Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content

PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

Bloomington PCB Sites
Bloomington, Monroe County, Indiana
and
Spencer, Owen County, Indiana


SUMMARY

Based on the environmental data and information reviewed by staff of the Indiana StateDepartment of Health (ISDH), the six PCB sites discussed in this report are concluded to pose apast public healthhazard to specific subpopulations in Owen and Monroe Counties, who wereexposed to site-related PCBs through completed pathways. Evidence indicates that humans wereexposed in the past at the six Consent Decree sites, to PCBs and other contaminants in theenvironment. If exposures to the concentrations of the contaminants present at one or more ofthe Consent Decree sites occurred frequently and for long-term (greater than 1 year) suchexposures, could cause adverse health effects.

Soil and fish taken from site-related streams and creeks exceeded the Agency for ToxicSubstances DiseaseRegistry (ATSDR) Minimal Risk Level (MRL) for Chronic oral exposures. Various PCB-specific epidemiologic studies have been performed on the Bloomingtoncommunity. These studies did not reveal an excess number of medical problems or conditions inmembers of the affected community compared with members of comparison communities whowere not exposed.

A review of the health outcome data for Monroe and Owen Counties did not indicate that thesites have adversely affected the health of the general population. Elevated PCB body burdenswere found in specific subgroups from Monroe and Owen Counties; i.e., scavengers and fisheaters. These subgroups may have signs and symptoms of adverse health outcomes related toexposures at the site that would not be identified through analysis of county-wide databases.

These six sites pose an indeterminate public healthhazard because groundwater in the area is usedas a source of potable water, and because PCBs have been found in private wells, although not athigh levels. Private well sampling data for chemicals other than PCBs were available only forNeal's Landfill. Because groundwater under the sites is known to be contaminated, the potentialfor contamination of private wells remains.

PCBs were found at a level of health concern in land depressions and springs associated withthesix sites. No data were available at the time of the writing of this report to indicate that thesprings and depressions associated with the Lemon Lane Landfill have been remediated, or thatprovisions have been made to ensure that humans are not exposed to significant concentrations ofPCBs or other hazardous substances.

In accordance with ATSDR guidelines, the ISDH has recommended the following actions: 1)monitoring of all sites for contaminants of concern present in and transported into private wells,2) remedial actions be taken to ensure that humans are not exposed to significant concentrationsof hazardous substances potentially found in the streams (Lemon Lane) and depressions (LemonLane), 3) continued monitoring of fish taken from waterways associated with the six sites, 4)reevaluation of the surface water collection system at Neal's Landfill to ensure protection ofhuman and environmental health, 5) continued communication with the Indiana Department ofTransportation (INDOT) to ensure that human health is not at risk because of the proposedinterchange for State Routes 37 and 46 near Bennett Stone Quarry, 6) washing and peeling(before eating) of all root crop vegetables grown in sewage sludge-treated gardens, 7)development of Health Professional Education programs for nurses and primary care physicians,8)surface soil sampling by state and federal environmental agencies at the approximately 180 otherPCB-contaminated sites to establish priorities for cleanup, 9) congener-specific serum PCBanalyses of people whose blood has previously been tested for PCBs, 10) a study of contaminantlevels within the ABB Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Corporation) plant and their effect onthe health of workers, and 11) reevaluation of former Westinghouse workers.


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Electrical capacitors have been manufactured in Bloomington (Monroe County) since 1958 bytheWestinghouse Electric Corporation (the plant was sold by Westinghouse to ABB in January1990). PCBs, predominantly Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1016 (42 percent and 41 percent chlorineby weight respectively), were used as dielectric insulating fluids in these capacitors from 1958through 1977 when the manufacture and commercial distribution of PCBs was banned by the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Capacitors not meeting quality control specificationswere disposed in four landfills in Monroe County (Anderson Road Landfill, Bennett' Dump,Lemon Lane Landfill, and Neal's Landfill) and at one site in Owen County (Neal's Dump) by localwaste haulers. Since draining the dielectric fluid from these capacitors was very labor intensive,they were discarded without being drained.

