE/OR/06-1201&D2.

  11. Walker J. Homes in the Range. The Paducah Sun 1996 Sep 4.

APPENDIX B: DESCRIPTION AND TABULATION OF COMMUNITY HEALTH CONCERNS

ATSDR identified community concerns about the PGDP through written correspondence, telephoneconversations, informal meetings, and public availability sessions. We divided all these concernsinto five general categories, and further into sub-categories. For instance, "Health Concerns" is ageneral category; one of its sub-categories is non-distinct health outcomes. This sub-category ismade up of specific outcomes--for example, headaches, dizziness, and fatigue.

To tabulate the concerns, we counted the number of times each general category was mentioned. Wealso counted mentions of sub-categories, and of specific components of those sub-categories. Sinceseveral people mentioned more than one general, sub-category, and specific component per concern,there may be fewer general concerns than the combined number of specific concerns. For example:non-distinct health outcomes were mentioned eight times, but some people mentioned more than oneof the specific outcomes. Of the eight times that non-distinct outcomes were mentioned, headacheswere mentioned four times, dizziness once, aches twice, pain three times, nausea three times, sinusproblems three times, fatigue twice, and other problems five times.

General Areas of Health Concern

Cancer

Concern over cancer was mentioned the most in our correspondence and conversations withcommunity members. Some of the people were concerned about several particular types of cancer,while others did not identify any specific type. Unspecified cancer was mentioned the most, withbreast cancer second. There were nine concerns about death from cancer.

Non-Cancer

Non-cancer concerns were documented several times. As with cancer, some people mentioned morethan one type of health outcome in this category. Cardiovascular and respiratory problems werecited the most, followed by unspecified conditions. There were two concerns over death from non-cancer health conditions.

Non-Distinct

Non-distinct health concerns were also mentioned. The most common specific complaint was ofheadaches, followed by pain, nausea, and sinus problems. Most of the concerns in this category werenon-specific, for example, "viral-like problems."

Trauma

There was one reference to trauma, which indicated that the person suffered from "burning andblisters." No more detail was given on the nature or specific cause of the problem.

General Areas of Exposure Concern

Media

The overwhelming majority of concerns involved exposure to contaminated drinking water andbreathing contaminated air. Exposure to surface water and soil/sediment was also mentioned.Concern about eating contaminated fish, game, fruits, and vegetables also was listed.

Other Issues

Other categories of concern were hazards from waste materials, waste storage (especially depleteduranium stored on site), transportation of waste, cleanup and treatment of contaminated media,monitoring/sampling off site, and future use of this land.

General Areas of Procedural Concern

Issues

There were concerns about "procedural issues" that may or may not have been directly related tohealth concerns. The most common complaint was the "lack of trust" of the major players involvedat the site (Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy). Theconcerns mentioned an information gap and referred to "politics" as a hindrance to communitymembers. Unreliability of data was mentioned, as well as lack of follow-up regarding a communitymember's specific concern.

Agency

Several agencies were mentioned under "procedural concerns." Lockheed-Martin was mentioned themost, followed by DOE. ATSDR was also mentioned, as (though less often) was EPA. The localhealth department was mentioned once. There were no references to the State agencies.

General Areas of Population-Level Concern

Of the people who were concerned about specific neighborhoods, the overwhelming majoritymentioned Bradford Road, describing it as an area which has a possible cancer cluster. Otherpopulations mentioned included a household, a region larger than the county, the city of Paducah,another neighborhood, and McCracken and Ballard Counties.

General Areas of Subpopulation-Level Concern

Most people who specified a subpopulation were concerned about children. People were concernedabout pregnant/lactating women and women of childbearing age, as well as infants and fetuses. People also expressed concern over pets, farm animals, and wildlife.

Table B-1.

