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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

T.H. AGRICULTURE AND NUTRITION/MONTGOMERY PLANT SITE
MONTGOMERY, MONTGOMERY COUNTY, ALABAMA


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS

The following section is a review of the environmental data collected at the THAN site, andwithin a one and one-half mile radius of the site. The quality of the data will be assessed in thissection, also. We will review the frequency of the contaminants of concern, their concentrationsin various media, and the source of the contaminants. On-site contamination will be reviewedfirst, followed by off-site contamination. On-site is considered to be the 16.4 acres that comprisesthe THAN site, including the portion of the marsh located within this area. Off-site is the areaoutside the boundaries of the THAN site, but within a one and one-half mile radius.

The tables presented in Appendix B list the contaminants of concern in various on-site and off-sitemedia. The contaminants of concern are evaluated in later sections to determine whetherexposure has public health significance. The data tables and text include the following abbreviations:

  • CREG
  • Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
  • EMEG
  • Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
  • RMEG
  • Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
  • LTHA
  • Lifetime Health Advisory
  • MCL
  • Maximum Contaminant Level
  • MRL
  • Minimal Risk Levels
  • ppm/ppb
  • parts per million/parts per billion
  • RfD
  • Reference Dose
  • RMEG
  • Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
  • C
  • Possible human carcinogen (no human, limited animal studies)
  • B2
  • Probable human carcinogen (inadequate human, sufficient animal studies)

    A review of the sampling data reported in the Remedial Investigation Report (RI) for THAN, theSupplemental Remedial Investigation Report (SRI) (26), and the Townsend EnvironmentalConsulting data (14) found the following contaminants of concern (Note: * indicates that thecontaminants are found off-site):

    Selected Metals

    Antimony *
    Barium *
    Cadmium *
    Manganese *
    Vanadium *
    Arsenic *
    Beryllium*
    Lead *
    Thallium

    Volatile Organic Compounds

    1,1,1-Trichloroethane
    1,1-Dichloroethene *
    1,2-Dichloroethene (Total)
    4-Methyl-2-Pentanone
    Carbon Tetrachloride *
    Chloroform *
    Ethylbenzene
    Tetrachloroethene
    Xylene (Total)
    1,1-Dichloroethane
    1,2-Dichloroethane
    1,3-Dichlorobenzene
    Benzene
    Chlorine
    Dibromochloromethane
    Methylene Chloride *
    Trichloroethene *

    Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds

    2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
    2-Methylnaphthalene
    4-Nitrophenol
    Dibenzofuran
    Hexachlorobenzene
    Naphthalene
    2,4-Dimethylphenol
    4-Methylphenol
    bis(2-Ethylhexyl)-phthalate
    Dimethyl phthalate
    Hexachlorobutadiene
    Phenathrene

    Pesticides

    Aldrin
    alpha-Chlordane
    delta-BHC *
    2,4'-DDE
    4,4'-DDD
    4,4'-DDT
    Endosulfan Sulfate *
    Endrin Aldehyde
    gamma-BHC *
    Heptachlor *
    Toxaphene
    alpha-Benzene hexachloride (BHC) *
    beta-BHC *
    2,4'-DDD
    2,4'-DDT
    4,4'-DDE
    Dieldrin *
    Endrin
    Endrin Ketone
    gamma-Chlordane *
    Heptachlor Epoxide

    The bases for selection of these contaminants are as follows:

    1. concentrations of contaminants on site above ATSDR or USEPA comparison values;
    2. concentrations of contaminants for which no comparison values could be found;
    3. the sampling design and field and laboratory data quality; and
    4. community health concerns.

    Including a chemical in the list of contaminants of concern does not mean that adverse healtheffects necessarily will result from exposure. Identification of all contaminants assures that eachone will be included in the public health assessment to be evaluated further as to its health impact on the local population.

    In preparing a public health assessment, contaminant concentrations in specific transport mediaare compared to established comparison values to select specific contaminants of concern forfurther study. No comparison values exist for some constituents, and the tables reflect thissituation. The most commonly used comparison values are ATSDR's Environmental MediaEvaluation Guides (EMEGs) and Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), although other valuesmay be used as necessary. CREGs are estimated contaminant concentrations based on one excesscancer case per million persons exposed over a lifetime. CREGs are derived from USEPA cancerslope factors. An EMEG is the amount of a particular contaminant that can be present in aspecific medium below which no known non-cancer effects are expected to result from exposure. EMEGs are derived from ATSDR's Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs). A MRL is an estimate of dailyhuman exposure to a contaminant below which non-cancer, adverse health effects are unlikely to occur.

    When EMEGs and CREGs are not available, RMEGs are used. An RMEG is the estimatedintake of a media-specific contaminant below which no known non-cancerous health effects arelikely to occur. An RMEG is calculated from the USEPA RfD. The RfD is the daily acceptable intake level at or below which no non-cancerous health effects are expected from exposure.

    ADPH did a search of the USEPA Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) for information onnon-point and point releases on the THAN site and other industries in the area. This was done toinsure that all contaminants and contaminant sources in the area were identified. The search areaincluded the THAN site and all businesses located within the zip code area in which the site islocated. The TRI showed no non-point or point releases occurred from 1987-1992 on the THAN site or at any other business in the surrounding area.

    A. On-Site Contamination

    On-Site Groundwater

    Results were obtained from 68 wells near the THAN site; 22 wells on-site and 46 wells off-site(Figures 3 & 7, Appendix A). Well depths were defined as shallow (30-35 feet), intermediate(48-69 feet) or deep (more than 80 feet). Forty-nine shallow wells were screened in theAlluvial/Terrace aquifer, and 13 intermediate wells were screened at the aquifer base. Four deepwells were screened in the permeable zones in the Middle Eutaw confining unit, and one deep wellwas screened at the top of the Lower Eutaw aquifer. One municipal well from the MontgomeryWest Well Field was sampled, also. Sampling results from the 68 wells are included in the RI and the Townsend Environmental Consulting data for the THAN site.

    The on-site groundwater contained measurable amounts of 34 different contaminants of concern(Table 1, Appendix B). Metals were found in concentrations above background levels or aboveATSDR's comparison values in both shallow and intermediate wells. Lead was retained in thetable because it is a probable carcinogen. Vanadium was kept because it does not have acomparison value. VOCs and pesticides were most frequently found in high concentrations in theshallow wells in the Alluvial/Terrace aquifer. Most VOCs were above the CREG values. Ethylbenzene and 1,2-dichloroethene (Total) were reserved because they were above the RMEGvalues. The only VOC which was above the LTHA was 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Most SVOCswere retained because they did not have a comparison value. Only the exception to this was theSVOC naphthalene, which was above the LTHA. Nearly all pesticides were above the CREG values.

    On-Site Surface Water

    During August 1991 and November 1991, 39 surface water samples were taken at randomlyselected locations on- and off-site (Figure 4, Appendix A). Surface water in the on-site marshwas sampled at three different locations. Samples were analyzed for selected metals, VOCs,semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and pesticides. Maximum concentrations ofcontaminants of concern in on-site surface water are presented in Table 2 (Appendix B).

    The main contaminants of concern in on-site surface water were metals. Metals found withconcentrations above ATSDR comparison values were arsenic, barium, beryllium, manganese andthallium. Vanadium was kept because it does not have a comparison value, and lead was listed inTable 2 because it is a probable carcinogen. The SVOC 4-methylphenol (or p-cresol), and thepesticide 4',4'-DDD were the only non-metal contaminants of concern. DDD had concentrationsabove the CREG value, while 4-methylphenol was retained as a contaminant of concern because it is a possible carcinogen.

    On-Site Shallow Soils

    Five hundred seventy-five soil samples were taken from 156 locations on and around the THANsite (Figure 5, Appendix A). Twenty samples were taken from five other off-site locations andused as background samples. Several background samples were tainted with low amounts of VOCs.

