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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

ANNISTON ARMY DEPOT
ANNISTON, ALABAMA


TABLES


Table 1.

Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards Associated Operable Unit Sites
Site Site Description/Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/ Environmental
Monitoring Results
Status Evaluation of Public
Health Hazard
On-Site Soil OU--Landfill Area (SIA)
SWMU-6 Valve Disposal Pit Approximately 10,000 sodium-filled tank engine valves reportedly buried at the site in 1947 (USATHAMA 1978). The site is a rectangular pit ~ 50 ft x 110 ft. Surface Soil: No metals were detected above CVs or background concentrations. VOCs and SVOCs were not analyzed.

Subsurface Soil:
Arsenic and PAHs were detected above CVs, but below background concentrations. No other metals or VOCs were above CVs.

No further action required. No public health hazard exists from direct contact with subsurface soil because the area is inaccessible. Furthermore, most contaminants were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
SWMU-9 Calcium Hypochlorite Burial Pit Reportedly used in 1974 for disposal of 400 containers of calcium hypochlorite, each ~ 100 lbs. Calcium hypochlorite is an oxidizer posing a fire hazard when concentrated in presence of organic materials, and releases chlorine gas upon acidification. Surface Soil: Metals, including, beryllium, chromium, and lead, and PCBs were detected at levels above CVs. No pesticides were detected above the CVs.

Subsurface Soil: No metals, VOCs, SVOCs, or pesticides were detected above CVs.

The area is to be evaluated for remedial design and removal action (RD/RA). No further action required to meet industrial human health standards. No public health hazard exists because the area is inaccessible to the public.
SWMU-12 Facility 414 Old Lagoons A series of three unlined industrial waste lagoons used from ~ 1960 to 1978 for storage of concentrated liquid chemical wastes and abrasive dust waste generated in the SIA. Liquid waste lagoons emptied by pumping wastes to A-Block lagoon (SWMU-22). Surface Soil: PAHs, PCBs, metals, and VOCs were detected above CVs.

Subsurface Soil: Elevated levels of arsenic, lead, manganese, PAHs, PCBs, pentachlorophenol were detected.

Suspected source of groundwater contamination. Recommended for remediation for organic compounds. To be evaluated in the FS. No public health hazard exists from dermal contact with soil because the area is inaccessible to the public.
SWMU-13 SIA Acid Chemical Waste Pit Reportedly used for disposal of "tank-truck quantities" of unspecified chemical wastes from late 1940s to the late 1950s or 1960s, or from 1957 to 1972. Surface Soil: Metals were detected at levels above the CVs. No PAHs or PCBs exceeded CVs and no pesticides were detected.

Subsurface Soil: Metals and PAHs infrequently exceeded CVs. No VOCs, PCBs, or pesticides were detected above CVs.

Soil Gas: Low levels of TCE and PCE were detected.

ANAD will determine the horizontal extent of contamination. Recommended for evaluation in the feasibility study (FS). No public health hazard exists. The area is inaccessible to the public so direct contact with soil or inhalation of soil gas is unlikely to occur.
SWMU-19 SIA Old Sewage Treatment Plant Used from 1948 to 1982, when it was replaced by the new Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) (SWMU-20). Approximately 435,000 gallons per day of domestic sewage wastes and pre-treated industrial waste water were processed at the unit. Effluent from the plant was discharged to Dry Creek. The system has been replaced with a aerated grit chamber system. Surface Soil: No VOCs, pesticides, or PCBs were detected above CVs.

Subsurface Soil: No VOCs, metals, or PAHs were detected above CVs.

No further action required. No public health hazard exists from direct contact with soil because the area is inaccessible to the public. Furthermore, contaminants were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
SWMU-20 SIA New Sewage Treatment Plant System constructed in 1982 using an activated biofilter design and some converted units from the old STP (SWMU-19). Capacity of the New STP is 520,000 gallons per day, consisting of domestic sewage wastes, pretreated industrial wastewater and sewage. System discharged at Coldwater Creek until December 1987, when effluent was pumped to Choccolocco Creek. Surface Soil: Metals and PAHs were detected above the CVs, but infrequently. No VOCs were detected above CVs.

Subsurface Soil: No VOCs exceeded CVs. No pesticides, PAHS, or PCBs were detected.

No further action required. No public health hazard exists from direct contact with subsurface soil. The area is inaccessible to the public and contaminants were not detected frequently at levels that associated with health hazards.
SWMU-22 A-Block Lagoon Lined surface impoundment ~ 1 acre in size. The lagoon was built in 1978 for the temporary storage of liquid wastes pumped from Facility 414 Old Lagoons (SWMU-12), and various other liquid chemical waste until the upgraded IWTP (SWMU-4) was completed in 1981. The SWMU was closed in 1982. No soil data were available for this area. The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No further action required to meet industrial human health standards. No public health hazards are likely to exist from direct contact with soil because the area is inaccessible to the public.
SWMU-24 Old Sanitary Landfill Landfill operated from 1942 until 1970 when current landfill (SWMU-2) was constructed. Disposal methods consisted of digging trenches ~ 25 ft wide, backfilling each trench with solid waste and soil, and applying daily cover of 1 ft compacted soil over the waste. Wastes type and quantities were not documented, but reportedly consisted of typical municipal wastes such as paper, household items, cardboard, packing materials, garbage, and possibly chemical wastes. The landfill has been covered with clean fill and currently is the site for the military hardware store. Surface Soil: Metals and PAHs were detected above the CVs, but metals were below background concentrations. No VOCs or pesticides exceeded CVs.