Community concerns
Health Concerns
Cancer
Death = 9 Musculoskeletal = 2 Lymphoreticular = 2 Unspecified = 39
Respiratory = 1 Hepatic = 0 Neurological = 3 Other cancer = 1
Cardiovascular = 0 Renal/urinary = 0 Developmental = 0 Breast = 4
Gastrointestinal = 1 Dermal = 0 Reproductive = 0 Bladder = 0
Hemopoietic = 0 Ocular = 0 Endocrine = 0  

Non-Cancer
Death = 2Musculoskeletal = 0Immunological = 0Physical = 0Genotoxic = 0
Respiratory = 3Hepatic = 0Neurological = 1Low birth wt. = 0Other = 3
Cardiovascular = 4Renal/urinary = 0Learning = 1Reproductive = 0Metabol. disorder = 2
Gastrointestinal = 1Dermal = 0Behavioral = 0Miscarriage = 0Endocrine = 0
Hemopoietic = 0Ocular = 0Developmental = 0Infertility = 0Lymphoreticular = 0

Non-Distinct
Headaches = 4 Aches = 2 Sinus = 3 Body weight = 0
Dizziness = 1 Pain = 3 Eye irritation = 0 Other = 5
Loss of appetite = 0 Nausea = 3 Fatigue = 2  

Trauma
Laceration = 0 Concussion = 0 Chemical burn = 0 Other = 1
Cut = 0 Other blunt trauma = 0 Thermal burn = 0  

Exposure Concerns
Media
Air = 39Surface water = 20Biota = 20
Soil/sediment = 17Groundwater = 39Waste materials= 3

Other Issues
Unspecified other = 12Monitoring/sampling = 5Cleanup/treatment = 4Future land use = 1
Transp. of wastes = 1Waste storage = 4Emergency response = 0Site access = 0

Procedural Concerns
Issues
Lack of trust = 18Unreliable data = 8No response/followup= 6Don't know what they are doing = 1
Don't listen = 7Information gap = 9Politics = 9Others = 10

Agency
DOE = 21 Contractors = 22 State health dept. = 0 Other = 2
ATSDR = 4 EPA= 3 Local health dept. = 1  

Population-Level Concerns
County = 1Neighborhood = 44Household = 8
City = 3Block = 2Regional/beyond county = 8

Subpopulation-Level Concerns
Men = 1 Children = 5 Compromised organ = 0 Alcohol users = 0
Pets/farm animals = 2 Women = 4 Elderly = 0 Altered metabolism = 0
Workers = 5 Women of childbearing age = 2 Cigarette smokers = 0 Other = 0
Cleanup workers = 0 Pregnant/lactating women = 2 Low nutrition = 0 On medication = 0
Wildlife = 3      

Samples of Individual Concerns

This compilation represents the range of concerns we received about PGDP. We made a consciouseffort to remove any personal identifiers.

Health Concerns

Cancer

There is a possible cancer cluster in a residential community approximately two miles east of theplant (Bradford Road area).

I now have cancer, lymphoma. I would like to know if the cause is from this plant? I'm veryconcerned about the high rate of cancer in this area (Metropolis Lake Road). My husband died. Heworked for Union Carbide for several years. In the past three years three other close neighbors diedof cancer also.

Are there other [cancer] hot spots other than the Bradford Road area?

I would like to ask why there is so much cancer in the neighborhood of House Road and RaglandCommunity?

I have lived on Bradford Road all my life. I have developed a lung problem during the last 24months that seemingly was caused by what I had breathed. I DON'T SMOKE!!

I am concerned about cancer and other health problems on Bradford Road:

  • Nine to ten men have lung cancer and other lung disease
  • Four women have tumors in their bodies
  • One woman has a brain tumor resulting in loss of sight in one eye and numerous other health problems

I have lived 43 of my 45 years within five miles of the plant. Also, I have worked at the plant. Iwould be interested in the results of the possible cancer cluster in the Bradford Road area as myson's dad lived there and died of cancer, and my step-father, who moved there years ago, currentlyhas cancer.

I used to live on Bradford Road, but now live in Florida. Since the plant came to Western Kentucky,we have lost 14 people to cancer. Three, who have cancer of the breast, are still living, and severalpeople have lung problems on Bradford Road. I lost my son and husband.

I am concerned with the amount of cancer in this area. During the eight years we lived [elsewhere],we hardly knew of anyone with cancer. Here, in western Kentucky, every family has been plaguedby this disease. I do think more research should be done to see what connection, if any, there is.

Not only has Bradford Road been affected by *many cases of cancer*, you can include OgdenLanding Road, Metropolis Lake Road and Woodville Road which surround the plant.

Last, but not least, I had surgery for cancer. I believe I was directly affected by the waste materialsand releases from PGDP and their lack of concern for many years about this problem.

We do have concerns with all the plants in and around Paducah and Calvert City. We have heardthat our area has an unusually high cancer rate.