    We defined soils from zero to six inches as shallow soils. No samples were taken from the zero tothree inch depth, defined by ATSDR as surface soils. ATSDR prefers to use surface soils becausehumans are most likely to come in contact with them. Table 3 (Appendix B) shows the maximumconcentrations for the contaminants of concern found in the shallow soils. Shallow soil on theTHAN site contained measurable amounts of 26 different contaminants of concern. Metals werefound in concentrations above background levels or above ATSDR's comparison values. Leadwas retained in the table because it is a probable carcinogen. Thallium was kept because it doesnot have a comparison value. The VOC, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, was retained in the table becausethere is no comparison value for this compound. The SVOCs were found to be above the CREGvalues, or they did not have comparison values. Most pesticides found in on-site soils were above the CREG values.

    On-Site Sediments

    Sediment samples were taken from two different areas on the THAN site (Figure 6, Appendix A). Thirteen samples were taken from the on-site marsh on the THAN property and five samples weretaken from the storm sewer system that services the IC property. No sediment samples weretaken from the IC property because there were no sediments present at the time of sampling. TheIC storm sewer is located on-site and receives sediment derived from on-site soils. However, theIC storm sewer discharges off-site into the east ditch. Therefore, each sampling area will be addressed separately in this section.

    Table 4 (Appendix B) shows the maximum concentrations for the contaminants of concern foundin the sediment from the on-site marsh. Measurable amounts of nine different contaminants ofconcern were found in the on-site marsh sediment. Most metals had concentrations that wereabove ATSDR's comparison values. The only exceptions were lead and vanadium. Lead wasretained in the table because it is a probable carcinogen, and vanadium has no comparison value. All pesticides found in on-site sediment had concentrations that were above the CREG values.

    Maximum concentrations for contaminants of concern from the storm sewer system are listed inTable 5 (Appendix B). Measurable quantities of 26 different contaminants of concern were foundin the sewer system sediment. With the exception of lead, all metals detected had concentrationsabove ATSDR's comparison values. The only VOC detected was 1,3-dichlorobenzene, and it wasreserved because it has no comparison value. No comparison values exist for most of theSVOCs. The exceptions were hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorobutadiene which were above theCREG values. Eight pesticides had concentrations above CREG values, and two more were above EMEG values.

    On-Site Data Gaps

    There are no on-site data gaps for the THAN site.

    B. Off-site Contamination

    Off-Site Groundwater

    Forty-six off-site wells were tested in the area of the THAN site; 34 monitoring wells, one well inthe City of Montgomery West Well Field, and eleven domestic wells (Figures 3 & 7, AppendixA). Of the 34 monitoring wells, six were used for background sampling. It should be noted thatseveral of the background wells were contaminated with small amounts of VOCs and pesticides.

    Table 6 (Appendix B) shows the maximum concentrations for the contaminants of concern foundin the off-site wells. The off-site groundwater contained measurable amounts of 23 differentcontaminants of concern. Most metal concentrations were above ATSDR's comparison values. Exceptions to this were lead and vanadium. Lead was retained because it is a probablecarcinogen, and vanadium was kept because it has no comparison value. Most VOCs found wereabove the CREG values. The VOC 1,1-dichloroethane was reserved because it is a probablecarcinogen. Dibromochloromethane and 4-methyl-2-pentanone were kept in the table becausethey do not have comparison values. Most pesticides found were above ATSDR CREG values.

    Some VOCs were detected in off-site groundwater that were not produced by the THAN site. These contaminants and their possible sources of contamination will be discussed in the off-site groundwater pathways section.

    Off-Site Surface Water

    Off-site surface water was sampled from the off-site marsh, the east ditch, the west ditch, and theponds on the Twin Lakes property. Also, samples were taken from the drainage ditch thatoriginates at the west ditch behind the THAN property and runs southwest. Sample locations areshown in Figure 4 (Appendix A). Maximum concentrations of contaminants of concern in on-sitesurface water are presented in Table 7 (Appendix B).

    Measurable quantities of 25 different contaminants of concern were found in off-site surfacewater. The selected metals that were above ATSDR comparison values were arsenic, beryllium,cadmium, manganese, and thallium. Lead was retained in the table because it is a probablecarcinogen. Vanadium was reserved because it has no comparison value. The only VOC inoff-site surface water above the CREG value was benzene. Most pesticides exceeded the CREGvalues. No comparison values were available for delta-BHC, endosulfan sulfate, endrin ketone, and endrin aldehyde.

    Surface water samples from the Twin Lakes ponds was analyzed for metals, VOCs, SVOCs,pesticides, and herbicides. Metals detected were below the comparison value or withinbackground levels. The only contaminant found was carbon disulfide, a VOC. However, theamount of carbon disulfide did not exceed any of ATSDR's comparison values. No pesticides and herbicides were detected.

    Off-Site Shallow Soils

    Samples from shallow soils were taken from 26 locations in close proximity to the THAN site(Figure 5, Appendix A). Measurable amounts of ten different contaminants of concern werefound in these samples (Table 8, Appendix B). Most metals were found in concentrations abovebackground levels or above ATSDR's comparison values. Lead was the only metal which did nothave a comparison value. It was retained because it is a probable carcinogen. Most pesticidesfound in off-site soils did not have a comparison value. The two isomers of chlordane that werefound were above the CREG values. Isomers are two or more substances with the same chemicalcomposition, but with different properties resulting from differences in atomic arrangement. NoVOCs or SVOCs were detected at levels above ATSDR comparison values.

    Off-Site Sediment

    Off-site sediment samples were taken from the west ditch, east ditch, off-site marsh, and TwinLakes area (Figure 6, Appendix A). Samples were taken from three transects in the west ditchand from five transects across the east ditch. The off-site marsh contamination was furtherdelineated by supplemental sampling along the drainage area behind the site (Figure 8, AppendixA). Samples were taken from the drainage ditch in four different areas. Only the area directlybehind the THAN site contained contaminants of concern that were above ATSDR's comparison values.

    Measurable amounts of 20 different contaminants of concern were found in off-site sedimentsamples. Table 9 (Appendix B) shows the maximum concentrations for these contaminants. Metals were found in concentrations above background levels or above ATSDR's comparisonvalues. Lead was reserved in the table because it is a probable carcinogen. Most pesticides foundin off-site sediment were above CREG or EMEG values. The exceptions to this are the 2,4'-isomers of DDT, endosulfan sulfate and delta-BHC. These pesticides have no comparison values.

    Sediment samples from the Twin Lakes area were analyzed for metals, VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides,and herbicides. All metals detected in the Twin Lakes area were within the range for backgroundsamples. The only contaminant found was benzene. However, the amount of benzene did notexceed any of ATSDR'S comparison values. No pesticides, herbicides or SVOCs were detected.

    Off-Site Data Gaps

    There is inadequate data to characterize the extent of the northwest-trending plume in theintermediate wells. More wells should be placed in the Twin Lakes community to better assessthis plume. Also, there is insufficient data to locate the possible source or sources for the VOCswhich are not related to the site.

    C. Quality Assurance and Quality Control

    A Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) summary for the THAN site was provided toADPH by the USEPA. Sampling and analyses procedures were reported in the RemedialInvestigation Report. According to Alan Yarbrough, USEPA's Remedial Project Manager for theTHAN site (15), the field data, sampling procedures and laboratory analyses met USEPArequirements. Therefore, in compiling this report, we assumed that adequate QA/QC controlshave been followed. The accuracy and completeness of this report are dependent on the adequacyand reliability of the results presented in the previous site reports.

    Groundwater data collected by the Townsend Environmental Consulting was reviewed by thereport preparers to assess its validity. Boring logs were reviewed and deemed acceptable. Samples analyzed according to "Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal andIndustrial Wastewater" (EPA-600/4-82) Method 608/625. Selected samples were split and sentto two different laboratories to insure that the analytical results were not biased. The results fromeach laboratory were within acceptable limits, and thus, are treated as valid.

    Several discrepancies have been noted in the Remedial Investigation Report. Reported values for2,3,7,8-TCDD, Total TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and Total TCDF given in Table 11-5 are incorrect. The table should show values for contaminants of concern in the storm sewer sediments that arelisted in Table 9-10 (25). These inconsistences have been noted by the potential responsibleparties, and will be corrected in future documents.

    When evaluating the adequacy of the data in the sections on-site and off-site contamination, weassumed that estimated (J) values are valid. We used estimated values in the tables listingcontaminants of concern in the various media when they exceeded all other reported values for a contaminant in the media under consideration.