Subsurface Soil: Metals, and PAHs were detected above the CVs, but metals were below background concentrations.

Soil Gas: TCE and, much less frequently, PCE detected in this area are attributable to SWMU 12 sources.

The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No further action required to meet industrial human health standards. No public health hazard exists. The area is inaccessible to the public so direct contact with soil or inhalation of soil gas is unlikely to occur.

On-Site Soil OU-- Trench Area (SIA)

SWMU-1 Chemical Sludge Waste Pits (Z-1) A series of 7 trenches ~ 10-15 ft deep, used from 1971 to 1981 for the disposal of various liquid chemical wastes. Area excavated in 1982, and contaminated soil and wastes taken off depot for disposal. Closure approved by ADEM in April 1983. Soil: Metals, but no VOCs or SVOCs, were detected at levels above CVs. The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No further action is required to meet industrial human health standards. No public health hazard exists because the area is inaccessible to the public.
SWMU-2 Sanitary Landfill (Z-2) 20-acre sanitary landfill operated from 1970 until formal closure in October 1993. Disposed waste included cardboard; pallets; packing material; cafeteria garbage; digested sludge from STP sludge-drying beds (SWMU-20); office waste; and containerized asbestos waste. Abrasive dust waste was disposed from 1981 to 1986. Soils were not investigated under CERCLA in this RI because soil corrective actions were managed under RCRA. Groundwater affected by SWMU 2 is investigated in this RI as part of the on-post groundwater operable unit. Surface and Subsurface Soil: No VOCs were detected in the soil. ANAD has proposed long-term monitoring for this area. No public health hazard exists from direct contact with soil. The area is inaccessible to the public and no VOCs were detected in soil.
SWMU-21 Abrasive Dust Landfill 1-acre open area immediately north of SWMU-24 used from 1977 to 1981 for disposing abrasive dust waste from sandblasting operations. Dust consisted of sand, steel shot, glass, walnut, hulls, paint flakes, and metallic chips. Dust was periodically dumped and graded over with natural soils. Open dumping of abrasive dust waste shifted to the Sanitary Landfill (SWMU-2) in 1981. Surface Soil: No pesticides or VOCs were detected above CVs. PAHs and metals were detected only infrequently above CVs.

Subsurface Soil: Metals, but no VOCs, PAHs, or pesticides were detected above CVs.

Soil Gas: PCE and TCE were infrequently detected.

The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No further action is required to meet industrial human health standards. No public health hazard exists because the area is inaccessible to the public.
SWMU-23 Asbestos Waste Disposal Trench Shallow trench located adjacent to SWMU-21 used from 1980 to 1981 for disposal of insulation containing asbestos. Wastes were wrapped in double bags and disposed in accordance with existing environmental regulations. In 1981, the trench was backfilled with area soils, and asbestos waste disposal was moved to a special cell of the Sanitary Landfill (SWMU-2). Soil: See SWMU 21. SWMU 21 and SWMU 23 were grouped into one soil aggregate based on their locations, process history, and hydrogeologic characteristics. The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No further action is required to meet industrial human health standards. No public health hazard exists because the area is inaccessible to the public.

On-Site Soil OU-Northeast Area (SIA)

SWMU- 3/4 Old and New Industrial Wastewater Treatment Old: Operated from 1976 to 1981, when it was replaced by New IWTP (SWMU-4). Received industrial wastewater from various operations in the SIA. Wastes contained cadmium, cyanide, chromium, phenols, acids, bases, alkali, and other organic compounds including grease and oil from steam cleaning operations. Wastes contained in four clay-lined lagoons, two of which were used for chromium wastes. Clay lagoons were replaced with concrete-lined lagoons in 1978.

New: Since 1981, New IWTP has treated all industrial wastes generated in the SIA. Lagoons of Old IWTP were filled in and replaced with variety of filters, clarifiers, sumps, and holding tanks. Wastes treated include cadmium and cyanide wastes; steam cleaning wastes including hydrocarbons, chromium, and phenol; and acids. All plant effluent discharges to the New STP (SWMU-20), which discharges to Choccolocco Creek.

Surface Soil: VOCs, metals, and PAHs were detected below CVs.

Subsurface Soil: Metals and PAHs exceeded CVs. VOCs were detected below the CV.

Soil Gas: With the exception of detections near a leak in the process sewer line, VOCs were detected sporadically and in low concentrations.