A relative retired from Union Carbide with a disability. He died from cancer and asbestosis. One ofhis doctors asked him if he had been around uranium. Check to see how many more people died whoworked at this plant and lived nearby it.

Several of my relatives died of cancer.

Please check out the cancer rate within a ten mile radius of the plant, especially La Center,Kentucky.

At a certain point within less than a mile, we can taste a chemical, and it does affect the throat.Could this be a respiratory or cancer problem?

In Ballard County, Kentucky, there is a very large number of cancer cases, especially amongwomen--breast cancer, brain tumor, etc. A thorough study should be conducted by a privateconcern.

His father died of cancer. It is unclear which cancer ended up killing him but he suffered fromcancer of the bone, lymph, and prostate. It is unknown as to whether one of these sites had primarycancer which metastasized to other areas or if all these cancers originated in the affected organs.

He knew of breast cancer in this area but also indicated that there are some others. There are alsosome people with "respiratory problems."

In Princeton, Kentucky, there were three deaths in the same family. The father died of stomachcancer, the grandfather died of bone cancer; and people have thyroid cancer.

There are a couple of people with brain cancer. They all go to Nashville to be treated at Vanderbilt.Two fellows who worked in maintenance for the plant died of cancer in their 40's.

Non-Cancer

I have been a resident of Bradford Road for several years. I'm now blind in my left eye and haveseizures and never feel good anymore.

My wife has high blood pressure and has mini strokes since 11/94. I developed a heart problem. Ourmedical bills have run into the hundreds of thousands of dollars, so you can't tell me I haven't beenexposed.

What percentage of birth defects and mental retardation occurring within the region may beconsidered related to radiation exposure from contaminated air and water supplies?

This person has lived in the city of Paducah for the past 29 years. The person complained of highblood pressure and sinus problems.

This person has lived near the Plant for the past 49 years (except for two years "in the service").This person knew people with "respiratory problems."

Health Concern: respiratory problems, i.e., bronchitis, allergies, nose and throat burning whenexposed to hair spray, cigarette smoke, and raking leaves.

Health Concerns: diabetes and blood pressure problems but doesn't think it's related to the site.

Health Concerns: respiratory problems; the whole time she worked at the plant she smelled chlorine;strong colognes or hair spray causes her nose and throat to "shut down." When she worked at theplant, she could smell the fluoride releases when they happened. She would get a sore throat, hersinuses would swell, she would get headaches and allergies.

Non-Distinct

My neighbor has also been affected. The symptoms he reported to his doctor were non-specific "virallike" problems which included fatigue and headaches.

He also had various non-distinct health problems including a rash which affected other familymembers.

Workers at the plant are under a lot of stress for the following reasons:
a - they are dismissed more easily for making a honest mistake
b - the training is inadequate

A person complained of high blood pressure and sinus problems. Also, throat burning when exposedto hair spray, cigarette smoke, and raking leaves.

Health Concerns: respiratory problems the whole time she worked at the plant and ever since. Sorethroats, sometimes temperatures, and bronchitis. She would get a sore throat, her sinuses wouldswell, and she would have headaches. (Most of her fellow employees complained of headaches andallergies.)

I have had various non-distinct health problems including a rash which affected other familymembers.

Trauma

I have been bothered by skin burning and blisters for the past five years.

Exposure Concerns

Air

Possible inhalation exposures due to past air releases of radioactive and non-radioactivecontaminants.

With TVA Fly Ash fall out--this will shorten my life by 10 years.

Possible inhalation exposures due to past air releases of radioactive and non-radioactivecontaminants due to lack of "heard warnings."

Why so much smoke from plant, especially when there are low clouds over the area?

Present exposures to air releases of radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants.

The air we breath is absolutely unbelievable. The odors and pollution are really bad.

What do current and past air and water quality monitoring of the region surrounding these sites andthe rivers indicate about radiation levels and pollution from other potentially harmful chemicals?

C310 stack vented uranium, and individual is concerned that emissions are not controlled and maybe released to the environment.

Soil

They are worried about radionuclides in the soil and water. They eat a lot of food from their garden.

The public needs to know numbers/names of heavy metals, chemicals, radioactive substances, cubicyards of contaminated soil, etc. that are in and around the plants.

Surface Water

Possible exposure to contaminated surface water and sediments in ditches and streams.

