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The site is categorized as a indeterminate public health hazard based on an indeterminate amountof exposure to substances in the northern and southern ditches. Furthermore, there is a limitedamount of data present to evaluate all media and no surface soil testing either on-site or off-site toevaluate. The health concerns should be reevaluated should more comprehensive testing be done.

From 1954 to 1960, Stylon discharged wastewater containing a number of heavy metals into thenearby drainage ditch. After 1960 Stylon discharged the wastewater into nearby settling ponds. In 1973, the site was leased to Monarch Tile, Inc., who continued to use glazing compoundscontaining heavy metals until 1979. The medium most heavily impacted from these practices issediment in the ditches leading away from the site. No significant human exposures weredetermined from the current data. The extent of contamination in off-site surface soils is stillunknown.

The health questions from the community surrounding the Monarch site are summarized andaddressed in the Public Health Implications section. According to the available data, there doesnot appear to be an association between the contamination at the site and concerns raised by thecommunity.

Environmental data for surface soil (less than or equal to three inches deep) does not adequately characterize the extent or amount of contamination found on- and off-site. Additional sampling of the sludge trench and sediment ponds may be needed to characterize worker exposure.


On the basis of the material contained in this Preliminary Public Health Assessment, the followingrecommendations are made:

Cease/Reduce Exposure Recommendations

Sediments in the ditches both on- and off-site should be remediated to prevent migration.

Site Characterization Recommendations

Sample on- and off-site surface soils (less than or equal to three inches deep) to determine anymigration of contaminants.

Resample the northern drainage ditch to determine the effectiveness of earlier remediation.

Health Activities Recommendations Panel (HARP) Recommendations

In accordance with CERCLA, as amended, the data and information contained in the MonarchTile, Inc., site Preliminary Public Health Assessment have been evaluated by the ATSDR HealthActivities Recommendations Panel for appropriate follow-up with respect to health actions. Nofollow-up health activities are indicated at this time because there is no evidence that people havebeen or are currently being exposed to contaminants associated with the site. If informationbecomes available indicating exposure at levels of concern, ATSDR will evaluate that informationto determine what actions, if any, are necessary to protect human health.


The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the Monarch Tile, Inc., site contains a description ofactions to be taken by ATSDR and/or the Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) tomitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardoussubstances on or near the site. Based on the recommendations made in the preliminary publichealth assessment for Monarch, no public health actions are indicated at this time because there isno evidence of past of current exposures. ATSDR and ADPH will review any additional information as it becomes available.


Brian J. Hughes, Ph.D.
Environmental Toxicologist
Alabama Department of Public Health

ATSDR Regional Representative:
Robert Safay

ATSDR Technical Project Officer:
Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.


This Monarch Tile, Inc., Florence Division Public Health Assessment was prepared by theAlabama Department of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for ToxicSubstances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology andprocedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
Technical Project Officer
Superfund Site Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public healthassessment, and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


  1. Strategic Mapping, Inc. Atlas GIS. Desktop Geographic Information System. SantaClara, California, 1992.
  2. Remington W. Craig, Ed., Department of Geography, University of Alabama. StatisticalAtlas of Alabama. Tuscaloosa, Alabama, October 1993.
  3. Alabama Department of Environmental Management. "Screening Site Inspection (SSI)Report of Monarch Tile, Muscle Shoals, Alabama," (Note: SI Form 2070-12 indicatessite is located in Florence, Alabama). August 17, 1989. Text including cover letter, 11pages; Appendix A (SSI Trip Report), 5 pages; Appendix B (Lab Results), 24 pages;Appendix C (Geology Report), 8 pages; Appendix D (not included in file material);Appendix E (References), 33 pages.
  4. Alabama Department of Environmental Management. "Screening Site Investigation,Phase II, Monarch Tile, Muscle Shoals, Alabama". November 1, 1990. Appendix A, 15pages.
  5. ENSR Consulting and Engineering. "Groundwater Monitoring Well Sampling Report". March 1994.
  6. Ecology and Environment. "Site Characterization of Monarch Tile Manufacturing, Inc. Facility, Florence, Alabama". Final Report. December 1987. Text, 45 pages, Appendix C, 23 pages.
  7. ENSR Consulting and Engineering. Comments to National Priorities List Proposed Rule #14, Monarch Tile, Inc., Florence, Alabama. July 1993.
  8. ENSR Consulting and Engineering. North Ditch Soil Removal Report. August 1992.
  9. Tennessee Valley Authority. North Alabama Water Quality Assessment: Contaminants inBiota. Volume VII. Knoxville, Tennessee, April 1986.


Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. Atlanta:April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Barium. Atlanta:July 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. Atlanta:April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chromium. Atlanta: April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Lead. Atlanta:April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Nickel. Atlanta:April 1993.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Zinc. Atlanta: October 1992.

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