The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No further action is required to meet industrial human health standards. No public health hazard exits. The area is inaccessible to the public and contaminants were either not detected or were detected at levels that do not pose health hazards.
SWMU-7 Chemical Waste Burial Pit Variety of chemical wastes (including alkaline corrosion removers; phosphoric acid, and lead-, zinc-, and cadmium-coating compounds) were reportedly dumped into a small pit in this area during a 6-month period in 1960. The pit was backfilled; its exact location and dimensions are unknown. Also reportedly three separate spills of paint stripper (caustic with lead, cadmium, and chelating agents) occurred at this site. Runoff from the spills reportedly reached Dry Creek. Currently, surrounding area is used for outdoor storage of wood and metal parts. Surface Soil: Metals and PAHs were detected above CVs, while VOCs and PCBs were detected below CVs.

Subsurface Soil: Metals and PAHs were detected above CVs, while VOCs, pesticides, and PCBs were detected below CVs.

Soil Gas: TCE and PCE possibly associated with a plume source south of this SWMU were detected.

No further action is required to meet industrial human health standards. No public health hazard exists. The area is inaccessible to the public and contaminants were either not detected ,or were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
SWMU-25 Building 130 Sump 8,000-gal concrete underground sump used from 1943 to 1975 for temporary storage of various chemical wastes from Building 130 operations (mainly paint stripping and degreasing sludges) prior to discharge or disposal. A 1982 inspection found the sump to be full of liquid waste, which was pumped out in April 1983 and transported to the hazardous waste disposal facility. The sump was dug out and removed in April 1983, and the area is currently covered by 20 ft x 20 ft concrete pad. Surface and Subsurface Soil: With the exception of beryllium (a metal) in surface soil, metals, PAHs, PCBs, and VOCs were detected below CVs. The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No further action is required to meet industrial human health standards. No public health hazard exists. The area is inaccessible to the public and most contaminants were detected at levels unlikely to pose human health hazards.
SWMU-28 Waste Wood Landfill 2-acre closed landfill used since 1976 for disposal of various waste wood, including railroad ties, telephone poles, and wooden pallets. Approximately 15 ft deep, the landfill was developed by filling in a low-lying area. No records indicate wood treated with copper, chromium, or arsenic was deposited at this SWMU. Surface Soil: No VOCs or pesticides were above the CVs. Metals and PAHs associated with creosote in the waste stream were found.

Subsurface Soil: No VOCs or pesticides were above the CVs. Metals, PAHs, dibenzofurans were detected infrequently at this SWMU.

Soil Gas: TCE detections were widespread in the SWMU.

The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No further action is required to meet industrial human health standards. No public health hazard exists. The area is inaccessible to the public and contaminants were detected at levels not likely to pose human health hazards.
SWMU-29 Old Lumber Disposal Yard Area covered less than 1 acre and was used from mid-1940s through mid-1970s for disposal of wood (burned with waste oil) and as a stockpile of wood available to the public. No records indicate that wood treated with copper, chromium, or arsenic was deposited at this SWMU. Currently, the site of a paved parking lot. Soil: Metals and PAHs were detected above CVs, while VOCs, pesticides, and PCBs were either not detected or were below CVs. The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No further action is required to meet industrial human health standards. No public health hazard exists from direct contact with soil. The area is inaccessible to the public.
SWMU-30 Northeast Lagoon Area Approximately 1 acre where various surface impoundments and liquid disposal pits were used for waste from approximately 1949 until the early 1960s. Wood debris disposal and trash burning may have occurred there. Types and quantities of waste disposed at this unit are unknown; however, SWMU-30 may have been used as a primary disposal area for chlorinated solvents from early 1950s to early 1960s. Area has been filled and is now a gravel parking lot with no remaining evidence of the lagoons. Soil: See SWMU 29. SWMU 29 and SWMU 30 were grouped into one soil aggregate based on their locations, process history, and hydrogeologic characterization.

Soil Gas: TCE and PCE were frequently detected and probably associated with a contaminant plume or source along the eastern boundary of this SWMU.

The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No further action is required to meet industrial human health standards. No public health hazard exists from direct contact with soil. The area is inaccessible to the public.
SWMU-32 Hazardous Waste Storage Building (Building 512) Steel frame and panel building with concrete floor used for greater than 90-day storage of drums containing hazardous wastes. Previous inspections reported the presence of metal drums containing TCE, paint sludge, cyanide and cadmium sludge, and brake fluid. Soils at SWMU 32 were not further investigated based on a recommendation of No Further Action. No soil data are presented in the RI. The area contained miscellaneous hazardous waste drums. No further actions required. No public health hazard exists from direct contact with soil because the area is inaccessible to the public.
SWMU-33 Old Hazardous Waste Storage Building (Building 466) This building is used to accumulate drums containing hazardous wastes for less than 90 days--wastes similar to SWMU 32. Soils at SWMU 33 were not further investigated based on a recommendation of No Further Action. No soil monitoring data were presented in the Phase II RI. No further action required. No public health hazard exists because the area is inaccessible to the public.
SWMU-38 Abrasive Dust Collectors (Buildings 105, 106, 114, 117, 129, 130, 147, 409, 413, 433, 434) Approximately 50 baghouses located throughout the SIA, comprising 11 buildings (105, 106, 114, 117, 129, 130, 147, 409, 413, 433, and 434) are used to collect particulate emissions from various industrial operations. Collected dust is stored in drums or rolloff containers for eventual disposal off depot. Abrasive dust from sandblasting, which may contain lead, is collected and disposed off depot in permitted hazardous waste landfill. Surface Soil: PAHs and VOCs, but no metals, were detected.