We are concerned about toxic waste being dumped in the Little Bayou Creek and being put in thelandfill. When we complained about the smell, they said it was chicken manure and in another casethey said the smell was caused by bovine manure.

They have a pond around their house that they use and they drink from a private drinking well.

What do current and past air and water quality monitoring of the region surrounding these sites andthe rivers indicate about radiation levels and pollution from other potentially harmful chemicals?

Now there are lots of concern with the contamination of the rivers. He is concerned about the feederplant in Illinois. He wants to know the extent and the type of container breaks.

Groundwater

Past exposure to and health effects from ingestion of contaminated drinking water (Tc-99, TCE) viaprivate wells.

Is there contaminated ground water west of plant?

I am very concerned about the contaminated drinking water. I am of the belief that groundwater hasbeen monitored closely in the past and strongly hope that it will continue to be.

Why is the well water not checked around here [Kevil] for anything that could be dangerous to ourhealth?

We have a private well that we use "daily," and we fear that we could very well be drinkingcontaminated water.

I wonder how safe our drinking water really is.

We are on well water, which was fine when we had it thoroughly tested thirty years ago by thehealth department. Since all the problems at the plant, I have had it tested numerous times, and theysaid it had a high salt content. How did the salt get there after all these years? The only time ithappened was after they drilled test wells about one mile east of my house. I am sure they areputting something in those wells that made my water salty, as well as smells.

Everything travels in all directions, not just east (referring to the groundwater plume).

What are the potential health effects from drinking contaminated water or breathing air followingradioactive releases from PGDP and documented groundwater contamination?

He and his family were exposed to contaminated drinking water emanating from the site.

They are worried about wells on the other side of Metropolis being contaminated. They want toknow if Metropolis wells were monitored.

They are concerned about the size and location of the plume. They want to know if the plume is tothe river or on the other side of the river.

What steps have been undertaken to protect existing underground aquifers and ground water fromadditional contamination; how are current contamination problems being handled? Is this programadequate?

Biota

Adverse health effects from consumption of contaminated fish and game from the West KentuckyWildlife Management Area.

Adverse health effects from consumption of contaminated deer over past years.

Exposure to contaminated vegetables and fruit.

We have a garden and grow most of our food here next to the plant. I'm concerned whatcontaminants we may be exposed to from our food.

Subsistence fisherman/hunter, concerned about health effects of eating animals he catches. Hecatches and eats crappies, bluegill, some largemouth bass (but not from KOW), and buffalo carp.His wife eats raccoon once or twice/year, and rabbit and he eats squirrel once/year. He use to eat softshell turtles but he can't find them anymore. He eats about 6 to 7 pounds of fish/month. Location offishing: Barkley Lake, another fish and wildlife area nearby, KOW at this site, and sometimes pondto right of main gate.

They are also concerned about plutonium in the deer.

She had been on the site to fish from time to time. She fished for several different kinds of fish atvarious places. Made at least one meal a month from the fish she caught. Locations for fishing: thegame reserve; the lake north of the game reserve; lakes near Martin Marietta; north in BarkleyCounty; and in Noah Lake, when it is not drained to be cleaned. Also, the West Paducah CoonHunters Club and near the TVA plant. Types of fish: Crappie, *Bluegills, Bass, Buffalo, Carp(*most common). Also has cooked turtle once. If the fish is too fatty she will not clean or eat it.

She did not hunt but would eat what was given to her which included: rabbits, ground hog, squirrels,possum, raccoon and turtle. Her concerns:

  • She knew about the signs which posted mercury for bass but did not understand why some fish were posted while others were not.
  • She also knew of people who fished to make ends meet (elderly women on Medicare whose medicine was so expensive she fished to have enough money to eat). If they did not eat the fish they gave it to someone else.

Waste Materials

We are especially concerned about current/future exposure to radioactive and [other] contaminantsthat could be released from the 100s or 1000s of barrels of waste stored on site. Those barrels cannotlast forever. What can safely be done with their contents?

I believe I was directly affected by the waste materials and releases from PGDP and their lack ofconcern for many years about this problem.

Another thing that bothers me is the transportation of hazardous waste to and from the plant, andwhat we would be exposed to in case of an accident.

Other Issues

Are there more serious cumulative impacts that should be investigated and documented that resultfrom multiple exposures to radionuclides and other chemicals to residents in the four-state regionsurrounding PGDP and the industrial plants?