    Caution should be used in evaluation of soil and groundwater data. Several background soil andgroundwater samples were contaminated with small amounts of VOCs and pesticides. Thegroundwater samples were taken during the rainy season and may be a biased sampling for tworeasons: 1) The samples that were taken may have higher contaminant levels than normal becausemore contaminants may have been leached out of the soil by rainwater; 2) Dilution may haveoccurred and the contaminant levels may be lower than normal.

    D. Physical and Other Hazards

    No physical hazards were noted during the site visit.

    PATHWAYS ANALYSES

    An evaluation of completed exposure pathways and potential exposure pathways was made todetermine exposure to contaminants of concern by on-site workers and people living near the THAN site. Exposure pathways are made up of five elements: source of contamination,environmental media, point of exposure, route of human exposure and receptor population. Exposure pathways are classified as completed, potential or eliminated pathways. Completedpathways are those for which all five elements are present and human exposure to a contaminantor contaminants has occurred in the past or present, or is expected to occur in the future. Whenone or more of the elements are absent but could exist, then the pathway is characterized as apotential exposure pathway. When one or more elements are missing and never has been andnever will be present, then that pathway is eliminated from further consideration. Only thepathways that are significant and relevant to the THAN site are discussed in detail.

    A. Completed Exposure Pathways

    East Ditch Sediment Pathway

    Sediments in the east ditch area are a completed exposure pathway for CSX Transportationworkers (Table 10, Appendix C). CSX Transportation workers become exposed by incidentalingestion of sediment particles as they work along the railroad spur. Exposure to high levels ofcontaminants may occur among Department of Transportation (DOT) workers, utility workers,telephone repairmen or trespassers who work on buried cable, set power poles, work on overheadlines, or walk along the east ditch. We have classified the sediment exposure pathway as acompleted rather than potential pathway because CSX workers are being exposed or have beenexposed to contaminants of concern in the east ditch, during regular maintenance and loading activities.

    On-Site Shallow Soil

    Although it has not been reported that actual exposures did occur, it is highly likely that workerson the THAN site were exposed to contaminants of concern in shallow soil (0 to 6 inches). Twopits have been found on the THAN site which suggest that the soil was disturbed. Workers wereprobably exposed by incidental inhalation and dermal contact with contaminants in shallow soilbecause past regulations for worker safety were less stringent. Also, a lack of knowledge that thecontaminants were harmful to human health, and lenient disposal practices increased the workerschances of exposure. Therefore, we have classified the shallow soil as a past completed exposurepathway for workers on the THAN site (Table 10, Appendix C).

    B. Potential Pathways

    On-Site Shallow Soil Pathway

    Exposure to shallow soil (0 to 6 inches) is a potential exposure pathway for present and futureworkers on the THAN site (Table 11, Appendix C). IC workers are the population most likely tobe exposed through incidental inhalation, ingestion, or dermal contact because more barren soilareas are located on the IC property where direct exposure can occur. However, workers arewarned that hazardous material is present in the soil and that precautionary measures should betaken. We have classified the shallow soil as a potential exposure pathway because workers maybe exposed to contaminants of concern which are above ATSDR comparison values.

    On-Site Groundwater Pathway

    On-site wells pattern three different plumes of contaminants: (1) a north-trending plume in theshallow wells, (2) a northeast-trending plume in the shallow wells, and (3) a northwest-trendingplume in the intermediate wells. Several different locations can be identified as on-sitecontaminant sources for the two plumes in the shallow aquifer (Figure 9, Appendix A). Source areas on the IC property are the drum wash zone, the former lagoon, and the former incinerator. Contaminant source areas on the THAN property are the former waste disposal area and the zonejust north of the railroad spur near the THAN well. Most VOCs originate from the formerdisposal area, the drum wash zone, and the former incinerator. Source areas of pesticides tend tobe more diverse. Isomers of benzene hexachloride (alpha, beta, gamma, delta-BHC),p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, DDD, DDE), and endrin are found in highconcentrations in samples taken near the drum wash area of the IC property. The pesticidesdieldrin and endrin have been detected in the former lagoon area. DDT on the IC property isconfined strictly to the former incinerator and drum wash area. High concentrations of BHC,DDD, DDE, dieldrin, and endrin are found in samples from the disposal area on the THANproperty. Samples from the zone just north of the railroad spur near the THAN well contain BHC, DDE and dieldrin.

    Contamination in the northwest-trending plume in the intermediate wells is limited to a fewon-site source areas. Pesticides in the intermediate wells appear to originate from the samesource areas as seen in the shallow wells. Most VOCs appear to be originating from the formerdisposal pit area on the THAN property. The exceptions are trichloroethene (TCE) andtetrachloroethene, which will be discussed in off-site groundwater.

    No known on-site exposure to groundwater is occurring at present except for possible exposureto the workers who conduct groundwater sampling (Table 11, Appendix C). Workers wearprotective equipment, making exposure unlikely. Currently, IC and Capitol City Insulators obtainpotable water from the City of Montgomery. Thus, no exposure is currently occurring among workers on the THAN site.

    On-Site Surface Water

    It is doubtful that contact or ingestion of on-site surface water is, has been, or will be a significantexposure pathway (Table 11, Appendix C). Some metals and pesticides were found at levelsabove ATSDR comparison values; however ingestion of surface water will occur only in unusualand rare circumstances, and the amounts ingested would necessarily be small. No incidences ofwading in the marsh have been reported, and the marsh is partly fenced to prevent unwantedtrespassing. In the event that wading in the marsh does occur, the surface water pathway will need to be reassessed.

    On-Site Ambient Air

    Exposure to on-site ambient air may have occurred in the past. Workers from the THAN sitereport that they were exposed to chlorine gas, yet it is unknown whether they were wearing theproper safety equipment. It is possible that exposure may have occurred because regulationsregarding worker safety were less stringent. However, an analysis of existing databases does notshow that a chlorine release occurred at the THAN site in the past.

    Off-Site Sediment

    It is unlikely that exposure to sediments found in the west ditch and in the drainage ditch directlybehind the THAN site are, have been, or will occur. Some metals and pesticides were found atlevels above ATSDR comparison values; however, these areas have dense vegetation whichprovides limited access. A sewage line is located near the west ditch which does present thepossibility that an individual may enter this area. Also, these areas are not fenced off. Therefore,we have categorized exposure to off-site sediments as a potential exposure pathway.

    Off-Site Shallow Soil

    It is unlikely that exposure to off-site shallow soil has or will occur in the past, present, or future. Off-site shallow soils found in close proximity to the northern, western, and southern boundariesof the THAN site do contain some contaminants of concern at levels above ATSDR comparisonvalues. However, passage to the contaminated soils is very limited due to thick foliage. Aspreviously mentioned, a sewage line is situated in the area of the west ditch which does presentthe likelihood that individuals may enter this region. Thus, we have classified exposure to off-site shallow soil as potential.

    Off-site Groundwater Pathway

    Off-site wells located in the vicinity of the THAN site further characterize the three differentplumes mentioned previously. Based on the isoconcentration maps of total BHC and the totalpesticides in groundwater, the two plumes in the shallow aquifer appear to extend about 2900 feetin a north and northeast direction, beginning in the southwest corner of the THAN site (Figure 10,Appendix A). The southern edge of the northeastern plume extends approximately 220 feet southof the site. The western edge of the northern plume extends approximately 265 feet west of thesite. The extent of northwest-trending plume in the intermediate wells cannot be determined fromthe existing database, and therefore is not shown in Figure 10.

    As previously noted, most VOCs appear to be originating from the former disposal pit on theTHAN property, with the possible exception of TCE and tetrachloroethene. The majority of TCEappears to originate from the former disposal pit; however, small amounts of TCE were found inupgradient wells east-southeast of the THAN site. These detections of TCE do not appear to berelated to the THAN site because no TCE has been found in intermediate wells directly west. Tetrachloroethene in concentrations of around 50 ppb has been found in upgradient off-site wellssouth and east of the site. This suggests that an off-site source is contributing to the tetrachloroethene found in the off-site groundwater.