In 1976, PCBs were found in the influent and effluent of the Winston-Thomas SewageTreatmentPlant in Bloomington, and in sterilized sewage sludge obtained from the plant by citizens whoused it for fertilizer in their gardens. EPA later found that Westinghouse had been dischargingwaste PCBs and/or PCBs which were spilled during manufacturing processes, into the sanitarysewer system.

A Consent Decree was signed on May 25, 1985, by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, theU.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Indiana Department of Environmental Management(IDEM), the City of Bloomington, and Monroe County. Westinghouse is required to remove anestimated 650,000 cubic yards of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated soils, sludge, solidwaste, and stream sediments from six sites located in the Bloomington, Indiana area. (U.S.District Court. Consent Decree. 1985)

The Consent Decree PCB sites are the Anderson Road Landfill, Bennett Stone Quarry,LemonLane Landfill, Neal's Dump, Neal's Landfill, and the Winston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant. Two of the sites, Anderson Road Landfill and the Winston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant, areConsent Decree enforced cleanup sites; the others are all on the NationalPriorities List (NPL).

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry(ATSDR), a federal public health agency,has undertaken a multi-phase project to address concerns related to the impact of the six ConsentDecree sites on public health.

This project has three purposes: 1) to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the publichealthimpact of the six Consent Decree sites in Monroe and Owen Counties, 2) to determine the publichealth implications of incinerating the PCB-contaminated soil, and 3) to identify and evaluate thepertinent public health considerations of technically feasible alternatives.

Four tasks will be performed concurrently by ATSDR to fulfill the aforementioned goals. Threeof these tasks are associated with issues concerning the incineration of PCB-contaminated soils. Expert panels will be formed to address these three issues.

  1. A report will be written describing a comprehensive evaluation of all past, present, and future human exposure pathways, available health outcome data, all previous health studies, and community health concerns associated with the six Consent Decree sites. This report is task number one and will be incorporated into the final ATSDR Public Health Assessment of the six PCB Consent Decree sites.
  2. A comprehensive review of site-specific PCB-related health studies is to be performed.
  3. The public health implications of incinerating the PCB-contaminated soil will be evaluated.
  4. The public health implications of other technically feasible treatment strategies will beevaluated.



BACKGROUND

Staff from the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH), the Indiana Department ofEnvironmental Management (IDEM), and Westinghouse conducted a site visit at the six ConsentDecree sites on January 28, 1993. Access to all sites except the Anderson Road Landfill wasrestricted by locked, chain-link fences posted with warning signs. Anderson Road Landfill isaccessible since this is still an operating solid waste landfill. The Interim Storage Facility is at theWinston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant. A plastic liner had been placed on top of thecontaminated soil inside the on-site Interim Storage Facility (an aluminum, steel-supportedbuilding). A concrete floor and liner prevents contaminated, excavated soil from entering the soilunder the storage facility.

Anderson Road Landfill

The Anderson Road Landfill, currently operated as the Monroe County Landfill, is a sanitarylandfill approximately 11 miles northeast of Bloomington in Monroe County, Indiana.

The Anderson Road Landfill site is in a sparsely populated area of Monroe County. Land usearound the site is mainly for farming. Residences in the area surrounding the site are all connectedto the municipal water line. The population within a ½-mile radius of Anderson RoadLandfillconsists of approximately 30-45 people. Residences closest to the site are east and north within a¼- to ½-mile radius. All interim remedial measures were completed in 1987.

Bennett Stone Quarry

The Bennett Stone Quarry site, also known as Bennett's Dump, is in central Monroe Countyabout 2½ miles northwest of Bloomington. The site was an industrial waste dump from1966 to1980. Stout's Creek runs north along the western side of the site. Private groundwater wells areused for all domestic purposes. Stout's Creek formerly was used for watering cattle. It was alsoused for mud baths by a few local residents who would also swim and bathe in the quarries.

The Bennett Stone Quarry site is in a sparsely populated area. Fewer than 10 people livewithin a½-mile radius of the site. Land near the site has been used for quarry operations. Propertieswestand northwest are cattle farms. A residential development has been proposed for the area acrossfrom the site, immediately west of Stout's Creek.

Lemon Lane Landfill

Lemon Lane Landfill is a landfill covering approximately 10 acres on the northwest side of theCity of Bloomington in Monroe County, Indiana. This site was a municipal dump from 1930 to1964. The site is adjacent to a residential neighborhood to the east and within 1,000 feet of aresidential neighborhood to the southwest. A railroad line and a cemetery are adjacent to the siteon the south.