What harm has been caused by recent releases from the PGDP?

The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant has operated here since the 1950's. It and its feeder plant inSouthern Illinois have created some pollution.

They are concerned about Dioxin.

He was familiar with the Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) and the impact of other industry onthe area contributing to environmental problems.

Procedural Concerns (including Agency)

When a release was made, in the past, they used pounds or kilograms. One pound does not soundbad, but when spread in the atmosphere, one pound is a lot. Why not use cubic feet of____________ released?

My only request would be that if any releases are encountered that would affect the nearbycommunity, immediate notice be given via TV & radio.

I am of the belief that groundwater has been monitored closely in the past and strongly hope that itwill continue to be. I believe there is a need for this facility to be monitored closely.

Why is the well water not checked around here [Kevil] for anything that could be dangerous to ourhealth?

We are on a fixed income. The Water District does not need the exorbitant amount proposed by theCommonwealth of Kentucky Public Health Service Commission. Please don't impose unnecessaryexpense on our water district. After all--you should be working to "protect" us "not punish"!

Now they claim they are making headway in correcting these problems. Do I believe that? NO!Please LISTEN. I speak for this whole community. Talk is cheap and that's about all we've hadaround here.

I appreciate you concerns, however our complaints have fallen on deaf ears.

I have complained about my well water being ruined, but nothing is being done. They will not hookme on to city water, even though they have others very near me. If you have any power, please use itto help us out. However, I figure I have wasted my time replying to this letter, as it will just be somemore government propaganda paperwork, as has been with this environmental group at the plantnow. Nothing is ever accomplished.

We are on well water, which was fine when we had it thoroughly tested thirty years ago by thehealth department. Since all the problems at the plant, I have had it tested numerous times and theysaid it was a high salt content. How did the salt get there after all these years? The only time ithappened was after they drilled test wells about 1 mile east of my house. I am sure they are puttingsomething in those wells that made my water salty, as well as smells.

We are concerned about all of the health concerns affiliated with PGDP. We have eaten game fromthe WKWMA for the past 20 years, and we feel we should be kept informed of all exposures towaste material and any and all releases from the PGDP.

Concern: Lack of trust in reports from PGDP.

On cleaning the groundwater, this is one of the biggest rip-offs I've ever seen. Take water, clean it,and put it back in a dirty container? How stupid can people be? The company doing this is justgetting rich at the taxpayer's expense.

We were told our water would be checked in a 6 mile radius 3 to 4 years ago, and we are stillwaiting.

We have no say in what is buried in the landfill they are building--this is not right.

How can citizens gain better access to data on recent releases from the PGDP and more importantly,to appropriate interpretations of these data in terms of both possible short and long-term effects?

To what extent are local health departments participating in the monitoring of air and water qualityfor the region surrounding these sites and the rivers? If they are not, how can citizens pressure themto become more involved with this issue?

He believes that the DOE is insensitive to the concerns of citizens affected by the site, specificallypeople exposed to contaminated water and workers exposed on site. He also believes that theirenvironmental data are unreliable, especially concerning past releases into the atmosphere.

He thinks the DOE and Lockheed Martin are insensitive to the concerns of citizens who are affectedby the contamination. He also thinks that DOE is covering up other environmental problems thatmay be ongoing.

Some complaints about Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems:

  • take their public relations with a grain of salt
  • they are wasting a lot of taxpayers money to clean up the contaminated groundwater at thesite. The "pump and treat" systems will adversely affect the Wildlife Management Area.They should focus on the source and stop the leaching, then worry about cleaning up thegroundwater.

They were concerned about the plant increasing capacity since it was privatizing and were worriedabout how the new owners would be regulated.

He is concerned with the change in ownership (of the plant).

Noticed that there is more train traffic in/out of Plant recently. Sirens are not loud enough for wheninside house with TV playing.

Wants owner of plant to be responsive to citizens, get large volumes of a report to citizens when it isavailable in the library. Make reports available on computer diskettes for citizens, libraries, andschools that have PC computers.

There is confusion among citizens on the relationships between DOE, Lockheed-Martin EnergySystems, NRC, KY Federal Facilities Oversight Unit, KY Department of Health Services, ATSDR,USEPA, etc.

With the Avlis technology imminent, the present level of each contaminant needs to be known. Thena plan needs to be formulated as to how these pollutants can be cleaned up and who will clean themup.