Subsurface Soil: With the exception of beryllium (a metal), no metals, VOCs, or PAHs were detected above CVs.

No further action required. No public health hazard exists. The area is inaccessible to the public. Furthermore, contaminants in surface soil were either not detected or were detected at levels that do not pose a health hazard.
SWMU -39 Dynamometer Wastewater Treatment System (Building 410) Used for treatment of waste water produced while testing new engines for military vehicles, primarily tanks. Testing produces waste oil, including engine oil. Waste oil waters are pumped to an oil water separator where oil is collected and drummed for removal and disposal. Waste waters are routed to the New IWTP (SWMU-4). Soils at SWMU 39 were not further investigated based on a recommendation of No Further Action. No data were presented in the Phase II RI. The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No public health hazard exist from direct contact with soil because the area is inaccessible to the public.
SWMU-41 Steam Cleaning Buildings (Buildings 129, 130, 409, 421, 503) Wastewater from steam cleaning operations in these buildings is collected by drains in the concrete floor emptying into 55-gal drums that also collect the miscellaneous solids (Buildings 421 and 409 have settling basins). Wastewater is channeled outside the buildings to settling tanks, and pumped to the New IWTP (SWMU-4) for further treatment. Wastewater is expected to contain oils, greases, and solvent emulsion-type cleaning compounds. It may also contain herbicides and pesticides from steam cleaning containers. Soil and Soil Gas: Soil: See SWMU 3/4. SWMU 3/4 and SWMU 41 were grouped into one soil aggregate based on their locations, process history, and hydrogeologic characteristics. The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No public health hazard exists from direct contact with soil because the area is inaccessible to the public.
SWMU-42 Paint Booths (Buildings 129, 130, 143, 409, 433) Used for spray painting various metal parts. Some paint booths have water curtain overspray collectors. Waste spray paint is collected in an above-ground sump and run through a separator to collect paint sludges. Sludge is drummed and disposed as a hazardous waste, and the liquid fraction is sent to the New IWTP (SWMU-4) for further treatment. Various solvents are used in cleaning the spray painting and waste management equipment. Surface and Subsurface Soil: Soil screening analysis was not performed separately for this area. No further action required. No public health hazard exists from direct contact with soil because the area is inaccessible to the public.
On-Site Soil OU--Industrial/Plating Area (SIA)
SWMU-31 Metal Plating Shop (Building 114) Operations at Building 114 include metal cleaning, treating, and plating. Metal-treating operations were transferred from the old portions of Building 114 to the new addition to Building 114 in June 1982. Extensive chromium contamination exists in soils, surface water, and groundwater adjacent to the old portion of Building 114, possibly due to past spills, leakage from the chromium waste sump, and/or atmospheric deposition of compounds through the ventilation system. Industrial wastes identified included chromic acid, phosphoric acid, nickel plating solution, copper plating solution, cadmium plating solution, hydrochloric acid, sodium cyanide, and copper cyanide. The spill area has been covered with asphalt, and the groundwater beneath Building 114 now flows via French drains into a sump, which is then pumped to a treatment system near the New STP (SWMU-20). Subsurface Soil: Chromium and other metals detected in subsurface soil. No further action required. No public health hazards associated with on-site subsurface soil contamination because the area is inaccessible to the public.
SWMU-40 Oil-Water Separator (Building 501) Below-ground concrete tank used to treat waste water from Building 503 (steam cleaning building, the military tank draining area at Building 504, and a washdown pit in back of Building 504.) Waste oils are separated from process wastewater at this unit. Oil is pumped to drums for temporary storage; remaining liquids are routed to the New IWTP (SWMU-4) for further treatment. Primary wastes expected are oils, grease, fuel residues, and possibly pesticides and herbicides from steam cleaning containers. Subsurface Soil: PAHs were detected at levels above the CV for benzo(a)pyrene. Metals were detected but at levels below background. No PCBs or pesticides were detected. The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No further action is required to meet industrial human health standards. No public health hazards from direct contact with subsurface soil because the area is inaccessible to the public.
SWMU-43 Cyanide Pretreatment System (Building 506) Built in 1974, this unit treats cyanide-containing wastes generated in Building 114 (SWMU-31). Treated wastewater is then discharged to the New IWTP (SWMU-4). Soil: See SWMU 31. SWMU 31 and SWMU 43 were grouped into one soil aggregate based on their locations, process history, and hydrogeologic characterization. No further actions required. No public health hazards associated with on-site subsurface soil contamination because the area is inaccessible to the public.
On-Site Soil OU- Dry Creek
SWMU-44 Dry Creek Surface Water and Sediment - Dry Creek provides the principal surface water drainage pathway for the SIA. ANAD was issued a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES ) permit to enforce limits on the level of contaminants discharges to surface waters on July 28, 1977. NPDES permit requirements were violated by failure to control pH and heavy metal discharges to the water. This resulted in (1) the Army Pollution Abatement Program for the New STP (SWMU-20) and IWTP (SWMU-4) facilities; and (2) the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan. Surface Water: VOCs and SVOCs were detected at concentrations slightly greater than CVs.