Approximately 300 residences are within 2,000 feet of the site. Residences and businesses intheimmediate vicinity and downgradient of the site are served by a municipal water supply.

Neal's Dump

Neal's Dump is in Owen County, Indiana. It served as the municipal dump from 1968 to1972. The actual old fill area is relatively small in comparison with the other Consent Decree sites. Spencer, Indiana, which has a population of 2,609, is approximately 4 miles north of the site. Private residences are within 1,000 feet of the site; the nearest residence is within 50 feet. Privatewells are used for potable water. It has been estimated that 954 people live within a 3-mile radiusof the site, and that 65 people live within a ¼-mile radius of the site. The primary land usein thesite area is agricultural. A preliminary health assessment of the site was conducted by the ISDHin September 1991.

Neal's Landfill

Neal's Landfill is in a rural area of Monroe County, Indiana. The site was a municipal dumpfrom1949 to 1972. The main fill area covers approximately 150 by 300 yards. Between 30 and 40people live within a ½-mile radius of the site.

Land use near the site includes 10 to 20 residences approximately ½ mile west and½ mile northof the site. Wooded lands immediately adjacent to the site do not appear to be used. There is amunicipal water service to the immediate area surrounding the site; however, some residences inthe vicinity of the site still rely on private groundwater wells.

Winston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant

The Winston-Thomas facility is an inactive sewage treatment plant owned by the City ofBloomington, Indiana, and located on the southwestern side of the City of Bloomington. InNovember 1975, Westinghouse advised the City of Bloomington that they had been dischargingPCBs into the city sewer system. PCBs were then sampled for and confirmed at highconcentrations in sewage, Tertiary Lagoon clay and sludge, and in the trickling filter at the plant.

In July 1986, the Bloomington City Utilities Board approved temporary storage of wastes oncityproperty at the Winston-Thomas site. After the approval and receipt of all necessary permitsneeded for construction, Westinghouse built the Interim Storage Facility before remediation beganat the other sites as outlined in the Consent Decree.

Approximately 500 people live within a 1-mile radius of the site. The site is surrounded byresidential areas to the west and south, and by commercial developments to the north and east. Aresidential area is west of the site beyond Clear Creek and the Illinois Central Railroad tracks. The municipal water supply serves the area in the vicinity of the site. The current status ofresidential well use in the area is unknown.

The site history, all remedial measures undertaken, the former contaminant levels, andthecompleted and potential exposure pathways forthese sites are shown in the following tables.



ANDERSON ROAD LANDFILL SUMMARY
HistoryRemedial MeasuresFormercontaminantLevels Exposure Pathways
On-SiteOff-SiteCompletedPotential
0.75-acre site

Industrial
Dump 1960-1970

*4,487 tons PCB-
contaminated waste

Surface capacitors and
stained soils removed

On-site pond drained

Regrading and backfilling

Installation of clay cap

Final remedial measures
completed in 1987

Surface Soil
3,600 ppm PCBs

Groundwater
<1 ppb PCBs

Surface Water
5-27 ppt dioxin/furan

Soil Gas
3-2,100 ppm VOCs


Past
On-site ambient Air

Past
On-site Surface Soil

Past, Present, & Future
Off-site Groundwater

Past
Off-site Surface Water

* Identified in Consent Decree as total soil potentially contaminated.


BENNETT STONE QUARRY SUMMARY
HistoryRemedialMeasuresFormer contaminantLevelsExposurePathways
On-SiteOff-SiteCompletedPotential
4-acre site

Industrial waste dump
1966-1980

Limestone quarry

*55,000 cubic yards of
PCB-contaminated soils

chain-link fence installed

site capped

surface capacitors
removed

sediments removed from
Stout's Creek

Surface Soil
380,000 ppm PCBs

Surface Water
7 ppb PCBs

Sediment
5 - 102 ppm PCBs

Groundwater
1,100,000 ppb PCBs

Residential Wells
ND-<1 ppb PCBs

Surface Water
ND PCBs

Fish
6.5 ppm PCBs

Past
On-site ambient Air

Past
On-site Surface Soil

Past
Off-site Surface Water

Past
Off-site Sediment

Past
On-site Surface Water

Past, Present, Future
Off-site Groundwater

ND = non-detect
* Identified in Consent Decree as total soil potentially contaminated.


