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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

T.H. AGRICULTURE AND NUTRITION/MONTGOMERY PLANT SITE
MONTGOMERY, MONTGOMERY COUNTY, ALABAMA


CONCLUSIONS

  1. After reviewing the data, we have classified the THAN site as a public health hazard. The classification is based on evidence that THAN site workers, CSX Transportation workers, DOT workers, utility workers, telephone repairmen, and trespassers could have adverse health effects from short term exposure to contaminants in east ditch sediments and on-site shallow soil. CSX Transportation workers are the population that have the greatest risk because they are being exposed to the contamination daily.
  2. Table 1.

    Completed Pathways
    Completed PathwaysTime
    East ditch sediment
    On-site shallow soil (0-6 inches)
    Past, Present, Future
    Past
  3. Table 2.

    Potential Exposure Pathways
    Potential Exposure PathwaysTime
    On-site shallow soil (0-6 inches)
    On-site groundwater
    On-site surface water
    On-site ambient air
    Off-site sediment
    Off-site shallow soil (0-6 inches)
    Off-site groundwater
    Off-site surface water
    Present, Future
    Future
    Present, Future
    Past
    Present, Future
    Present, Future
    Future
    Present, Future
  4. Table 3.

    Eliminated Exposure Pathways
    Eliminated Exposure PathwaysTime
    On-site subsurface soil
    Twin Lakes community sediment
    Twin Lakes ponds
    Twin Lakes community shallow soil
    Ambient Air
    Municipal Water Supply
    Biota
    Twin Lakes Fish
    Past, Present, Future
    Past, Present, Future
    Past, Present, Future
    Past, Present, Future
    Present, Future
    Past, Present, Future
    Past, Present, Future
    Past, Present, Future
  5. Exposure to DDT and arsenic in sediment from the east ditch may lead to a low increased cancer risk. The estimated cancer risk from exposure to chlordane, dieldrin, toxaphene, and beryllium in east ditch sediments is very low.
  6. Exposure to DDT, arsenic, benzene hexachloride, and aldrin in on- site shallow soils may lead to a low increased cancer risk. The estimated cancer risk from exposure to DEHP, heptachlor epoxide, and hexachorobenzene is very low.
  7. Short term exposure to DDT in east ditch sediments may result in central nervous system disorders. Symptoms of nervous system disorders in humans are hyperexcitability, tremors, and convulsions. Some animal studies have found developmental and reproductive effects associated with DDT exposure, also.
  8. Cancer rates for the general community surrounding the THAN site are not known at this time. Currently, ADPH is conducting a cancer study in a neighborhood west of the site to determine if it does have a higher rate of cancer.
  9. Trespassers may enter the site from the east side. Because of high levels of contamination in the east ditch and on-site shallow soil, trespassers are at risk to adverse health effects when exposed for short periods of time. No signs are posted to warn of potential contamination in the east ditch or on-site.
  10. There is insufficient data to characterize the extent of contamination in the northwest-trending plume.
  11. The lack of groundwater sampling during the driest periods of the year makes it difficult toassess if the Lower Eutaw has been contaminated. Contaminants were detected during Phase Isampling, but subsequent sampling during Phase II of the remedial investigation showed no signsof contamination. Both sampling periods were conducted during the rainy season.

RECOMMENDATIONS

A. Cease/Reduce Exposure Recommendations

  1. Further restrict public access to the THAN site by completely fencing the site. This will prevent unknowing individuals from being exposed to contaminants which may cause adverse health effects.
  2. Sediments and soil from the east ditch and the storm sewer system should be remediated to prevent exposure to CSX Transportation workers, DOT workers, utility workers, telephone repairmen, and trespassers.
  3. Groundwater in the Alluvial/Terrace aquifer should be remediated to prevent potential exposure to contaminants.
  4. Soil, sediment, and surface water from the west ditch and drainage area directly behind the THAN site should be remediated to prevent potential exposure to contaminants.
  5. All on-site media except air should be remediated to prevent potential exposure to contaminants.
  6. Warn CSX Transportation workers, DOT workers, utility workers, telephone repairmen, andworkers on the THAN site about the hazards that exist both on and off-site. This will reduce theamount of exposure to contaminants by individuals most likely to be in the area of the THAN site.

B. Site Characterization Recommendations

  1. Obtain additional sampling data for off-site groundwater at the intermediate well depth in the Twin Lakes community to help characterize the extent of the northwest plume and determine if a completed exposure pathway existed in the past.
  2. Periodic sampling should be done in the deep wells south of the site to detect whether groundwater contamination has migrated to the Lower Eutaw aquifer via a cracked well casing or through groundwater mixing. Contamination was found in well MW-13D. Subsequent resampling did not detect contamination. However, sampling was conducted during the rainy season and dilution may have occurred. We feel that periodic sampling will show whether the contamination has migrated into the Lower Eutaw and whether groundwater mixing is taking place.
  3. Obtain additional off-site groundwater sampling south and southeast of the THAN site todetermine the source of the non-site related contaminants. Monitoring wells should be placedapproximately 200 feet south of monitoring MW-31S and 200 feet south of MW-45S. The wellsshould be both of intermediate and shallow depth as described previously. This will help definethe plume of TCE and tetrachloroethene described in the off-site groundwater pathways section.

C. Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) Recommendations

The data and information developed in the public health assessment of the T. H. Agriculture andNutrition NPL site has been evaluated by the ATSDR Health Activities Recommendation Panel(HARP) for the follow-up activities. Members of the HARP panel concurred with the designationof Public Health Hazard because CSX Transportation workers, DOT workers, utility workers,telephone repairmen, and trespassers are being exposed to high levels of contamination which maycause adverse health effects over a short time period. The panel made the following recommendation for the THAN site:

  1. Community health education should be provided to the exposed and potentially exposedpopulations on the health effects possible from exposures to contaminants from the THAN site.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

The following Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the T. H. Agriculture and Nutrition NPL sitecontains a description of actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or ADPH at and in the vicinity of thesite subsequent to the completion of the public health assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is toensure that the public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides aplan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse health effects resulting from exposure tohazardous substances in the environment. The following public health actions will be implemented by ATSDR and/or ADPH:

  1. ATSDR, in cooperation with ADPH, will evaluate the feasibility of a community educationprogram designed to acquaint the community with the possible health effects caused by being exposed to contaminants from the THAN site.


PREPARERS OF REPORT

J. Neil Daniell
Geologist
Alabama Department of Public Health
Division of Epidemiology

ATSDR Regional Representative:
Robert Safay
Senior Regional Representative
Region IV
ATSDR

ATSDR Technical Project Officer:
Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
Toxicologist
State Programs Section
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
ATSDR


CERTIFICATION

This T.H. Agriculture and Nutrition/Montgomery Plant Public Health Assessment was preparedby the Alabama Department of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for ToxicSubstances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology andprocedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
Technical Project Officer
Superfund Site Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public healthassessment, and concurs with its findings.

Richard Gillig
for Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES

  1. Yarbrough, A. Summary of Facility Investigations, unpublished notes on the THAN-ICCERCLA site, USEPA Waste Management Division, Region IV. 1991.

  2. Martin, J. P. AWIC Compliance Inspection Report Sheet, Alabama Water Improvement Commission. 1980.

  3. Golder Associates, Inc. Potential Off-Site Sources, 3405 Birmingham Highway, Montgomery,Alabama, for T.H. Agriculture and Nutrition Company, Inc. 1990.

  4. Martin, J. P. Letter to John Dow (P.E. LaMoreaux & Associates), from Alabama WaterImprovement Commission. 1981.

  5. P. E. LaMoreaux & Associates. Letter to J. M. Conway (Superintendent, Montgomery WaterWorks and Sanitary Sewer Board). 1982.

  6. Wells, H. & Cleary, J. Written response by T.H. Agriculture & Nutrition to listing of the siteon the National Priorities List. 1989.

  7. P. E. LaMoreaux & Associates. Letter to W. B. Truk, Jr., Alabama Hazardous Waste Branch,Land Division. December 11, 1985.

  8. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Data Quality Objectives for RemedialResponse Activities. Office of Emergency Remedial Response. March 1987.

  9. United States Environmental Protection Agency. National Priorities List: Alabama. Office ofEmergency and Remedial Response. September 1990.

  10. Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study,Installation Restoration Program. Maxwell Air Force Base: Montgomery, Alabama. 1989.

  11. Eckenfelder Inc. Oversize Figures for the Remedial Investigation Report, THAN SuperfundSite, Montgomery, Alabama. June 29, 1993.

  12. King, D. T. Facies Stratigraphy and Relative Sea-Level History Upper Cretaceous EutawFormation, Central and Eastern Alabama. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, v. 40.,pp. 381-387. 1990.

  13. City of Montgomery Planning, Programming, and Transportation Department. MontgomeryCensus Tract Block Counts Printout and Map, based on 1990 Census. 1991.

  14. Additional sampling and bore log data collected by Townsend Environmental Consulting.

  15. Telephone communication with Alan Yarbrough, United States Environmental Protection Agency. March 1994.

  16. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for DDD, DDE,DDT. Atlanta: October 1992.

  17. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chlordane. Atlanta: February 1993.

  18. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Aldrin/Dieldrin. Atlanta: April 1993.

  19. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Toxaphene. Atlanta: December 1990.

  20. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Antimony. Atlanta: September 1992.

  21. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. Atlanta: April 1993.

  22. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Beryllium. Atlanta: April 1993.

  23. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Lead. Atlanta: April 1993.

  24. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Manganese. Atlanta: July 1992.

  25. Eckenfelder Inc. Remedial Investigation Report. Tennessee: June 1993.

  26. Eckenfelder Inc. Supplemental Remedial Investigation Report. Tennessee: February 1994.

  27. Telephone communication with Waynon Johnson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. June 1994.

  28. Johnson, Waynon. Letter to Alan Yarbrough (USEPA), from Alabama Department of Environmental Management. June 1994.

  29. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The nature and extent of lead poisoningin children in the United States: a report to Congress. Atlanta: ATSDR, 1988.

  30. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Heptachlor/Hepatchlor epoxide. Atlanta: April 1993.

  31. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile forHexachlorbenzene. Atlanta: April 1990.

  32. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Napthtalene. Atlanta: October 1993.

  33. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Atlanta: April 1993.

  34. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Alpha-, Beta-,Gamma-, Delta- Hexachlorocyclohexane. Atlanta: October 1992.

  35. World Health Organization. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition: Manganese. Report of aWorld Health Organization Expert Committee. Technical Report Service, 532, WHO, Geneva,Switzerland. Pg. 34-36. 1973.

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