    One deep well located near the southeast corner of the site showed levels of VOCs aboveATSDR's comparison values. Well MW-13D contained trichloroethene and benzene. This wellextends to a depth of approximately 142 feet. This places the bottom of the well near the top ofthe Lower Eutaw, one of the aquifers from which the City of Montgomery draws water. The wellwas resampled during Phase II and did not disclose any contaminants of concern. However,Phase II was conducted during the rainy season and samples may have been diluted. Therefore, itis impossible to determine at this time the nature and extent of the contamination in the LowerEutaw. The single well that was sampled from the City of Montgomery West Well Field islocated in the Eutaw Formation, but it contained no contaminants of concern.

    No present exposure to contaminated groundwater is known to exist because most of theresidences within a two-mile radius of the site are connected to the municipal water supply. Possible exposure may occur at nearby businesses who use private wells for industrial purposes. We have no reported incidences of past exposures. The two plumes in the shallow aquifercurrently extend about 2900 feet from the southwest corner of the site. The extent of the plumeat intermediate well depth has not been determined. However, taking into account the speed ofthe groundwater flow in the Alluvial/Terrace aquifer (30 feet per year) and the rate of dispersionfor the contaminants, it is unlikely that site contaminants would have reached domestic wellsbecause the spatial extent of the plumes would have been less in the past. Future exposure ispossible because there are no restrictions on domestic well use in the area, and contaminants havemigrated off-site in the shallow aquifer (Table 11, Appendix C).

    Off-Site Surface Water

    It is improbable that exposure to surface water from the off-site marsh, east ditch, or west ditchare or will be a notable pathway (Table 11, Appendix C). Some pesticides and metals were foundat levels above ATSDR comparison values. One volatile was found at a level equaling ATSDRscomparison value. Although no playing or wading in these areas have been reported, the potentialfor individuals to enter these areas does exist because they are unfenced. If playing or wading inthese areas does occur, this exposure pathway will need to be reevaluated.

    C. Eliminated Pathways

    On-Site Subsurface Soil Pathway

    Contaminants in subsurface soils were found in concentrations above ATSDR comparison values. Exposure to subsurface soil is unlikely unless the soil is disturbed (Table 11, Appendix C). In theevent of on-site soil disturbance, this medium may need to be reassessed.

    Twin Lakes Sediment

    Exposure to sediment from the Twin Lakes community has been eliminated as an exposurepathway. No pesticides, herbicides or SVOCs were detected in the sediment. All metals detectedin the Twin Lakes community were within the range for background samples. The onlycontaminant found was benzene. However, the amount of benzene did not exceed any ofATSDRs comparison values. Therefore, we eliminated the sediment pathway.

    Twin Lakes Ponds

    Exposure to surface water from the Twin Lakes ponds has been eliminated from consideration asan exposure pathway. No pesticides, herbicides, and SVOCs were detected. Carbon disulfide, aVOC, was detected. However, the amount of carbon disulfide did not exceed any of ATSDRscomparison values. Carbon disulfide gas is normally found in marshy areas and should not beconsidered a contaminant. Metals detected were below ATSDR comparison values or withinbackground levels. Therefore, we have eliminated the surface water pathway from further consideration.

    Twin Lakes Shallow Soil

    Shallow soil (0 to 6 inches) has not been sampled in the Twin Lakes community. However,sediment and surface water have been sampled. Contaminants of concern were not detected inthese media, or were below ATSDR comparison values. Also, an ambient air pathway does notexist for contaminants to migrate off-site. Thus, we have eliminated the soil in the Twin Lakescommunity from further consideration because no pathway exists for contaminants to reach this media.

    Ambient Air

    The potential for exposure via ambient air has been eliminated from consideration because datashow that a current air exposure pathway does not exist on-site or off-site. Therefore, we haveeliminated ambient air as a current and future exposure pathway.

    Municipal Water Supply

    Current data show that the water that is supplied to the City of Montgomery by the West WellField has not been affected by contaminants from the THAN site. Since the contaminant plumewould be more widespread now than it was in the past, it is implausible that exposure via themunicipal water supply has been, or will be a significant pathway (Table 11, Appendix C).

    Biota

    According to an official at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), it isdoubtful that exposure to wildlife is, has been or will be a significant pathway (27). Some animalsmay be using the marsh as a part of their habitat, and thus, become exposed to contaminants ofconcern. However, the amount of contamination that actually moves through the food chainwould be small because most of the contaminants would be retained in the fatty tissue of theanimals. Also, the amount of hunting and fishing that occurs is small because the surrounding area is within the City of Montgomery.

    Groundwater contaminants do not appear to have caused adverse health effects to biota in thesurrounding water bodies. Catoma Creek and its inhabitants have not been affected bycontaminants from the THAN site in the past or present. However, it is not known whethercontaminated groundwater has or is discharging into the West End Ditch (26).

    Twin Lakes Fish

    Fish in the Twin Lakes ponds have not been sampled, but sampling data is available for thesediments and surface waters from the ponds. No pesticides, herbicides, or SVOCs have beendetected in either the surface water or the sediment. Some metals were found, but all were withinbackground limits or below ATSDR comparison values. The only contaminant detected in theponds is carbon disulfide, a VOC. Carbon disulfide gas normally is found in low quantities inmarshy areas and is not considered to be a contaminant of concern. Since there is no pathway forcontaminants to reach the fish, we have eliminated the pathway from further consideration.

    PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

    This section will discuss the health effects of site contaminants on the people exposed, evaluatehealth outcome data, and address questions and concerns raised by the community members and site workers.

    ATSDR has developed Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for contaminants commonly found athazardous waste sites. MRLs were developed for ingestion and inhalation exposure routes, andtake length of exposure into account. Length of exposure is divided into acute (less than 14 daysof exposure), intermediate (15 to 364 days) and chronic (365 days or more).

    If an MRL is not available for a specific contaminant, ATSDR uses the USEPA's Reference Dose(RfD). An RfD is an estimate of a lifetime daily human exposure to a contaminant, below whichno non-cancer health effects are likely to occur.

    We have made certain assumptions in calculating estimated exposure doses. The calculations arebased on an adult with an assumed weight of 70 kilograms (kg) (154 pounds), who has a standardwater ingestion rate of two liters per day. We assumed that adults ingest 100 milligrams of soileach day (mg/day) through inhalation of soil particles in the air, and from incidental ingestion ofsoil particles on hands placed in the mouth. For the purpose of this report, we used the maximumpossible exposure duration of 47 years (1946-1993) for adults to obtain the most conservativeestimate of risk. Dose estimates for CSX workers are based on an exposure of eight hours perday for five days per week for 47 years. The estimated risk to DOT workers, trespassers, utilityworkers, and telephone repairmen would be considerably less than the risk to CSX workersbecause they are exposed for shorter durations on an intermittent basis. However, these personsare at danger to acute exposures. No standards have been set to calculate risk of exposure tounborn children; therefore, no risk estimates were made.

    Estimated doses and cancer risks are compared to health guidelines. If health guidelines areexceeded, the possibility that adverse health effects could occur does exist. However, the readershould bear in mind that these are only estimates do not mean that any adverse health effects haveor will occur. Additional reports in the scientific literature are used to determine if adverse healtheffects are likely to result from exposure at the levels detected. Please refer to Appendix D to seethe categories used to evaluate the potential cancer risks.

    Only those contaminants found in completed exposure pathways above comparison levels, or forwhich no comparison values are available, will be discussed in this section. Each contaminant willbe discussed in terms of the population affected, the routes of exposure, and acute or chronichealth effects, if any, which may result from the exposure. Any increased risk of cancer to theexposed populations will be discussed.

    A. Toxicological Evaluation

    Antimony (20)

    Antimony is a silvery white metal found in the earth's crust. Antimony ores are mined, and thenchanged into antimony metal or combined with oxygen to form antimony oxide, a white powder. Antimony oxide does not evaporate, and does not dissolve easily in water. It is used primarily intextiles and plastics manufacturing to keep these products from burning.

    Antimony metal is easily broken, and thus is rarely used by itself. Usually, it is mixed with othermetals such a lead or zinc to form alloys, or mixtures, of metals. As an alloy, antimony is used inlead storage batteries, solder, sheet and pipe metal, ammunition and pewter.