LEMON LANE LANDFILL SUMMARY
HistoryRemedialMeasuresFormer contaminantLevelsExposurePathways
On-SiteOff-SiteCompletedPotential
10-acre site

Municipal
dump 1930s-1964

Compound sinkhole

*176,000 cubic yards
PCB-contaminated waste

Chain-link fence installed

Surface water erosion control

Surface capacitor removal

Landfill clearing and grading

Gas venting system

Synthetic membrane cap installed

Ambient Air
0.6-194 µg/m3 PCBs

Surface Soil
330,000 ppm PCBs

Subsurface Soil
<1-22 ppm PCBs,
0.001-0.002 ppm dioxins/furans

Soil Gas
ND for VOCs

Groundwater
2.41 ppb PCBs

Ambient Air
1-30 µg/m3 PCBs

Soil Boring
0.0001-0.005 ppm
dioxins/furans

Subsurface Soil
0.2-360,000 ppm PCBs

Groundwater
<1 ppb PCBs

Residential Wells
non-detect - <1 ppb PCBs

Surface Water
ND for PCBs

Spring Water
2-12 ppb PCB

Sediment
1,000 ppm PCB

Past
On- and Off-site ambient Air

Past
On-site Surface Soil

Past, Present, and Future
On- and Off-site Wild Game

Past
Off-site Groundwater

Past, Present, and Future
Off-site Surface Water

Past, Present, and Future
Off-site ambient Air

ND = non-detect
* Identified in Consent Decree as total soil potentially contaminated.


NEAL'S DUMP SUMMARY
HistoryRemedial MeasuresFormer contaminantLevelsExposurePathways
On-SiteOff-SiteCompletedPotential
0.5-acre site

Municipal dump 1968-1972

Excavation pit

*14,000 cubic yards

Chain-link fence installed

Surface capacitors and stained soils removed

Erosion control fences installed

Ambient Air
1-61 µg/m3 PCBs

Subsurface Soil
88,000 ppm PCBs

Surface Soil
220,000 ppm

Groundwater
31 ppb PCBs
11 ppb VOCs
8 ppb pesticides
2,600 ppb metals

Sediment
275 ppm PCBs

Ambient Air
<1 µg/m3 PCBs

Surface Soil
<0.001 ppm PCBs

Residential Wells
BDL

Spring Sediment
ND

Past
On-site Surface Soil
Present & Future
Off-site Groundwater

Past
Off-site Sediment

Past
Off-site Surface Water

BDL = below detection limit
ND = non detect
* Identified in Consent Decree as total soil potentially contaminated.


NEAL'S LANDFILL SUMMARY
HistoryRemedialMeasuresFormer contaminantLevelsExposurePathways
On-SiteOff-SiteCompletedPotential
17.6-acre site

Municipal dump 1949-1972

Low area between two ridges

*325,000 cubic yards

Chain-link fence installed

Erosion control fences installed

Regraded and capped portions
of the site

Site drainage re-routed

Spring treatment facility
installed

Sediment collection traps
installed

Surface capacitors and stained
soils removed

Sediment in Conard's Branch
removed

Sediment in Richland Creek removed

Surface Soil
219,000 ppm PCBs

Groundwater
9.6 ppb PCBs

Surface Water
9.8 ppb PCBs

Spring Sediment
1,700 ppm PCBs

Fish
279 ppm PCBs

Vegetation
1,100 ppm PCBs

Residential Wells
ND-7 ppt PCBs

Surface Water
6 ppb PCBs
184,000 ppb metals

Spring Surface Water
3-7 ppb PCBs
0.1-56 ppb VOCs
40,000 ppb metals

Sediment
68 ppb PCBs

Fish
8 ppm PCBs

Past
On- and Off-site ambient Air

Past
On-site Sediment

Past
On- & Off-site Wild Game

Past, Present, & Future
Off-site Surface Water and Sediment

Past
Off-site Fish

Past
On-site Surface Soil

Present & Future
Off-site Groundwater

Present & Future
Off-site Surface Water and Sediment

Future
Unknown Fish

ND = non-detect
* Identified in Consent Decree as total soil potentially contaminated.


