PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
AIR FORCE PLANT PJKS
WATERTON, JEFFERSON COUNTY, COLORADO
ATSDR has drawn the following conclusions from current environmental data and information on the AFP PJKS site:
- Employees of AFP PJKS and LMA have not been exposed to contaminated groundwater. Although solvents, fuel components, and metals contaminate the groundwater beneath portions of the AFP PJKS site, no exposures resulting in public health hazards have occurred or are expected to occur because the groundwater beneath the plants have never been used as a drinking water supply.
- No past or present public health hazards exist from using private well water for drinking or for other domestic uses. Either the wells have been tested and do not contain contamination or they are located in areas unaffected by site-related contaminants. Remedial measures and continued monitoring should reduce groundwater contaminant levels and further reduce any potential effects on private wells.
- No past public health hazard is associated with using Denver municipal water originating at the Kassler Water Treatment Plant. In the 1980s, TCE, 1,1,1-TCA, and hexavalent chromium were detected at levels below the MCLs in groundwater drawn from the treatment plant. These already low levels were greatly diluted before reaching Denver area residences because the water was blended with other water at the treatment plant and in the distribution system. If we conservatively assume that similar levels and conditions were present prior to 1983 (roughly between 1957 [when AFP PJKS opened] and 1983) no public health hazards are likely to have occurred in the past. The galleries were closed in 1984 and the treatment plant was closed in 1985 and decommissioned in 1993, thus no present or potential future public health hazards exist.
- The South Platte River does not contain TCE or other VOCs at levels known to cause adverse health effects and therefore it is safe for recreational use. Because the Chatfield Reservoir receives most of its water from the South Platte River, it is also has been and continues to be safe for recreational use.
- On the basis of information available on contamination of groundwater and surface water and possible exposures at the site, ATSDR concludes that the AFP PJKS site should be assigned to the No Apparent Public Health Hazard category.
The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for AFP PJKS contains a description of actions taken and those to be taken by ATSDR, the Air Force, EPA, and CDPHE at and in the vicinity of the site after the completion of this public health assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but also provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. The public health actions that are completed, being implemented, or planned are as follows:
- The Air Force has completed early response actions at 13 of the 18 sites designated as requiring no further action. These actions included removal of deluge water USTs, degreasing wastewater USTs, and heating oil USTs (Earth Tech, 1996).
- The Air Force continues to evaluate IRP sites to define the extent of contamination and recommend appropriate remedial actions.
- Upon approval of the supplemental RI/FS, the Air Force will develop a groundwater treatment system to treat contaminated areas and prevent further migration to the Lockheed Martin Astronautics property.
- AFP PJKS will continue using water supplied by DW, along with providing bottled water to its employees.
- Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination will be implemented at monitoring wells off site. This system will ensure that the migration of TCE plumes will be carefully tracked and that corrective measures will be taken, if necessary, to ensure the safety of the area's drinking water supplies.
- The DW will continue to monitor and treat water, ensuring that Denver residents have a clean drinking water supply.
- ATSDR will review new information on exposure pathways that may be identified during RI/FS and related site investigation activities. Of special significance to ATSDR will be any information that might indicate the potential for offsite pathways of human exposure to contaminated surface water or groundwater.
- The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA; also known as Superfund), as amended, requires ATSDR to conduct needed follow-up health actions in communities living near hazardous waste sites. To identify appropriate actions, ATSDR created the Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP). HARP has evaluated the data and information contained in the Air Force Plant PJKS Public Health Assessment for appropriate actions. The need to develop one or more information (fact) sheets to help the community better understand the nature of the ATSDR findings and other aspects of the public health evaluation of the site was identified. A fact sheet summarizing the findings of this assessment is being prepared by the ATSDR Division of Health Education and Promotion and the Division of Health Assessment and Consultation.
W. Mark Weber, Ph.D.
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Gary Campbell, Ph.D.
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Assistance in the preparation of this report was provided by:
Jessica Graham, M.S.
Senior Public Health Scientist
Eastern Research Group
Aeronautical Systems Center-Acquisition Environmental Directorate (ASC/EMR). 1997. Community Relations Plan (Update). AFP Plant PJKS. October 1997.
Air Force Plant PJKS (AFP PJKS). 1996. AFP PJKS Restoration Advisory Board Meeting Minutes. October 8 and 9, 1996.
AFP PJKS. 1997. AFP PJKS Restoration Advisory Board Meeting Minutes. March 4, 1997.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1989. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Trip report for Martin Marietta Astronautics Group, Jefferson County, Colorado. August 24, 1989.
ATSDR. 1991. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Site scoping report for Air Force Plant PJKS, Waterton, Colorado. June 1991.
ATSDR. 1995a. Toxicological Profile for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (Draft). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. August 1995.
ATSDR. 1995b. Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene (Draft). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. August 1995.
ATSDR. 1997a. Record of activity for telephone communication with AFP PJKS representative at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. December 2, 1997.
ATSDR. 1997b. Toxicological Profile for Hydrazines. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. September 1997.