The public needs to know numbers/names of heavy metals, chemicals, radioactive substances, cubicyards of contaminated soil, etc. that are in and around the plants. Murray State University and/orSouthern Illinois University could assist in the testing. Until it is known just exactly what we aredealing with and who created the problems, we are just jousting with windmills.

Numbers and cleanup plans are needed. Will all the pollution problems be left to our localeconomy? Or will the governing agency who created the problems be held responsible for theirwaste management?

They were familiar with the Calvert City study and thought the results were swept under the rugabout the elevated levels of acetone. They would like to see more cooperation with the Illinois sideof the community.

Need to build trust with the community--vision of non-trusted government agency. No longersubject to FOIA, ending comment period of NEPA regulations which exclude small waste sites andtransportation.

For years there was no enforcement of workers regarding wearing personal protective equipment(PPE). Since 1991, PPE has been required for the same job. The following concerns fall out of this:

  • why is this a hazard all of a sudden when the exact same work before required nothing?
  • what is the hazard of wearing a respirator day in and day out? These range from negative pressure respirators to SCBA (depending on the work being done)?
  • what are the dangers of wearing SCBA in the autoclave area--the temperature is very hot and symptoms are claustrophobia and sore throat?
  • do respirator cause facial disfiguration?

How much waste is stored; what happens if a container breaks?

Population-Level Concerns

Possible cancer cluster in residential community ~ 2 miles east of plant (Bradford Road area).

I'm very concerned about the high rate of cancer in this area (Metropolis Lake Road).

The cancer cluster on Bradford Road is of concern to us as well.

Possible problems of residents nearer the plant.

I would like to ask why there is so much cancer in the neighborhood of House Road and RaglandCommunity?

Why is the well water not checked around here [Kevil] for anything that could be dangerous to ourhealth?

I and my immediate household, probably have less concern for potential health problems thanothers. Nevertheless, I would be interested in the results of the possible cancer cluster on BradfordRoad.

Not only has Bradford Road been affected by *many cases of cancer*, you can include OgdenLanding Road, Metropolis Lake Road and Woodville Road which surround the plant.

We do have concerns with all the plants in and around Paducah and Calvert City. We have heardthat our area has an unusually high cancer rate.

Several other neighbors and relatives, young and old . . . someone nearly every week (gets cancer).

Please check out cancer rate within a ten mile radius of the plant, especially La Center, KY.

In Ballard County, KY there is a very large number of cancer cases, especially amongwomen--breast, brain tumor, etc.

How were residents downstream of PGDP affected?

How were the residents downstream from Calvert City been affected?

Other people in his neighborhood have also been affected.

Subpopulation-Level Concerns

Children

I am very concerned about past, present, and future exposures and health outcomes (cancer and non-cancer) for my neighbors, children, and grandchildren.

What are the potential health effects on children whose parents have worked at PGDP or who havebeen exposed to contaminated air and water supplies?

What percentage of birth defects and mental retardation occurring within the region may beconsidered related to radiation exposure from contaminated air and water supplies?

Workers

What health impacts may have been initiated by PGDP operations during the period 1944 to thepresent? How were workers affected? How were workers' families affected?

Is the drinking water used in the plant treated for chemical contaminants (since it comes from theOhio River)? Why do management people use bottled water? Can ATSDR have someone checkwater used for drinking on-site?

Workers are under a lot of stress for the following reasons:

  • they are dismissed more easily for making a honest mistake
  • the training is inadequate

Wildlife

I am concerned about the wildlife (especially in the game reserve). I think you should keep a closerwatch on that aspect--concern about wildlife.

To what extent are animals (including fish, game, and cattle) affected by radionuclide levels in thewater and in regional plants?

Why was deer found with plutonium in the muscle?

He noticed there are no grasshoppers, frogs, or snakes on the farm. Also, there are few birds andinsects. The reduction in these animal and insect populations happened about 3 or 4 years ago.

He never observes live or dead fish in the creek. In 1993 or 1994, over 20 deer were found deadnear Spring Bayou Church. The plant was told of the dead deer and did investigate.

Pets/Farm Animals

Cattle look older than they should. In 1994, a calf was born dead with a deformed jaw. CoffeeAnimal Clinic in LaCenter, Kentucky examined the calf; then the Plant took the calf. Presently has40 head of cattle including calves. In 60 years, there was only the one deformity.


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