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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

ALABAMA ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT
TALLADEGA COUNTY, ALABAMA

TABLES

Table 1.

ALAAP Study Areas (corresponding to locations on Figures 3 and 4)
Parcel Study
Area No.
Description
A 11 Magazine Area
12 Old Burning Ground
13 Small Arms Ballistics Range
14 Cannon Range
15 Old Well
17 Propellant Shipping Area (Eastern Portion)
29 Rubble Pile
30 New Trench
31 Disposal Area
32 No. 2 Rubble Area
33 Henningburg Area
34 229 Area
B 2 Smokeless Powder Facility
3 Sanitary Landfill and Lead Facility
4 Manhattan Project
5 Red Water Storage Basin
6 Southern TNT Manufacturing Area
7 Northern TNT Manufacturing Area
8 Acid/Organic Manufacturing Area
9 Aniline Sludge Basin
10 Tetryl Manufacturing Area
16 Flashing Ground
17 Propellant Shipping Area (Western Portion)
18 Blending Tower Area
19 Lead Remelt Facility
20 Rifle Powder Finishing Area
21 Red Water Ditch
22 Demolition Landfill
25 Storage Battery/Demolition Debris
26 Crossover Ditch
27 Beaver Pond Drainage System

Table 2.

Status of Investigation at ALAAP Study Areas
Study
Area No.
Site Name

Site Description

Media/
Contaminant

Status of Investigations

AREA A
11 Magazine Area Contained a series of buildings (igloos) for storage of explosives. Timbering activity. Soil-Low level contamination. Partially remediated in 1988.
No further remedial action required.
12 Old Burning Ground Served as burn area for failed batches of munitions compounds and contained a lead remelt area. Soil-Low SVOCs and metal contamination. This area was remediated in 1988 and 1994.
13 Small Arms Ballistics Range Training range for small arms ballistics. Area used for controlled burning. Soil-Metals and PAHs. Metal-contaminated soil was removed in 1987. The FS proposes excavation and off-site disposal of PAH-contaminated soil.
14 Cannon Range Test cannon firing area. Area is restricted by a fence. Soil-Lead. The FS proposes excavation and off-site disposal of lead- contaminated soil.
15 Old Well An abandoned debris-filled well. Groundwater-VOCs, SVOCs, nitroaromatic compounds, and metals.
Soil-No sampling conducted.
Wells and contaminated soil were removed in 1987/1988. No further remedial action required.
17 Propellant Shipping Area (Eastern Portion) Area consisted of buildings used for storage and shipping of propellants. Soil-Low concentrations of nitroaromatic compounds and metals. All buildings have been removed. No further remedial action required.
29 Rubble Pile Area contained debris from an acid sump. Soil-Lead and nitroaromatic compounds
Groundwater - Nitroaromatic compounds.
Lead- and nitroaromatic- contaminated soil was removed in 1987/1988. No further remedial action required.
30 New Trench A debris pile. Soil-Low concentrations of metals and nitroaromatic compounds. Soil was removed in 1987 and 1994. No further remedial action required.
31 Disposal Area A small disposal area. Soil-Low concentrations of metals. Soil was removed in 1987. No further remedial action required.
32 No. 2 Rubble Area Disposal area for general wastes and equipment. Soil-Nitroaromatic compounds and metals This area was remediated during 1987/1988. No further remedial action required.
33 Henningburg Area A small disposal area. Soil-SVOCs. This area was remediated during 1987/1988. No further remedial action required.
34 229 Area A small disposal area. Soil-Metals and SVOCs. This area was remediated during 1987/1988. No further remedial action required.
AREA B
2 Smokeless Powder Facility Located on 74 acres in the leaseback area south of Area B. Soil-Nitroaromatic compounds, PCBs.
Groundwater - Nitroaromatic compounds and metals.
Buildings were decontaminated and burned. FS proposes remediation of explosive hot spots.a,b,c
3 Sanitary Landfill and Lead Facility 7.5-acre landfill used between 1940s and 1970s for disposal of soil, domestic waste, and building rubble. Soil - Low-level metal contamination. No further action.d
4 Manhattan Project Facility designed to produce heavy water. Soil - Lead. Facility buildings removed in 1945 and 1946. No further action.d
5 Red Water Storage Basin Intended as a settling basin for TNT manufacturing process wastewaters. No significant contamination. No further action.