WINSTON-THOMAS SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT SUMMARY
HistoryRemedial MeasuresFormer contaminantLevelsExposurePathways
On-Site Off-SiteCompletedPotential
26-acre site

Sewage treatment plant 1933-1982

*Volume
- Tertiary Lagoon 55,000 cubic yards
- trickling filter rocks 20,000 cubic yards
- stored sludge 4,000 cubic yards
- digester sludge 5,500 cubic yards
- drying bed media 4,400 cubicyards
- abandoned lagoons 5,000 cubic yards

Chain-link fence installed

Removed sediments from
Clear Creek adjacent to
the site

Work on digester lids and
water trickling filter

Ambient Air
BDL for PCBs

Abandoned lagoon
700 ppm

Groundwater
7 ppb PCBs

Tertiary Lagoon borings
660 ppm PCBs

Tertiary Lagoon clay
15 ppm PCBs

Tertiary Lagoon core sludge
4,400 ppm PCBs

Tertiary Lagoon sludge
2,400 ppm PCBs

Trickling filter
22.1 ppb PCBs

Residential Wells
ND-98 ppt PCBs

Surface Water
ND-0.9 ppb PCBs

Sediment
ND-1,300 ppm PCBs

Fish
ND-85 ppm PCBs

Past, Present, & Future
Off-site Fish

Past, Present, & Future
Off-site sewage sludge

Past, Present, & Future
On- & Off-site wildlife

Past
Off- and On-site ambient Air

Past & Future
On-site Surface Water

Past
Off-site Surface Water and Sediment

Past, Present, & Future
Off-site Groundwater

Past
Off-site Cattle

BDL = below detection limit
ND = non-detect
* Identified in Consent Decree as total soil potentially contaminated.


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION

A summary of all chemicals of concern is shown by site and media in the table below. Otherchemicals found were not at levels of health concern.

Summary of Chemicals of Concern by Site and Media
SiteChemicals of Concern and AffectedMedia
Anderson Road LandfillPCBs: On-site subsurface soil
On-site groundwater

Hepta-chlorodibenzofuran: On-site leachate pond surfacewater

Bennett Stone QuarryPCBs: On-site soil
On-site pond sediment
On-site groundwater
Clear CreekPCBs: Fish tissue
Lemon Lane LandfillAluminum: Off-site springs surface water
Cadmium: Off-site groundwater
Off-site springs and streams surface water
Naphthalene/2-methylnaphthalene: Off-site spring sediment
PCBs: On-site groundwater
On-site subsurface soil
Off-site sediment
Off-site surface water
Tetrachloroethene: Off-site springs surface water
Trichloroethylene: Off-site groundwater
Off-site springs surface water
Neal's DumpPCBs: On-site subsurface soil
On-site groundwater
Neal's LandfillAluminum: Off-site stream surface water
Arsenic: Off-site stream surface water
Boron: Off-site stream surface water
Chromium: Off-site springs surface water
Chloroethane: On-site groundwater
Cobalt: Off-site stream surface water
Dioxins: On-site soil borings
Dioxins & Furans: On-site surface soil
Heptachlor: Off-site spring surface water
Lead: Off-site stream surface water
PCBs: On-site ambient air
On-site groundwater
On-site sediment
On-site surface water
Off-site surface water
Off-site sediment
Sodium: Off-site stream surface water
1,1,1-Trichloroethane: On-site groundwater
Trichloroethylene: On-site groundwater
Off-site streams surface water
Vanadium: Off-site streams surface water
Vinyl Chloride: On-site groundwater
Zinc: Off-site streams surface water
Winston-Thomas FacilityPCBs: On-site groundwater
On-site surface water
On-site sludge (Tertiary Lagoon)
Off-site sediment

Based on the environmental data reviewed, the six PCB sites discussed in this report weredeemedby the ISDH to pose a past public health hazard to specific subpopulations in Owen and MonroeCounties. People who participated in the following activities have past completed exposure pathways:

  • scavengers;
  • people who ate fish from Richland Creek, Conard's Branch, and Clear Creek;
  • trespassers;
  • children who played on the landfills;
  • people who ate wild game that roamed or lived on the landfills;
  • people who participated in recreational activities at the quarries, Stout's Creek, RichlandCreek,and Conard's Branch;
  • people who ate vegetables from gardens where PCB-contaminated sewage sludge wasapplied; and
  • landfill workers.