    Antimony enters the environment during the mining and processing of ores and in the productionof alloys and compounds. Almost all antimony used in the United States is imported from othercountries for processing. Some antimony is released to the environment by incinerators andcoal-burning power plants. These antimony particles are very small and settle to the ground orare washed out of the air by rain. Antimony can attach to other small particles and remain in theair for more than a month. Most antimony will end up in soils or sediments, where it attachesstrongly to iron-, manganese-, or aluminum-containing particles. Much of the antimony found insediment, soil, and rock is so strongly attached to dust or dirt particles or buried in minerals that itusually cannot enter the body in a form that can cause health effects. Still, some antimony is lesstightly attached to particles, and may be taken up by plants and animals.

    Antimony enters the body through drinking water, eating food, soil, or other antimony- containingsubstances, or through breathing. Antimony that is swallowed enters the bloodstream within afew hours. Eating or drinking large doses can cause vomiting, which prevents most of it frombeing absorbed by the body. When breathed, antimony drawn into the lungs can enter thebloodstream after several days or weeks. After entering the blood, most antimony migrates to theliver, lungs, intestines, and spleen. During a period of several weeks after exposure, antimony will leave the body in feces and urine.

    Antimony has not been classified for cancer effects by the USEPA or other major federal orinternational agencies. Antimony has been found in sediment in the east ditch. The estimateddose for an individual exposed to antimony at levels found in the east ditch sediment at the THANsite is much less than the USEPA's chronic oral Rfd. Therefore, we feel that exposure toantimony at the levels found at the THAN site is not likely to result in adverse health effects.

    Arsenic (21)

    Arsenic occurs naturally in the environment, usually in combination with other elements. Whencombined with oxygen, chlorine, and sulfur, it is called inorganic arsenic. Organic arsenic isarsenic combined with carbon and hydrogen. The organic forms are usually less harmful than theinorganic varieties. Most organic and inorganic forms are white or colorless powders with no smell or special taste.

    Inorganic arsenic is poisonous. Long-term oral exposure to inorganic arsenic can lead todarkening of the skin and the development of small corn or wart-like growths on palms of hands,soles of feet, and torso. Occasionally, these growths may develop into skin cancer. Arsenic isclassified by the USEPA as a human carcinogen. Oral intake of arsenic has been associated withincreased risk of liver, bladder, kidney, lung, and skin cancer.

    Arsenic was detected in east ditch sediments and on-site shallow soils at the THAN site. Theestimated dosage to CSX Transportation workers who are exposed to sediment in the east ditch issightly higher than ATSDR's chronic MRL. However, the MRL is set 1000 times below the levelat which arsenic causes non-cancerous adverse health effects in animals. For workers exposed toarsenic at levels found in shallow soil on the THAN site, the estimated dosage for an individual ismuch less than ATSDR's chronic MRL. Therefore, we feel that no non-cancerous adverse healtheffects will result from exposure to arsenic in sediment in the east ditch and on-site shallow soil.

    Railroad switchers and utility workers are exposed to arsenic in the east ditch. Workers on theTHAN site are exposed to arsenic in on-site shallow soils, also. The estimated risks for cancerare low for workers who were exposed to arsenic at the levels found in the east ditch sedimentsand in on-site shallow soil for eight hours per day for five days per week for 47 years. Thus, wefeel that exposure to arsenic at the levels found at the THAN site does pose a low threat for cancer.

    Benzene hexachloride (BHC) (34)

    Benzene hexachloride (BHC), now known as hexachlorocyclohexane, is a synthetic chemical thatexists in eight chemical forms. Alpha, beta, delta, and gamma-BHC (or lindane) are some of theseforms. When mixed together, these isomers produce what is called technical-grade BHC. Technical-grade BHC is no longer used as an insecticide in the U.S. and has not been produced inthis country since 1983. However, lindane is still used as a pesticide.

    BHC isomers can enter the air from contaminated soil and from plants grown in contaminatedsoil. Rainwater can leach BHC from soil into surface water and groundwater. Typically, peopleare not exposed to the alpha, beta, and delta forms of BHC separately, but rather totechnical-grade BHC. Humans can be exposed to alpha, beta, and delta-BHC in workplace air, inthe air surrounding manufacturing plants or agricultural fields, or by eating plants, meat, milk, orwater that contain forms of BHC. In the past people were exposed to lindane when it was applied to skin as a lotion to control lice and scabies.

    Alpha, beta, and delta-BHC have been detected in shallow soil on the THAN site. To get at totalBHC exposure for the THAN site, the alpha, beta, and delta-BHC isomers were summed, and thetotal was used in risk analysis calculations. The estimated adult doses for THAN workers fromon-site shallow soil are below than ATSDR's acute oral MRL. Therefore, we feel that nonon-cancerous adverse health effects will result from exposure to BHC in shallow soil at the THAN site.

    The Department of Health and Human Services has determined that BHC may cause liver cancer. Based on evidence from animal studies, the USEPA has classified BHC as a probable humancarcinogen. This means that there is evidence from animal studies that it causes cancer, but theevidence is weaker or inadequate for humans. For workers exposed to BHC at the levels found inshallow soil on the THAN site for eight hours a day for five days a week for 47 years, the increased cancer risk is estimated to be low.

    Beryllium (22)

    Beryllium is a hard, grayish substance that occurs as a chemical component of some rocks, soils,and volcanic dust. Beryllium enters the environment because of natural processes and humanactivities. Most beryllium in sediment is bound to soil particles, thus movement deeper into theground or into the groundwater is unlikely. Most adverse health effects from beryllium are causedby breathing the substance. However, air has been eliminated as a potential exposure pathway forthe THAN site so no threat to human health is possible through air.

    No adverse health effects are known to occur from ingestion exposure, and oral exposure has notbeen found to cause cancer in animals. For workers who ingested or were orally exposed toberyllium at the levels found in east ditch sediments and on-site shallow soil for eight hours perday for five days a week for 47 years, the increased cancer risks are estimated to be very low. Therefore, we feel that exposure to beryllium at the levels found at the THAN site is not likely to result in cancer.

    Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (33)

    Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is a man-made chemical used in the production of plastics. Thecompound is also called Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate or DEHP. DEHP is a colorless liquid that hasvirtually no odor. The compound is everywhere in the environment because of its use in plastics,but it evaporates into air and dissolves into water at very slow rates. DEHP strongly attaches tosoil and is easily broken down into harmless compounds by small organisms in the soil and water.

    Exposure to DEHP can occur through several routes. DEHP can enter the body by inhalation ofair where DEHP is released, and by eating some foods packaged in plastics. The chemical alsocan enter the body through consumption of water containing the substance.

    There is no evidence that DEHP causes serious health effects in humans. Most of what we knowabout the health effects of DEHP comes from adverse health effects in rats and mice. DEHP hasbeen found in shallow soils on the THAN site. The estimated dose for an individual exposed toDEHP at levels found in shallow soil at the THAN site is much less than ATSDR's chronic oralMRL. Therefore, we feel that no non-cancerous adverse health effects will result from exposure to DEHP at the THAN site.

    The USEPA has classified DEHP as a probable carcinogen. No epidemiologic evidence haslinked exposure of DEHP to cancer in humans. However, several studies have shown that DEHPcaused liver cancer in laboratory animals. For workers who were exposed to DEHP at the levelsfound in shallow soil on the THAN site for eight hours per day for five days a week for 47 years,the increased cancer risk for liver cancer is estimated to be very low. Therefore, the DEHP foundat the THAN site is not judged to be a public health threat.

    Chlordane (17)

    Chlordane is a man-made chemical that has several isomers. Two of the isomers, alpha-chlordaneand gamma-chlordane have been found at the THAN site. Alpha-chlordane andgamma-chlordane are breakdown products of chlordane. To estimate a total chlordane exposure,the amount of alpha-chlordane and gamma-chlordane were summed in each sample, and the totalconcentration was used in risk analysis calculations.

    Chlordane was used in the United States as a pesticide from 1948 until 1988, when it was banned. From 1983 until 1988, it was approved for termite control, only. The USEPA banned chlordanebecause it persists in the environment and endangers humans and wildlife. Chlordane continues tobe manufactured in the United States for export to foreign markets.