Sediment: Some metals and PAHs, but no VOCs, were detected at levels above CVs.

Evaluate sediment and surface water in FS. The area is to be evaluated for RD/RA. No public health hazard exists because of generally low-level contamination and limited recreational use of the creek.

On-Site Groundwater OU

Landfill Area Subbasin The area occupies 145 acres of unpaved land in the southwest portion of the site. Several SWMUs are suspected as contaminant sources, including SWMUs 6, 9, 12, 14, 19, 20, 22, and 24. Groundwater: VOCs and pentachlorophenol were detected at levels above CVs. A pump-and-treat system was selected to remove high levels of VOCs from SWMUs 12 and 22. Recent data suggest possible ongoing release of DNAPLS to the bedrock aquifer. ANAD is considering the use of more effective treatment. No public health hazards associated with contaminated water beneath the site. ANAD will continue to treat the contaminated water to control off-site migration.
Northeast Lagoon Area Subbasin
(and areas in the Industrial/Plating Facility Area)
This area subbasin covers 47 acres in the northeastern portion of the site and encompasses SWMUs 3/4, 7, 25, 28, 29, 30, and 32. Building 114 (SWMU 31) of the Industrial/Plating facility area was investigated with this area. Groundwater: VOCs, metals, and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were detected levels above CVs. A pump-and-treat system was selected to remove high levels of VOCs from primarily SWMUs 7, 30, and 31. In general, this subbasin contains lower levels of VOCs than other subbasins and lacks DNAPLs in the subsurface. No public health hazards associated with contaminated water beneath the site. ANAD will continue to treat the contaminated water to control off-site migration.
Trench Area Subbasin This area consists of 161 acres of land used for a sanitary landfill (closed), heavy equipment and tank storage, and open spaces uses. The areas contains SWMUs 1, 2, 21, and 23. Groundwater: VOCs, metals, and SVOCs were detected at concentrations above CVs. Bedrock aquifer wells generally contained higher concentrations of VOCs than the wells in the shallow aquifer, which is believed to be associated with the pooling of DNAPLs on the bedrock surface. A pump-and-treat system was selected to remove high levels of VOCs primarily from SWMU 1. Recent data suggest possible ongoing release of DNAPLs to the bedrock aquifer. ANAD is considering the use of more effective treatment. No public health hazards associated with contaminated water beneath the site. ANAD will continue to treat the contaminated water to control off-site migration.

Off-Site Groundwater OU

Off-Site Groundwater This OU consist of groundwater in the vicinity of ANAD that may receive contaminants originating from ANAD. Groundwater: From quarterly monitoring, low level VOCs have been detected in off-site private wells and springs. Higher levels of VOCs and SVOCs were detected in monitoring wells. ANAD is conducting additional on-site and boundary monitoring to identify contaminant migration before it reaches off-site receptors. ANAD will conduct a separate RI. No public health hazards associated with contaminated water beneath the site. ANAD will continue to treat the contaminated water to control migration.



ADEM = Alabama Department of Environmental Management
ANAD = Anniston Army Depot
ATSDR = Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
CERCLA = Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
CVs = comparison values
IWTP = Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant
NPDES = National Pollution Discharge Elimination System
OU = operable unit
PAHs = polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
PCBs = polychlorinated biphenyls
PCE = tetrachloroethylene
RCRA = Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RD/RA = remedial design/removal action
RI/FS = remedial investigation/feasibility study
SIA = South Industrial Area
SWMU = solid waste management unit
TCE = trichloroethylene

Sources: Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., 1994; SAIC, 1997b; QST Environmental, Inc., 1998


Table 2.

Potential Exposure Pathways
Pathway
Name

Source of Contamination

Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Exposed Population Comments
Drinking water from Anniston Water Works TCE detected in Coldwater Spring, possibly from ANAD Groundwater ANAD and Fort McClellan on-site drinking water supply, and drinking water taps in Anniston, Coldwater, and portions of Oxford Ingestion, dermal, and inhalation Employees of ANAD and Fort McClellan, and residents of Anniston, Coldwater and portions of Oxford (approximately 58,000 individuals) Past, Present, and Future:

•TCE was detected in the Coldwater Spring that supplies the Anniston Water Works. The TCE levels were below health- based comparison values and therefore use of the water would not pose health hazards.
Anniston Water Works continues to monitor its drinking water to ensure that it is safe to drink.

Private well water TCE from ANAD Groundwater Private well taps in the vicinity of ANAD Ingestion, dermal, and inhalation Private residents in the vicinity of ANAD (approximately 5,000 individuals) Past:
• TCE was detected once at a level above the MCL in a private well near ANAD. The single occurrence of the slightly elevated level is not likely to pose a health hazard.

Present and Future:
No TCE at levels above the MCL have been detected in the well since the single occurrence above the MCL.
ANAD plans to conduct further investigations to characterize contaminant flow off site.