Information on these exposed populations was gathered through the 1986 exposure AssessmentStudy conducted on the population surrounding the six PCB Consent Decree sites (Stehr et al.1986).

Present and future potential exposure pathways existfor the following people from various routes of exposure:

  • people who use private wells for potable water;
  • people who have contact with springs associated with the Lemon Lane Landfill; and
  • people who participate in recreational activities at Richland Creek and Conard's Branch.
  • people who eat fish from Richland Creek, Conard's Branch, and Clear Creek

Various PCB-specific epidemiologic studies (see following list) have been conducted on theBloomington community. These studies did not reveal an excess number of medical problems orconditions in members of affected communities compared with members of comparisoncommunities who were not exposed. Specific increases in disease outcomes and certain types ofcancers have been seen in occupationally exposed people.

  • Centers for Disease Control (CDC) study of the health effects of individuals who used PCB-contaminated sewage sludge on their gardens (Baker et al. 1980)
  • National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of the metabolic and health consequences of occupational exposures to PCBs (Smith et al. 1982)
  • CDC/ISDH studies of PCB exposures of residents near three waste sites (Lemon LaneLandfill,Neal's Landfill, and Bennett Stone Quarry)
      - Health effects associated with serum PCB levels (Stehr et al. 1986)
      - Serum PCB levels in people at high risk of exposure in residential andoccupational environments (Stehr et al. 1986)
      - Effects of PCBs and lipemia on serum analysis (Steinberg et al. 1986)
  • Study of higher and lower chlorinated serum PCB congeners in individuals who used PCB-contaminated sludge in their gardens and capacitor manufacturing workers (Steele et al. 1986)
  • NIOSH/ISDH follow-up health study of workers occupationally exposed to PCBs (NIOSH. HETA 84-339. 1990)
  • ISDH/NIOSH study to evaluate the mortality experiences of a cohort of Westinghouse Electric Corporation workers occupationally exposed to PCBs (NIOSH. HETA 89-116-2094. 1991)
  • ISDH/NIOSH study of proportional hazards model to examine the variations between cumulative PCB exposure and site-specific cancer mortality (Sinks et al. 1992)
  • CDC/ISDH study to evaluate the potential for using domestic animals in the surveillance of environmental exposures (Schilling et al. 1988)
  • ISDH/ATSDR study to evaluate the health implications of general community exposures to PCBs (Steele and Richter. 1992)
  • NIOSH study of serum PCB concentrations in 50 workers at the Westinghouse plant(Phillips et al. 1989)

A review of the health outcome data for Monroe and Owen counties did not indicate that the siteshave had an adverse health impact on the general population. White females were the onlypopulation that showed statistically significant increases in cancer (ovaries, cervix, and uterus). The data reviewed did not suggest an environmental component to these cancers since there wasno consistent increase in any one particular type. (EPA, U.S. Cancer Mortality Rates and Trends1959-1979). Data of all fetal deaths in Monroe and Owen Counties were reviewed. The ISDHBirth Problems registry isrelatively new; thus, the information it contains cannot yet be analyzedfor significant trends or problems that may result from exposure to site-relatedchemicals.

To evaluate health effects, ATSDR has developed a Minimal RiskLevel (MRL) for chemicalscommonly found at hazardous waste sites. The MRL is an estimate of daily human exposure to achemical below which non-cancer, adverse health effects are unlikely to occur. MRLs are basedon human and animal studies. MRLs are developed for each route of exposure such as ingestionand inhalation, and forthe length of exposuresuch as acute (less than 14days), intermediate (15-364 days), and Chronic (greater than 365days). ATSDR presents these MRLs in toxicologicalprofiles. These chemical-specific profiles provide information on health effects, environmentaltransport, human exposure, and regulatorystatus. In the following discussion, wherever possible,ATSDR Toxicological Profiles have been used for the chemical evaluation.