    The highest exposure to chlordane comes from living in homes treated with chlordane for termitesprior to 1988. The chemical may remain for years in indoor air following treatment. Diggingaround foundations of houses sprayed with chlordane can lead to exposure, also. In addition,exposure can occur through eating contaminated food because chlordane persists in the environment on previously treated farmland.

    Chlordane has been found in sediment in the east ditch and in on-site shallow soils. The estimateddose for an individual exposed to chlordane at levels found in sediment in the east ditch is slightlyhigher than the USEPA's RfD. However, the RfD is set 1000 times below the level at whichchlordane causes non-cancerous adverse health effects in animals. For workers exposed tochlordane in on-site shallow soil, the estimated dose is below the USEPA's RfD. Therefore, wefeel that exposure to chlordane at the levels found in east ditch sediments and on-site shallow soilis unlikely to result in adverse health effects to workers.

    Based on animal studies, the USEPA has classified chlordane as a probable human carcinogenbecause chlordane has been found to cause liver cancer in mice. For workers exposed tochlordane at the levels found in on-site shallow soil and east ditch sediments at the THAN site foreight hours a day for five days a week for 47 years, the increased cancer risks are estimated to be very low.

    DDD, DDE, DDT (16)

    DDT is a white, crystalline, tasteless and nearly odorless solid. Once it was a widely usedchemical for controlling agricultural insects, disease-carrying insects, and other pests. DDT use isnow prohibited in the United States except in cases of a public health emergency. The chemicaldoes not occur naturally in the environment.

    DDD and DDE are breakdown products of DDT. To get at total DDT exposure, the amount ofDDT, DDD and DDE were summed(1), and the total was used in risk analysis calculations. Theroute of exposure to DDT and its breakdown products at the THAN site is through incidentalingestion and inhalation of soil. The estimated adult doses for DDT from east ditch sediments arehigher than ATSDR's acute oral MRL. ATSDR has not derived a chronic MRL for DDT. OnlyMRLs for acute and intermediate duration effects have been derived.

    The estimated dose for an individual exposed to DDT at levels found in east ditch sediments atthe THAN site is six times as great as the acute oral MRL. Some adverse health effectsassociated with exposure to high levels of DDT are related to the central nervous system. Symptoms of nervous system disorders in humans are hyperexcitability, tremors and convulsions. Similar symptoms have been found in animal studies following acute and chronic exposures. Learning deficiencies have been found in adult mice exposed to DDT before birth. Other animalstudies have found developmental and reproductive effects associated with DDT exposure.

    The estimated adult doses for DDT from shallow soil on the THAN site are slightly higher thanATSDR's acute oral MRL. However, the MRL is set 1000 times below the level at which DDTcauses adverse health effects in animals. Therefore, the DDT found in shallow soil on the THANsite should pose no significant threat to exposed workers.

    DDT and its breakdown products may increase the risk of cancer in exposed populations. TheUSEPA has classified DDT as a probable human carcinogen. A probable human carcinogen isone for which there is good evidence of carcinogenesis based on animal studies, but for which thehuman evidence is weak or inadequate. Some studies show that liver and breast cancer areassociated with DDT. For workers exposed to DDT at the levels found in east ditch sedimentsand on-site shallow soils for eight hours per day for five days a week for 47 years, the increasedrisks for cancer are estimated to be low.

    Dieldrin/Aldrin (18)

    Dieldrin and aldrin are two structurally similar compounds that were once used as insecticides.These compounds are discussed together because aldrin breaks down into dieldrin. Theinsecticides are produced in the laboratory and do not occur naturally in the environment. Aldrinand dieldrin evaporate slowly when exposed to air. These insecticides may be found nearhazardous waste sites in soil, water, and air. Also, they may be found in plants and animals.

    Aldrin and dieldrin were used extensively as insecticides on corn and cotton from 1954 until 1970when the U.S. Department of Agriculture banned them for use on crops. The USEPA approvedboth insecticides for use in termite control in 1972. In 1987, the manufacturer voluntarilycanceled the registration that allowed aldrin and dieldrin to be used for termite control.

    Most human exposure to aldrin and dieldrin comes from eating contaminated foods, including fishor shellfish from contaminated waters, root crops, dairy product and meat. Dieldrin stays in theenvironment for a long time. Exposure can occur also through drinking water, breathing air, ortouching soil contaminated with the chemicals. In homes treated for termites, inhabitants canbreathe in the chemicals for several years after treatment.

    Dieldrin has been found in sediments in the east ditch, and aldrin has been found in on-site shallowsoils. The estimated dose for an individual exposed to dieldrin at levels found in the east ditchsediments is much less than ATSDR's chronic MRL. For workers who are exposed to aldrin atlevels found in shallow soil on the THAN site, the estimated dose is slightly above ATSDR'schronic MRL. However, the MRL is set 1000 times below the level at which aldrin causesadverse health effects in animals. Therefore, we feel that there is no significant risk fornon-cancerous adverse health effects for workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrin in east ditchsediments and on-site shallow soil.

    The USEPA has classified dieldrin and aldrin as probable human carcinogens because thesubstances cause liver cancer in mice. For workers who were exposed to dieldrin at the levelsfound in the east ditch sediments for eight hours per day for five days a week for 47 years, weestimate that there is a very low increased risk for cancer. Therefore, we feel that dieldrin foundat the THAN site is not a threat to human health. For workers who were exposed to aldrin at thelevels found in shallow soil on the THAN site for eight hours per day for five days a week for 47years, we estimate that there is a low increased risk for cancer.

    Heptachlor epoxide (30)

    Heptachlor epoxide is a white powder and is a breakdown product of heptachlor. Heptachlor isproduced in the laboratory and is used as an insecticide. Heptachlor epoxide occurs naturallyfrom the bacterial-breakdown of heptachlor. Also, Humans can produce heptachlor epoxide whenheptachlor is introduced into their bodies. Heptachlor epoxide dissolves easily in water andstrongly sticks to soil particles. The compound evaporates slowly to the air and can stay in them soil and water for many years.

    Exposure to heptachlor epoxide may occur in several ways. Individuals may be exposed toheptachlor epoxide by eating crops grown in soil treated with heptachlor. Eating fish, dairyproducts, and fatty meats from animals exposed to heptachlor can be a route of exposure. Exposure also can occur by breathing air, drinking water, or from skin contact with contaminatedsoil near waste sites or landfills.

    Heptachlor epoxide has been found in on-site shallow soils at the THAN site. The estimated dosefor an individual exposed to heptachlor epoxide at levels found in shallow soil at the THAN site ismuch less than the USEPA's chronic oral RfD. Therefore, we feel that no non-cancerous adversehealth effects will result from exposure to heptachlor epoxide at the THAN site.

    Heptachlor epoxide is considered by the USEPA to be a probable human carcinogen becausestudies have shown that exposure to heptachlor epoxide has caused liver tumors in animals. Forworkers who were exposed to heptachlor epoxide at the levels found in shallow soil on theTHAN site for eight hours per day for five days a week for 47 years, the increased cancer risk isestimated to be very low. Therefore, we feel that heptachlor epoxide found at the THAN site is not a threat to human health.

    Hexachlorobenzene (31)

    Hexachlorobenzene is a white, crystalline solid that is not naturally-occurring in the environment. The compound is formed as a by-product during the manufacture of other chemicals, includingpesticides. Hexachlorobenzene tends to remain in the environment a long time.

    Individuals may be exposed to hexachlorobenzene through several routes. Exposure tohexachlorobenzene can occur through breathing air and dust particles from sites where thechemical has been discarded. Also, exposure can occur through eating and drinking foods andliquids, such as milk, other dairy products, meat, and poultry. However, exposure tohexachlorobenzene through drinking water is unlikely because the compound does not dissolve readily in water.

    Hexachlorobenzene has been found in shallow soils on the THAN site. The estimated dose for anindividual exposed to hexachlorobenzene at levels found in shallow soil on the THAN site is muchless than ATSDR's chronic MRL. Therefore, it is unlikely that non-cancerous adverse healtheffects will be caused by exposure to hexachlorobenzene at the THAN site.

    Hexachlorobenzene is classified by the USEPA as a probable human carcinogen because it haslead to liver and thyroid cancer in animals. For workers who were exposed to hexachlorobenzeneat the levels found in shallow soil on the THAN site for eight hours per day for five days a weekfor 47 years, the risk for cancer is estimated to be a very low risk. Therefore, we feel thathexachlorobenzene found at the THAN site is not a threat to human health.