Surface water and sediment in Dry Creek TCE and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in surface water and PAHs and metals in sediment associated with ANAD Surface water and sediment Dry Creek surface water and sediment Dermal contact Private residents living near Dry Creek and recreational users at downstream locations (approximately 200-5,000 individuals) Past, Present, and Future:
Relatively low levels of VOCs, SVOCs, metals, and PAHs were measured in Dry Creek surface water and sediment. Because of the low concentrations and the limited use, no public health hazards are expected to occur.
Soil Low level contamination in the SIA and ASA Soil ANAD SIA and ASA Dermal contact Employees of ANAD (approximately 3,000 individuals) Past:
•Elevated levels of contaminants were detected in surface soil at the SIA and Ammunition Storage Area. Exposure is limited because a fence restricts public access. Worker exposure, if any, with contaminants in these areas would have been brief and intermittent and not likely to cause health effects.

Present and Future:
Surface soil with the highest levels of contaminants has been removed from the SIA. No exposures associated with public health hazards are occurring. ANAD continues to investigate/remediate contaminated soil.

Table 3.

Summary of Contaminants in On-Site (SIA) Groundwater
Contaminant Maximum Concentration (ppb) Comparison Value
Surficial Aquifer Bedrock Aquifer Concentration
(ppb)
Reference
Benzene NA 54 1
5
CREG
MCL
1,1-Dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE) ND 90 0.06
7
CREG
MCL
1,2-Dichloroethylene (1,2-DCE) 1,000 30,000 10,000
70
EMEG
MCL
Methylene chloride 100,000 400,000 5
5
CREG
MCL
Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) 70 ND 0.7
5
CREG
MCL
Trichloroethylene (TCE) 200,000 30,000 3
5
CREG
MCL
Vinyl chloride NA 6,000 0.7
2
EMEG
MCL
Arsenic 12.6 21.7 0.02
10
50
CREG
EMEG
MCL
Beryllium 62.2 148 0.008
4
CREG
MCL
Cadmium 6.12 34.7 20
5
EMEG
MCL
Chromium 524 2,180 100 MCL
Lead 450 ND 15 EPA Action Level
Manganese 12,000 5,600 200 RMEG
Vanadium 43.5 556 100 EMEG

ppb: parts per billion
CREG: Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (1 x 10-6 excess cancer risk)
EMEG: Environmental Media Evaluation Guide-adult
RMEG: Reference Dose Evaluation Guide
MCL: EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level
ND: not detected
NA: data not available

Sources: ANAD, 1991; SAIC, 1997b


Table 4.

Summary of Contaminants in Off-Site Groundwater
Contaminant Maximum Concentration (ppb)
(frequency)
Comparison Value
Monitoring Wells Springs Private Wells Concentration
(ppb)
Reference
Methylene chloride 6
(1/56)
ND ND 5
5
CREG
MCL
Trichloroethylene (TCE) 5.2 -13
(4/56)
20
(NA)
6.1
(1/14)
3
5
CREG
MCL
Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 130
(1/56)
ND ND 3
6
CREG
MCL

ppb: parts per billion
CREG: Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (1 x 10-6 excess cancer risk)
MCL: EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level
ND: not detected
NA: data not available

Source: ANAD, 1996


Table 5.

Public Water Supplies in Calhoun County
Water System Source Communities
Served
Approximate Number of People Served Source
Distance from ANAD
TCE Sampling Frequency/
Results
Anniston Water Works Coldwater Springs Anniston, Coldwater, and part of Oxford: ANAD & Fort McClellan 58,000 1-2 miles south Quarterly/
Below the MCL
Oxford Water System and Sewer Board Production wells
1,2,& 3
Parts of Oxford 18,000 5-15 miles south-southeast Quarterly/
Below the MCL
Calhoun County Water System 3 springs Rural areas of Calhoun County 30,000
(8,500 meters)
approximately 10 miles north Annual/
Below the MCL
Jacksonville Treatment Facility 2 springs Jacksonville 8,000-12,000
(4,000 meters)
9-12 miles north 1 /Below the MCL
Weaver City Water Supply 2 Production
wells
City of Weaver 6,000 9-10 miles east Annually/
Below the MCL

1 One spring is monitored quarterly; the other is monitored annually.

MCL: EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level (5 parts per billion)
NA: data not available.

Sources: Burgette, 1998; Livingston, 1998; Bryant, 1998; Reaves, 1998; Fulman, 1996

Table 6.

Summary of Contaminants in Surface Water in Dry Creek
Contaminant Maximum Concentration (ppb) Comparison Value
Concentration
(ppb)
Reference
Trichloroethylene (TCE) 4.3 3
5
CREG
MCL
Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 59 3
200
6
CREG
RMEG
MCL

ppb: parts per billion
CREG: Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (1 x 10-6 excess cancer risk)
RMEG: Reference Dose Evaluation Guide
MCL: EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level

Source: SAIC, 1997b

Table 7.