6 Southern TNT Manufacturing Area New TNT production area. Soil and Groundwater - Nitroaromatic compounds. Friable asbestos found along production pipelines. TNT-contaminated soil removed to 100 mg/kg.e
No further action.
7 Northern TNT Manufacturing Area Old TNT production area. Soil and Groundwater - Nitroaromatic compounds. Friable asbestos found along production pipelines. TNT-contaminated soil removed to 100 mg/kg. e
No further action.
8 Acid/Organic Manufacturing Area An 104-acre area used to produce nitrobenzene, concentrated nitric acid, oleum, and sodium sulfite to form aniline and N-N-dimethylanimine. Soil - Lead and nitrobenzene. Transite and friable asbestos mixed with soil over 12 acres. No further action. d
9 Aniline Sludge Basin An unlined basin used for storage of liquid waste and sludges from the production of the Acid/Organic Manufacturing Area. Sediment-Arsenic and nitroaromatic compounds. No further remedial action advised. d
10 Tetryl Manufacturing Area Tetryl production area. Soil - Tetryl and lead. Friable asbestos found in area. Contaminated soil removed from western portion to 100 mg/kg. e
No further remedial action required.
16 Flashing Ground Consists of four trenches used for burning of combustible trash and explosives. Soil - Nitroaromatic compounds and lead. No further remedial action advised. b
17 Propellant Shipping Area (Western Portion) Used for shipping of smokeless powder and high explosives. Soil - Nitroaromatic compounds.
Groundwater - Nitroaromatic compounds and metals.
FS proposes remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. All buildings have been removed. a,c
18 Blending Tower Area Blending area for smokeless powder. Soil - Low concentrations of nitroaromatic compounds.
Groundwater-Nitroaromatic compounds and metals.
FS proposes remediation of groundwater. c No further remedial action required for soil.
19 Lead Remelt Facility Used for pouring of lead ingots. Soil - High concentrations of lead. FS proposes remediation of lead mounds. a
20 Rifle Powder Finishing Area Area used for finishing of rifle powder and, perhaps, glazing. Soil - Low concentrations of 2,4-DNT.
Groundwater - Nitroaromatic compounds and metals.
FS proposes remediation of groundwater. c
No further remedial action required for soil.
21 Red Water Ditch Ditch running east to west through Area B. Sediment - Lead, chromium, and nitroaromatic compounds. TNT-contaminated soil removed to 100 mg/kg. e, d
22 Demolition Landfill Landfill used for demolition debris, including lead and friable asbestos. Soil - Lead, PAHs, and, nitroaromatic compounds FS proposes removal of contaminated soil. a, b
25 Storage Battery/
Demolition Debris
Area for dumping old construction debris and lead acid battery casings. No significant contamination. FS proposes removal of batteries and debris from hillside.
26 Crossover Ditch Ditch running from the central portion of Area B toward the Coosa River. Sediment - Low concentrations of metals and nitroaromatic compounds. No further remedial action required. d
27 Beaver Pond Drainage System Two large beaver dams affected the original site drainage and accumulated contaminated surface runoff. No significant contamination in surficial sediment. No further remedial action required. b
Building 6 Coke Oven Area received surface water drainage from the Smokeless Powder Facility. No significant contamination. No further remedial action required.
  Transformer Storage Buildings Buildings used to store transformers. Some have released contents to surrounding soil. Soil - PCBs. FS proposes remediation of PCB-contaminated soil. a
  Downed Utility Poles with Transformers A total of 27 downed utility poles, most within the southern section of the GSA. Some transformers may have released contents to surrounding soil. Soil - PCBs. FS proposes remediation of PCB-contaminated soil. a
  Underground storage tanks (USTs) Two 12,000-gallon USTs contained diesel fuels or gasoline. No significant contamination. USTs were removed in 1993. No further remedial action required.
  Gas Station A gas station may have been located in Area B. No significant contamination. All USTs had been removed. No further remedial action required.
223B Fertilizer and Pesticide Storage Building Buildings used to store fertilizers and pesticides by a private company. No significant contamination. Storage buildings were cleaned out in 1991. No further remedial action required.