    Lead (23)

    Lead is a bluish-gray metal with no characteristic smell or taste. It occurs naturally in smallamounts in the earth's crust, but most of the lead in the environment comes from human activities. The amount of lead added to gasoline, paints, and other commonly used materials has been cut inrecent years because of the harmful effects to humans and animals.

    Exposure to lead is especially harmful to fetuses and children. Unborn children can be exposed tolead through their mothers. Exposure can cause premature births, low birth weights, and loweredmental ability in infants. Lead exposure has been shown to stunt growth and reduce intelligencequotient (IQ) scores in young children. In adults, lead exposure may decrease reaction time andperhaps memory function. Lead may cause weakness in fingers, wrists, or ankles. Middle-agedmen may show an increase in blood pressure with exposure. High levels of exposure to lead cancause severe liver and brain damage to both children and adults. Exposure to high lead levels maycause spontaneous abortion in females, and can damage the male reproductive system. Animalstudies have indicated that lead is a probable carcinogen, but there are insufficient human studies to support this theory.

    ATSDR has not derived an MRL for lead. The USEPA has not determined an RfD because nothresholds have been demonstrated for the most sensitive effects in humans. Lead exposure mayoccur to CSX Transportation workers in the east ditch area and to workers exposed to on-siteshallow soil. The Center for Disease Control has reported that significant elevations in blood leadlevels occurs at concentrations of 1000 ppm or higher (28). The levels seen at the THAN site aremuch less than this level, and therefore should not cause a significant increase in blood lead levels or adverse health effects.

    Manganese (24)

    Manganese is silver-colored metal that occurs naturally in many types of rock and fossil fuels. Itdoes not occur naturally as a pure metal; instead, manganese is found in combination with otherelements such as oxygen, sulfur, and chlorine. These forms (compounds) do not evaporate, butsmall particles of solid manganese can become suspended in air. Some manganese compoundscan dissolve in water, and low levels of these are found in lakes, streams, and oceans. Manganese does not break down or disappear from the environment, but it can change from onecompound to another. Manganese compounds are mined and used in the production of steel,batteries, some ceramics, pesticides, fertilizers, and dietary supplements.

    Because manganese occurs naturally in the environment, people are always exposed to low levelsof it in water, air, soil, and food. Exposure to higher than normal levels of manganese occursamong workers in industries that use manganese. Most of this exposure is through breathing dustparticles that contain manganese. People who live near coal or oil-burning factories, industriesthat use manganese or a major highway can be exposed to levels that are higher than normal.

    Eating, drinking, or touching manganese is unlikely to result in harmful exposure. Whenswallowed, most manganese is excreted in the feces. Very little manganese is absorbed throughthe skin. When breathed into the lungs, dust particles containing manganese will be trapped, andsome of the substance may then dissolve and enter the bloodstream. Particles that do not dissolveare eliminated by the body. Because manganese is normally found in the body, uptake isregulated. If the amount taken in is great enough, however, the body may not be able to adjust to the increased amount.

    Small amounts of manganese are necessary to maintain human health, but too much can causeserious health effects. Workers exposed to high levels of manganese dust may developmanganism, a condition characterized by mental and emotional disturbances and slow, clumsy,body movements. The physical movement effects are caused because manganese permanentlyinjuries the part of the brain that helps control movement. Exposure to high levels of manganesecan cause impotence in men. In animal studies, exposure to manganese has caused injury to thetestes. Little is known about how manganese exposure affects women, but animal studies suggestfemales may be less sensitive than males to associated health effects. The evidence in unclear onwhether manganese causes birth defects in human infants. One animal study showed behavioralchanges in offspring. More research is needed to determine the health effects of this metal on unborn children.

    Manganese has been found in on-site shallow soils and sediment in the east ditch. The estimateddose for an individual exposed to manganese at levels found in on-site shallow soils is almost fourtimes higher than the USEPA's chronic RfD. However, the RfD is set many times lower than thelevels where health effects are observed in humans. The World Health Organization (WHO)estimates that an intake higher than the RfD is acceptable for dietary ingestion in humans (35). The intake proposed by WHO is many times higher than those intakes calculated for THANworkers. Therefore, adverse human health effects from manganese are considered unlikely.

    The estimated dose for an individual exposed to manganese at levels found in east ditch sedimentsat the THAN site is slightly higher than the USEPA's RfD. However, the RfD is set a magnitudeof 1000 below the level at which manganese causes adverse health effects in animals. Therefore,the manganese found in east ditch sediments at the THAN site poses no significant threat toworkers who are exposed to manganese.

    Although some animal studies have suggested that ingesting manganese may increase the risk forcancer, there is little evidence that it can cause cancer in humans. The USEPA has determinedthat manganese is not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity.

    Naphthalene/2-Methylnaphthalene (32)

    Naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene are discussed together in this section because they arerelated compounds. Naphthalene is a white solid substance that has a characteristic odor andevaporates easily. Naphthalene is commonly found in tar, mothballs, and toilet deodorant blocks. 2-Methylnaphthalene is also a solid substance and is used to make other chemicals such as dyes,resins, and vitamin K. Naphthalene enters the environment from industrial uses of this material. Naphthalene present at hazardous waste sites and landfills can dissolve in surface andunderground water or become attached to soil. Scientists know very little about what happens to2-methylnaphthalene in the environment. However, this compound has many similar properties tonaphthalene, and thus should have similar reactions when exposed to air, soil, and water.

    Exposure to naphthalene and naphthalene-related compounds can occur through inhalation,ingestion, or drinking of water that contains these chemicals. Naphthalene also can enter the bodythrough dermal contact. Exposure to naphthalene has been shown to cause anemia in humans.

    Naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene have been found in on-site shallow soils at the THAN site. The estimated amount of naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene ingested from on-site shallow soilis based on calculations used for soil ingestion. In comparing these exposures with those obtainedfrom the scientific literature, the amount of naphthalene ingested by people at the site is manytimes less than the amount of naphthalene needed to cause health effects in humans or animals. Related compounds of naphthalene such as 2-methylnaphthalene are usually less toxic, and do notcause anemia even in high concentrations. Summing the oral exposures for naphthalene andrelated compounds results in an overall exposure that is many times lower than the adverse effectlevels for naphthalene in humans and animals. Therefore, we feel that no non-cancerous adversehealth effects are expected from the ingestion of naphthalene and other related compounds at the THAN site.

    Naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene are not known to cause cancer.

    Toxaphene (19)

    Toxaphene is a solid pesticide that smells like turpentine. It is a mixture of over 670 chemicals. The chemical does not occur naturally, but is a common environmental contaminant because ofpast agricultural practices. Toxaphene vaporizes readily when in solution, but does not dissolveeasily in water. It sticks to soil particles, and can persist for weeks or even years in soil, water, or air.

    Toxaphene has been banned in the United States for most uses since 1982, but it was once one ofthe most heavily used insecticides in the country. It was used heavily in the southern states tocontrol insects on cotton and other crops. In addition, toxaphene was used to kill unwanted fishspecies in lakes. The chemical can still be used to control insect pests on livestock or inemergency situations, as determined by the USEPA.

    Exposure to toxaphene can occur through breathing, skin absorption, and eating or drinking watercontaining the substance. Because it vaporizes so readily, inhalation is the most likely route ofexposure. Toxaphene does not appear to accumulate in the body.

    Toxaphene has been found in sediment in the east ditch. The estimated dose for an individualexposed to toxaphene at levels found in east ditch sediments at the THAN site is much less thanATSDR's chronic oral MRL. Therefore we feel that no adverse health effects will result fromexposure to toxaphene at the THAN site.

    Studies of toxaphene has been found it to cause liver tumors in animals. The USEPA hasclassified toxaphene as a probable human carcinogen based on these studies. For workers whowere exposed to toxaphene at the levels found at the THAN site for eight hours per day for fivedays a week for 47 years, the increased cancer risk for liver cancer is estimated to be very low. Therefore, we feel that toxaphene found at the THAN site is not a threat to human health.