Summary of Contaminants in Sediment in Dry Creek
Contaminant Maximum Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value
Concentration
(ppm)
Reference
Arsenic 5.97 3
10,000
5
CREG
EMEG
MCL
Beryllium 3.42 0.2
300
CREG
RMEG
Manganese 2,450 300 RMEG
Benzo(a)pyrene 20 0.1 CREG

ppm: parts per million
CREG: Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (1 x 10-6 excess cancer risk)
EMEG: Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
RMEG: Reference Dose Evaluation Guide

Source: SAIC, 1997b

Table 8.

Summary of Contaminants in On-Site Soil SIA)
Contaminant Maximum Concentrations (ppm) Comparison Value
Surface Soil
(0 - 2 feet)
Subsurface Soil
(greater than 2 feet)
Concentration
(ppm)
Reference
Arsenic 15.4
(SWMU 29)
29.2
(SWMU 28)
0.5
20
CREG
EMEG
Beryllium 13.2
(SWMU 1)
26
(SWMU 21/23)
0.2
300
CREG
RMEG
Cadmium 76.9
(SWMU 9)
940
(SWMU 12)
500 EMEG
Chromium 410 (SWMU 1) 5,100 (SWMU 12) 300 RMEG
Lead 2,500 (SWMU 1) 11,000 (SWMU 12) not available  
Manganese 2,690 (SWMU 9) 36,000 (SWMU 12) 300 RMEG
Benzo(a)pyrene 6 (SWMU 21/23) 10 (SWMU 28) 0.1 CREG
Trichloroethylene 0.011(SWMU 7) 30,000 (SWMU 12) 60
1,000
CREG
EMEG
Polychlorinated biphenyls 0.106 (SWMU 7) 8.4 (SWMU 12) 0.4
10
CREG
EMEG

ppm: parts per million
CREG: Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (1 x 10-6 excess cancer risk)
EMEG: Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
RMEG: Reference Dose Evaluation Guide

Source: SAIC, 1997b


FIGURES


Figure 1. ANAD Area


Figure 2. ANAD Site


Figure 3. Southeast Industrial Area


Figure 4. ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process



APPENDIX A. Glossary

Comparison Values
Comparison values are estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adverse health effects, given a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. The comparison values are calculated from the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.

Completed Exposure Pathway
An exposure pathway consists of the following five elements: (1) a source of contamination; (2) an environmental media and transport mechanism; (3) points of exposure; (4) route of exposure; and (5) a receptor population. A completed exposure pathway exists if all five elements are present to link a source of contamination to a receptor population. Should a completed exposure pathway exist in the past, present, or future, the population is considered exposed.

Concentration
The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.

Contaminant
Any substance or material that enters a system (the environment, human body, food, etc.) where it is not normally found.

Environmental Contamination
The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From a public health perspective, environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of life of people living and working near the contamination.
Exposure
Contact with a chemical by swallowing, breathing, or direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic).

Groundwater
Water within the earth that supplies wells and springs.

Media
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.

Parts Per Billion
A common basis of reporting water analysis. As an example, one part per billion (ppb) of trichloroethylene (TCE) equals one drop of TCE mixed in a competition-size pool.

Parts per million
A common basis of reporting soil analysis. For example, one part per million (ppm) of TCE equals one ounce of TCE in one million ounces of water.

Potential Exposure Pathway
A potential pathways exists when one or more the elements of exposure are missing (see the definition for completed exposure pathway). Potential exposure pathways indicate that exposure to a contaminant could have occurred in the past, could be occurring now, or could occur in the future.

Public Health Assessment
The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environment in order to assess any current or future impact on public health, develop health advisories or other recommendations, and identify studies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects. It is also, the document resulting from the evaluation.

Plume
An area of chemicals in a particular medium, such as air or groundwater, moving away from its source in a long band or column. A plume can be a column of smoke from a chimney or chemicals moving with groundwater.

Potentially Exposed
The condition where valid information, usually analytical environmental data, indicates the presence of contaminant(s) of a public health concern in one or more environmental media contacting humans (i.e., air, drinking water, soil, food chain, surface water), and where there is evidence that some of those persons have an identified route(s) of exposure (i.e., drinking contaminated water, breathing contaminated air, having contact with contaminated soil, or eating contaminated food).

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
The federal law that establishes a regulatory system to require safe and secure procedures to be used in treating and disposing of hazardous waste. Under RCRA, various materials are legally designated hazardous waste based on a variety of factors (US ACE, 1991).

Route of Exposure
The way a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Volatile Organic Compounds are substances containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen. These substances easily become vapors or gases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paint thinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids).

APPENDIX B. Comparison Values

ATSDR comparison values are media-specific concentrations that are considered to be "safe"under default conditions of exposure. They are used as screening values in the preliminaryidentification of contaminants for further evaluation.

Generally, a chemical is selected for further evaluation because its maximum concentration in air,water, or soil at the site exceeds one of ATSDR's comparison values. However, it cannot beemphasized strongly enough that comparison values are not thresholds of toxicity. Whileconcentrations at, or below, the relevant comparison value may reasonably be considered safe, itdoes not automatically follow that any environmental concentration that exceeds a comparisonvalue would be expected to produce adverse health effects. Indeed, the whole purpose behindhighly conservative, health-based standards and guidelines is to enable health professionals torecognize and resolve potential public health problems before they become actual health hazards.The probability that adverse health outcomes will actually occur as a result of exposure toenvironmental contaminants depends on site specific conditions and individual lifestyle and geneticfactors that affect the route, magnitude, and duration of actual exposure, and not onenvironmental concentrations alone.