Bondarewicz. 1996. Statement given by the Ed Bondarewicz, former Senior Test Facility Engineer at AFP PJKS, to Parsons Engineering regarding the operation of the T-8A Pond from 1959 to 1969. October 10, 1996.
Chatfield State Park. 1998. Chatfield State Park information line. January 1998.
Clement Associates. 1990. Public Health Evaluation and Ecological Assessment, Martin Marietta Astronautics Group Waterton Facility, Revised.
Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE). 1984. Memorandum to members of Friendly Hills/Harriman Park Citizens Advisory Committee from Stanley W. Ferguson. December 15, 1984.
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CDPHE. 1992. Draft public health assessment for Martin Marietta Astronautics Group, Waterton, Colorado. February 1992.
Chem-Nuclear Geotech, Inc. 1992. Draft community relations plan for Air Force Plant PJKS, Waterton, Colorado. Prepared for headquarters Department of the Air Force, Aeronautical Systems Division, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. June 1992.
Denver Water. 1982. Personal communication between T. Robinette and C.R. Beer. RE: Chromium discharge into Brush Creek. February 15, 1982.
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Southwest Metro, and Platte Canyon Water Districts. May 30, 1990.
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Denver Water. 1998. Personal communication between Ken Lykens, Environmental Compliance Officer, Denver water and ATSDR. March 16
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Denver Water. 1999b. Personal communication from Ken Lykens. RE: Detections of hexavalent chromium at the Kassler plant during the February 1982 spill. May 25, 1999.
Earth Tech. 1996. Environmental baseline survey for Air Force Plant, Waterton, Colorado. September 1996.
Engineering Science. 1988. Installation Restoration Programs, Phases II and IVA (stage 2). Draft supplemental report. Volume I and II. Air Force Plant PJKS, Waterton, Colorado. November 1988.
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Engineering Science. 1990. Installation restoration programs, Phases II and IVA (stage 2). Draft Final Remedial Investigation. Responses to USEPA comments on Draft Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. Air Force Plant PJKS, Waterton, Colorado.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1987. Deer Creek Mesa private well sampling data from 1986-1987.
EPA. 1989. Risk assessment guidance for Superfund. human health evaluation manual. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
Ferrara, R. 1988. Summary report of an investigation of flow paths in the Denver water distribution system. December 1988.
Ferrara, R. 1989. Letter to Daniel Dunn, Holme Roberts & Owen, from Raymond Ferrara, Omni Environmental Corporation, concerning the revisions to the Summary Report. July, 28, 1989.
Ferrara, R. 1990. Letter to Daniel Dunn, Holme Roberts & Owen, from Ralph Ferrara, Omni Environmental Corporation, concerning the revisions to the Summary Report. May 29, 1990.
Geraghty & Miller, Inc. 1988. Letter from Brian C. Martinek and Erhardt Werth, Geraghty & Miller, Inc. to W.R. Hass, Martin Marietta Astronautics Group. RE: Response to USEPA comment 4 of attachment 2 on the revised Phase I report. January 15, 1988.
Geraghty & Miller, Inc. 1990. Remedial Investigation Report. Martin Marietta Astronautics Group, Waterton, Colorado.
Geraghty & Miller, Inc. 1998. South Platte River surface water sampling data from 1991-1992 Geraghty & Miller ARCADIS database. Lockheed Martin, Waterton, Colorado. March 18, 1998.
Lockheed Martin Astronautics. 1999. Letter from W.W. Bath, Environmental Management, Lockheed Martin Astronautics to ATSDR. RE: Surface water and groundwater flow conditions surrounding the infiltration gallery. March 16, 1999.
Parsons Engineering. 1996. Low resolution SIM mode GS/MS analyses requiring high-resolution GC/MS techniques for qualitative compound identification. February 1996.
Parsons Engineering. 1998. Personal communication between Tom Larson, Parsons Engineering, and ATSDR. August 1998.
Parson Engineering. 1999. Preliminary Draft Installation Restoration Program. Supplemental Remedial Investigation Report for Air Force Plant PJKS, Colorado. Volume VII. January 1999.
Piantadosi, S. 1990. Statistical report to Denver Water Board concerning childhood cancer incidence and neonatal death in the Denver area 1979 - 1987. 1990.
U.S. Air Force. 1996. Air Force Plant PJKS. Data sheets concerning groundwater contamination at AFP PJKS property, 1992 to 1995.
U.S. Air Force. 1997. Information sheet regarding the environmental investigations at AFP PJKS.
U.S. Air Force. 1998. Letter from Charles H. Weir, U.S. Air Force Medical Operations Agency, to W. M. Weber, ATSDR. March 6, 1998.
U.S. Air Force. 1999. Supplemental remedial investigation report for Air Force Plant PJKS, Colorado.
Work, Stephen W. 1990. Affidavit of Steven W. Work filed by Denver Water Board, U.S. Dist. Court, Dist. of Colorado: Civil Action No. 87-2-42, James Earl Renaud, et al. vs. Martin Marietta Corp., et al.., May 31, 1990.