    Other Compounds

    Thallium, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone were found in shallow soilon the THAN site. These compounds have no comparison values because there are insufficientstudies to determine whether these compounds will cause adverse health effects in humans. Therefore, these compounds will not be evaluated in this document.

    Other Metals

    Calcium, cobalt, copper, iron, magnesium, potassium, and sodium were found in the east ditch. These substances are essential nutrients necessary for human biological functioning, and are notconsidered hazardous at the levels detected. Aluminum was detected at the site, also. Nocomparison value is available for aluminum. However, since it is not readily absorbed by thehuman body, we judge is unlikely to cause adverse health effects. Because of these factors, wewill not discuss these metals further in this report.

    B. Health Outcome Data Evaluation

    Health outcome data was evaluated by ADPH in response to community concerns that have beenraised during the health assessment process. The data was not evaluated because the public healthassessment indicates that there are increased rates of disease in the general community. Atpresent, there are no completed pathways for contaminants to reach the general neighborhoodsurrounding the THAN site.

    Some limitations do exist when using county wide statistics to show a correlation between the siteand health effects in the general community. The neighborhood surrounding the site is a smallpopulation that may vary in sex, race, age, and economic status from the county as a whole. These factors can create health statistics for the general community that are very different fromthe county's health statistics. Thus, caution should be used when using county wide statistics toshow a correlation between a site and the health effects in the community surrounding the site.

    According to the 1992 Alabama Vital Events report, the cancer mortality rate for Alabama was221.2 deaths per 100,000 population. The Montgomery County cancer mortality rates for thesame period was 213.0 cancer deaths per 100,000 population, respectively. The cancer mortalityrate in 1992 for whites was 230.8 cancer deaths per 100,00 population. The rate for blacks andothers during the same time period was 209.8 per 100,000 population. However, it is unlikelythat the difference in cancer rates is related to exposure to contaminants from the THAN sitebecause there is no completed exposure pathway for contaminants to reach the general community.

    Infant mortality for the state and Montgomery County was examined and compared. The infantmortality rate for Alabama in 1992 was 10.5 per 1,000 live births. During the same period, infantmortality for Montgomery County was 14.0 per 1,000 live births. The rates in MontgomeryCounty were 7.5 and 15.8 per 1,000 live births for whites and blacks, respectively. The infantmortality rates for Montgomery County, all races, and for blacks are higher than the state andnational rates. However, it is unlikely that the difference is attributable to exposure tocontaminants from the THAN site because there is no completed exposure pathway for contaminants to reach the general community.

    C. Community Health Concerns Evaluation

    Air Exposure Health Concerns

    1. Some former plant workers are interested in the health effects caused by breathing in contaminated dust or air pollution.

      It is likely that past exposure did occur when workers did not wear protective equipment. However, without knowing the type of contaminant(s), the concentration of the contaminant(s),and length of exposure there is no way to assess whether there are health affects caused by the contaminated dust.

    2. Several previous employees were concerned about breathing in high doses of chlorinegas. Some felt that this may be the cause of their current sinus problems.

      Because of the historical nature of the chlorine releases at the site and the short and intermittentexposure that may have occurred, we cannot assess whether any long-term health effects resultedfrom past occupational exposures to chlorine gas. However, chlorine gas, either by inhalation ordermal exposure, can cause skin irritations and respiratory problems. It is possible that high levelsof exposure to chlorine gas can cause long-term health effects. Exposure to chlorine gas is not a current problem for site workers.

    3. Residents are worried about contaminants that the prevailing north winds may blow off the THAN site.

      Ambient air data show that air is not a transport medium for contaminants. Furthermore,contaminants of concern found in on-site soils and sediments are not likely to be blown off-sitebecause most of the THAN site is covered with grass, small trees, and shrubs. Additionally, theTHAN site is surrounded by large trees and dense vegetation that act as barriers to protect thesurrounding communities from airborne contaminants

    Ingestion Exposure Concerns

    1. Citizens are troubled that fish in the mobile home community ponds may be contaminated.

      At the present time, no fish from the ponds have been tested for contamination. However, bothsediment and surface water from the ponds were sampled. Neither medium of transportcontained any contaminants of concern above ATSDR comparison values. Because of the lack ofcontamination in sediments and surface water, no source of contamination is available for bioaccumulation in the fish.

    2. Several people have concerns about drinking water supplies. Some residents and formerworkers were concerned about the health effects caused by drinking domestic well water inthe past.

      The City of Montgomery municipal well that is closest to the site was sampled, and nocontamination was detected. There exists no present completed exposure pathway to domesticwell water because most residences within a two-mile radius of the site are supplied by the City ofMontgomery water supply. At present, no evidence exists to suggest that past exposure fromdomestic water drawn from shallow wells and intermediate wells has taken place. The twoplumes in the shallow aquifer currently extend about 2900 feet from the southwest corner of thesite. The extent of the plume at intermediate well depth has not been determined. However,taking into account the speed of the groundwater flow in the Alluvial/Terrace aquifer (30 feet peryear) and the rate of dispersion for the contaminants, it is unlikely that site contaminants wouldhave reached domestic wells because the spatial extent of the plumes would have been less in the past.

      Contaminants which are not related to the site (TCE and tetrachloroethene) cannot be evaluatedat the present time. There is not enough data to determine the extent of the plume, the amount oftime that the contaminants have been present, or if an exposed population exists.

    3. Some residents were interested in the health effects to pets and children exposed tosurface water from the ponds in the Twin Lakes community.

      No contaminants of concern have been detected in surface water from the ponds in the TwinLakes community. Therefore, no adverse health effects are likely.

    Other Health Concerns

    1. Citizens are concerned about possible health consequences to children who play in soil in the Twin Lakes community.

      At this time, no shallow soil samples have been taken from the Twin Lakes community. Sincesediment and surface water samples taken from the Twin Lakes community ponds showed nocontaminants, it is unlikely that surface soil has been effected. Also, ambient air data suggest thatair is not, has not, and will not be an exposure pathway for contaminants to leave the site. Therefore, children playing in the soil should not experience any adverse health effects related tocontaminants of concern from the THAN site.

    2. Several people are concerned about the health risks they will encounter while doing yard work in the Twin Lakes community.

      There is no known exposure pathway by which contaminants can reach residents in thecommunity. Because there is no exposure to contaminants from the THAN site, there should beno site-associated health risks from doing yard work.

    3. Several citizens expressed interest about the risk to infants and were concerned that miscarriages may be caused by exposure to contaminants from the site.

      No known exposure pathway exists for contaminants to reach the residents in the Twin Lakescommunity. Therefore, there should be no risk to fetuses or infants due to contaminantsmigrating off-site. If residents do enter the THAN site or areas where contamination has migratedoff-site, the risk to infants does increase greatly because they have an increased sensitivity to toxicsubstances. However, an increased risk to fetuses is not likely.

    4. Citizens expressed concerns that the community shows high rates of cancer.

      The rate of cancer for the general community is not known at this time. Currently, ADPH isconducting a health consultation in a community west of the site to determine if the communitydoes have a higher incidence of cancer. The rates reflected in the health outcome data sectionshows that Montgomery County has a lower rate of cancer when compared to the state rate. However, whites in Montgomery County do have a higher rate of cancer than blacks. It wasnoted previously that the community surrounding the THAN site is 68% white. This does notmean that the rate in the community surrounding the THAN site is high because there arelimitations to using county wide statistics to show a correlation between the site and health effects in the general community.

      At this time, there is no known completed exposure pathway to the community for site relatedcontaminants of concern. Consequently, there should be no site associated increase in cancerrates in the community. However, this does not rule out the possibility that other off-site factorsmay be contributing to this rate.

    5. Other complaints from residents in the Twin Lakes community include sores that willnot heal, red splotches on the skin, watery eyes, sinus and nasal problems, and bronchitis.

      There is no known completed exposure pathway to the Twin Lakes community that could becausing these health concerns. If residents do trespass on the THAN site or enter off-site areasthat are contaminated, it is unlikely that these adverse health effects would occur. Inhalation ofcontaminated air s needed for most of these health effects to happen. However, an ambient airpathway does not exist for THAN. Arsenic is known to cause a darkening of the skin, yet it hasnot been reported to cause red splotches.


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