Described below are various comparison values ATSDR used in this public health assessmentprocess to select chemicals for further evaluation.

Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs) are estimated contaminant concentrations that wouldbe expected to cause no more than one excess cancer in a million (1 x 10-6) persons exposed overa lifetime. CREGs are calculated from EPA's cancer slope factors, which indicate the relativepotency of a carcinogenic chemical.

Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs) are based on ATSDR minimal risk levels(MRLs) and factor in body weight and ingestion rates. Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides(RMEGs) are the same as EMEGs, only they are based on EPA reference doses (RfDs).

Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) represent contaminant concentrations that EPA deemsprotective of public health (considering the availability and economics of water treatment technology), over a lifetime (70 years), at an exposure rate of two liters of water per day (for anadult).


APPENDIX C. Responses to Public Comments

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) received the followingcomments/questions during the public comment period (September 14, 1998 to November 1,1998) for the Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) Public Health Assessment (September 14, 1998).For comments that questioned the validity of statements made in the PHA, ATSDR verified orcorrected the statements. The list of comments does not include editorial comments concerningsuch things as word spelling or sentence syntax. ATSDR has not addressed requests forinformation to be included in the PHA, unless the party who filed the request provided thesupporting documentation.

  1. Comment: ATSDR concludes that contamination associated with several pathways atANAD is "unlikely" or "not expected" to result in adverse health effects. Should I beconcerned about developing adverse health effects?

    Response: No. Based on a thorough review of the data, ATSDR believes that communitymembers should not be concerned about developing adverse health effects. ATSDRevaluates all site data collectively to determine whether harmful exposures could occur.Often uncertainties about exposures exist--how long or how often and to what level, ifany, making the evaluation difficult. In light of these uncertainties, we use our bestprofessional judgement to draw conclusions in terms of the likelihood of exposure toharmful levels of chemicals. For the ANAD site, ATSDR concluded that it is unlikely thathealth effects will occur.

  2. Comment: Has ANAD conducted any public outreach within the community?

    Response: Yes. ANAD has sponsored several community activities to better inform thepublic about environmental conditions at ANAD and the progress of any clean upactivities. Many of these activities are required by the U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency's Superfund regulation. To assist in community relation activities, ANAD hasdeveloped a community relation plan that details community concerns (gathered frominterviews), develops a process to further understand the needs of the public, and presentsa plan to keep community members informed about actions at the site. This plan as well asother information about the site is kept at the Anniston Army Depot and at the Anniston,Jacksonville, and Oxford Public Libraries.

    In addition, ANAD has provided site information and public meeting schedules in the localnewspaper (e.g., Anniston Star), in informational fliers, and on local television. Since 1993,members from ANAD and the communities surrounding ANAD have met throughmeetings such as a technical review committee (from 1993 to 1998) or through arestoration advisory board (from 1998). These meetings bring together people whorepresent diverse interests within the community in order to improve information flow tothe community. Any community member interested in obtaining information about the siteshould contact Ms. Leslie Ware, Project Engineer, at 205-235-7899.

  3. Comment: The PHA indicates that the landfill material was disposed off site. Where arethe off-site disposal facilities located?

    Response: The material from the landfill has been disposed off site in a chemical wastedisposal management facility located in Emelle, Alabama.

  4. Comment: Specify whether sufficient sampling of surface water and sediment has beencollected.

    Response: The Phase I remedial investigation sampling of surface water and sediment waslimited. As mentioned in the PHA, ANAD has since conducted additional sampling throughits Phase II remedial activities. ATSDR feels that the data gathered to date are adequate tocharacterize contamination in surface water and sediment that could have originated atANAD.

  5. Comment: Are there elevated rates of disease in the community surrounding ANAD?

    Response: ATSDR has contacted the local and state health departments to determinewhether studies have identified an unusual occurrence of illness or disease within thecommunities around ANAD. We've been told that no studies have been conducted to datethat might show an unusual pattern of illness or disease in this area. As discussed in ourPHA, the Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) monitors cancer incidence inAlabama communities. Community members should express their concerns about cancer tothe ADPH Bureau of Health Promotion and Information's Statewide Cancer Registry at334-206-5552.

  6. Comment: One community member was concerned that ANAD has failed to presentvarious data, and some information it has presented is known to be wrong or incomplete.

    Response: ATSDR conducted its evaluation and made conclusions and recommendationsbased on environmental data and exposure information provided by ANAD; local, state,and federal agencies; and the public. If anyone has additional information on the pathwaysaddressed in the PHA, or evidence of other potential exposures, we encourage that personto share the information with us so that we can determine whether a health hazard exists.

  7. Comment: Do the Savannah and Tuscaloosa aquifers interact with the undergroundpathways in northeast Alabama, namely in the area of the ANAD site?

    Response: Neither of these aquifers is located beneath the ANAD site.


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