Key:

a The FS proposes excavation and multimedia capping of contaminated soil andaccess deed restrictions around capped area.
b The FS indicates that the level of contaminants may pose risks to theenvironment.
c The FS proposes groundwater treatment, including source control, attenuation,and periodic monitoring.
d The FS indicates that the level of contaminants may pose risks to theecological resource.
e Interim Remedial Action as established by the 1994 Interim Record of Decisionconsisted of excavation, transportation, on-site thermal treatment/solidification, andlandfilling.

Table 3.

Potential Exposure Pathways Table
Pathway Name Source of Contamination Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Exposed Population Comment
On-site Soil ALAAP-Area B Soil:
nitroaromatic compounds, lead
On-site soil Dermal contact Hunters and loggers
(estimated 250 to 500 individuals)
Past, Current, and Future:
  • Hunters and loggers used areas that either contained low levels of contamination or were not used for industrial activities.
  • Dermal contact with soil in these areas is not likely to result in adverse health effects.
Drinking Water ALAAP-Area B Groundwater: nitroaromatic compounds, lead Future Area B wells Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact Future Area B users Future:
  • No on-site drinking wells currently draw water from the groundwater beneath Area B.
  • This pathway will not pose a health hazard if Area B groundwater use restrictions apply.
Coosa River ALAAP-Area B Surface water and sediment: nitroaromatic compounds, metals Coosa River near ALAAP Dermal contact Boaters and Anglers
(estimated 250 to 500 people)
Past, Current, and Future:
  • Only low levels of contaminants were detected in the Coosa River sediment; surface water concentrations are probably lower than sediment concentrations.
  • Dermal contact with Coosa River surface water and sediment while boating or fishing is unlikely to result in adverse health effects.
Game ALAAP-Areas A and B Deer and small game: nitroaromatics,
lead
Area A and abutting woodland Ingestion Hunters and their families
(estimated 250 to 1,000) people)
Past, Current, and Future:
  • Deer and small game that graze on the site have not accumulated significant amounts of site-related compounds.
  • Consumption of venison or small game hunted from is unlikely to result in adverse health effects.
Fish ALAAP-Area B Fish: mercury Coosa River Ingestion Anglers and their families
(estimated 250 to 1,000 people)
Past, Current, and Future:
  • Mercury was detected in fish from on-site ditches and drainages. The levels were below the FDA action level for mercury.
  • Although Coosa River fish have not been analyzed for mercury, unfavorable fishing conditions most likely limit fishing and potential health hazard from consumption of fish.

Several exposure pathways have not been included in the table because past, current, orfuture exposure through the pathway is extremely unlikely. Site characterization suggeststhat the media or point of exposure has not been contaminated or that exposure was briefand intermittent. These pathways include groundwater exposure pathways through municipal,private wells, and Area B water supply (past and current exposure); and past trespassers'exposure to on-site soils and surface water pathways.

FIGURES

ala_f1tn.jpg (6095 bytes)FIGURE 1. Area Map

ala_f2tn.jpg (6146 bytes)FIGURE 2. Alabama Army Ammunition PlantSite Map

/HAC/PHA/reports/alabama_01061998al/images/ala_f3tn.jpg (7636 bytes) FIGURE 3. Study Areas within Area A

/HAC/PHA/reports/alabama_01061998al/images/ala_f4tn.jpg (6801 bytes)  FIGURE 4. Study Areas WithinArea B

/HAC/PHA/reports/alabama_01061998al/images/ala_f5tn.jpg (11362 bytes)FIGURE 5. Population Demographics in a1-Mile Buffer Zone Around the ALAAP Site

/HAC/PHA/reports/alabama_01061998al/images/ala_f6tn.jpg (6423 bytes)FIGURE 6. ATSDR's Exposure EvaluationProcess

 

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A. Glossary

Background Level
A typical or average level of a chemical in the environment. Background often refers to naturally occurring or uncontaminated levels.
 
Carcinogen
Any substance that may produce cancer.
 
CERCLA
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, also known as Superfund. This is the legislation that created ATSDR.
 
Comparison Values
Estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adverse health effects, given a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. The comparison values are calculated from the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.
 
Concentration
The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.
 
Contaminant
Any substance or material that enters a system (the environment, human body, food, etc.) where it is not normally found.
 
Dermal
Referring to the skin. Dermal absorption means absorption through the skin.
 
Dose
The amount of substance to which a person is exposed. Dose often takes body weight into account.
 
Environmental Contamination
The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective, environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of life of people living and working near the contamination.
 
Exposure
Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).
 
Hazard
A source of risk that does not necessarily imply potential for occurrence. A hazard produces risk only if an exposure pathway exists, and if exposures create the possibility of adverse consequences.
 
Ingestion
Swallowing (such as eating or drinking). Chemicals can get in or on food, drink, utensils, cigarettes, or hands where they can be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout the body.
 
Inhalation
Breathing. Exposure may occur from inhaling contaminants because they can be deposited in the lungs, taken into the blood, or both.
 
Media
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.
 
National Priorities List (NPL)
The Environmental Protection Agency's listing of sites that have undergone preliminary assessment and site inspection to determine which locations pose immediate threat to persons living or working near the release. These sites are most in need of cleanup.
 
No Apparent Public Health Hazard
Sites where human exposure to contaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, but the exposure is below a level of health hazard.
 
Plume
An area of chemicals in a particular medium, such as air or groundwater, moving away from its source in a long band or column. A plume can be a column of smoke from a chimney or chemicals moving with groundwater.
 
Potentially Exposed
The condition where valid information, usually analytical environmental data, indicates the presence of contaminant(s) of a public health concern in one or more environmental media contacting humans (i.e., air, drinking water, soil, food chain, surface water), and there is evidence that some of those persons have an identified route(s) of exposure (i.e., drinking contaminated water, breathing contaminated air, having contact with contaminated soil, or eating contaminated food).
 
Public Health Assessment
The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environment in order to assess any current or future impact on public health, develop health advisories or other recommendations, and identify studies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects; also, the document resulting from that evaluation.
 
Public Health Hazard
Sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.
 
Risk
In risk assessment, the probability that something will cause injury, combined with the potential severity of that injury.
 
Route of Exposure
The way in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.
 
Superfund
Another name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), which created ATSDR.
 
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Substances containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easily become vapors or gases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paint thinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, and dry-cleaning fluids).

Table of Contents

  
 
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