The MRL for Chronic oral exposure was exceeded forestimated doses of PCBs from assumedexposures to contaminated soil, groundwater, sediment, surface water, and consumption ofPCB-contaminated fish taken from Richland Creek, Conard's Branch, and Clear Creek.

The table below shows the multi-media PCB ingestion exposure doses and cancerrisk summariesfor all of the Consent Decree sites. The table shows the assumptions of ingested doses of PCBspresent in various mediaexceeded the ATSDR MRL for noncancer health effects, as well as theextent of cancer risk posedby ingestion at theestimated doses.


Table 1.

Table of PCB Multi-Media ingestion exposure Doses and Cancer risk Summaries for All of the Consent Decree Sites
SITEMEDIATIME OF
EXPOSURE OR
POTENTIAL
EXPOSURE
ESTIMATED
IED*
ABOVE MRL
CANCER RISK
Anderson Road Landfillsubsurface soil (on-site)

groundwater (on-site)

past

past

yes

yes

low increase

no apparent

Bennett Stone Quarrysurface soil (on-site)

pond sediment (on-site)

groundwater (on-site)

past

past

past

yes

yes

yes

very high

no apparent

moderate increase

Lemon Lane Landfillgroundwater (on-site)

subsurface soil (on-site)

sediment (off-site)

past

past

present

yes

yes

yes

low increase

high increase

moderate increase

Neal's Dumpsubsurface soil (on-site)

groundwater (on-site)

past

past

yes

yes

moderate increase

very high increase

Neal's Landfillgroundwater (on-site)

surface water (off-site)

sediment (off-site)

present

present

present

yes

yes

yes

low increase

low increase

low increase

Winston-Thomas Facilitygroundwater (on-site)

surface water (on-site)

sediment (off-site)

past

present

present

yes

yes

yes

low increase

low increase

high increase

* IngestionExposure Dose

The six Consent Decree PCB sites pose an indeterminate public healthhazard becausegroundwater is used as a source of potable water. Data on the sampling of private wells forchemicals other than PCBs are available only for Neal's Landfill.

On-site monitoring wells at Anderson Road Landfill and Bennett's Stone Quarry showcontamination with dioxins and furans. Community members near these two landfills use waterfrom private wells. On-site monitoring wells show trichloroethylene (TCE) and dioxincontamination at Lemon Lane Landfill. Private wells around this site have been sampled forPCBs. During the dye tracer studies for Lemon Lane Landfill and Neal's Landfill, when dye wasfound in a residential well, EPA sampled for priority pollutants including dioxins and furans. Private wells in the communities surrounding Neal's Dump, Neal's Landfill, and theWinston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant have not shown levels of PCB contamination greaterthan 1 partper billion (ppb). The on-site groundwater PCB contamination indicates that there is a potentialfor these wells to become contaminated.

Community health concerns were derived from several sources, including meetings with localresidents, and county and city officials. Their concerns are listed below.

  • Will the health study point out correlations such as cancer and miscarriages due to PCBs?
  • Are their physicians aware of the literature regarding the toxicity of exposure to PCBs?
  • What about former and current workers at the Westinghouse/ABB plant. Many of the former workers have stated that they feel their health is deteriorating. Current workers are concerned that they are still being exposed to PCBs (from residual contamination) while working in the plant.
  • How will the study show a true picture of the health effects when it is limited to only theConsent Decree sites? What about ABB (formerly Westinghouse) and Fell Iron & MetalInc.,which are in heavily populated areas?

Based on the evaluation of the environmental data, exposure pathways, health outcomedata,health studies, and estimated exposure doses, the ISDHrecommends the following:

  1. monitor all sites for the presence in and transport into private wells of TCE, dioxins and furans, PCBs and any other site-related contaminants of concern;
  2. take remedial actions to ensure that people are not exposed to significant concentrations of cadmium, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethylene, naphthalene/2-methyl naphthalene, and PCBs potentially found in the springs and streams associated with the Lemon Lane Landfill;
  3. continue to monitor fish from Clear Creek, Richland Creek, and Conard's Branch for PCB contamination;
  4. reevaluate the surface water treatment collection system at Neal's Landfill by regulating the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Level to a level that is protective of human and environmental health to ensure that the sediments in Richland Creek and Conard's Branch are not re-contaminated;
  5. continue communications with the Indiana Department of Transportation, the Monroe County Health Department, and the Indiana Department of Environmental Management to ensure that human health is not at risk from the proposed interchange for State Routes 37 and 46 near Bennett Stone Quarry;
  6. wash and peel all root crop vegetables grown in sewage sludge-treated gardens before cooking or consumption; studies show that PCB uptake in plants is limited, and contamination primarily occurs through adhesion to the soil on the exterior of vegetables (Sommers LE. July 7, 1976);
  7. develop education programs for nurses and primary care physicians to address community concerns that local health professionals may not be familiar with the signs and symptoms of health effects caused by exposures to PCB-contaminated media;
  8. state and federal environmental agencies sample surface soil at the approximately 180 other PCB-contaminated sites to establish priorities for cleanup; and
  9. conduct studies as listed below in follow-up to the previous studies conducted on theBloomington population and to address community concerns:
    • a study to determine congener-specific serum PCBs of people who have previously had their blood tested for PCBs;
    • a study of contaminant levels within the ABB Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Corporation) plant and their effects on the health of workers; and
    • reevaluate the health of former Westinghouse workers exposed to PCBs.


INTRODUCTION

This report contains an evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardoussubstancesinto the environment and the past, present, and future pathways by which the surroundingcommunity may be exposed. This information will be grouped into Background, EnvironmentalContamination and Other Hazards, and Pathways Analyses sections for each individual site. Adescription of these sections is given below.

BACKGROUND

The background section of this report contains information on the history and description of asitewhich includes but is not limited to:

  • types of activities carried out at the site
  • duration of commercial and industrial activities
  • the length of time contamination has been present at the site
  • changes in size or development of the site
  • current and planned remedial activities

This section also contains a "Site Visit" report which is an essential element of the reportprocess. The site visit allows a firsthand observation of the current conditions at the site.


GENERAL OVERVIEW

Electrical capacitors have been manufactured in Bloomington (Monroe County) since 1958 bytheWestinghouse Electric Corporation (the plant was sold by Westinghouse to ABB in 1990). PCBs, predominantly Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1016 (42 percent and 41 percent chlorine byweight respectively), were used as dielectric insulating fluids in these capacitors from 1958through 1977 when the manufacture and commercial distribution of PCBs was banned by the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Capacitors not meeting quality control specificationswere disposed in four landfills in Monroe County (Anderson Road Landfill, Bennett' Dump,Lemon Lane Landfill, and Neal's Landfill) and at one site in Owen County (Neal's Dump) by localwaste haulers. Since draining the dielectric fluid from these capacitors was very labor intensive,they were discarded without being drained.

In 1976, PCBs were found in the influent and effluent of the Winston-Thomas SewageTreatmentPlant in Bloomington, and in sterilized sewage sludge obtained from the plant by citizens whoused it for fertilizer in their gardens. EPA later found that Westinghouse had been dischargingwaste PCBs and/or PCBs which were spilled during manufacturing processes, into the sanitarysewer system.

A Consent Decree was signed on May 25, 1985, by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation,theU.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Indiana Department of EnvironmentalManagement (IDEM), the City of Bloomington, and Monroe County. Westinghouse is requiredto remove an estimated 650,000 cubic yards of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminatedsoils, sludge, solid waste, and stream sediments from six sites located in the Bloomington, Indianaarea. (U.S. District Court. Consent Decree. 1985)

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry(ATSDR), a federal public health agency,has undertaken a multi-phase project to address concerns related to the impact on public healthresulting from exposures to PCB-contaminated media at these six ConsentDecree sites.

This project has three purposes: 1) to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the publichealthimpact of the six Consent Decree sites located in Monroe and Owen counties, 2) to determine thepublic health implications of incinerating the PCB-contaminated soil, and 3) to identify andevaluate the pertinent public health considerations of technically feasible cleanup alternatives.

The Consent Decree PCB-related sites (see Figure 1) are listed below, and are the only sitesaddressed at this time in this report. The ABB Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Corporation)and Fell Iron & Metal Inc. are not a part of this report, but may be addressed in the future.

     Site

     Status     Location
Anderson Road Landfill
Bennett Stone Quarry
Lemon Lane Landfill
Neal's Dump
Neal's Landfill
Winston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant
EPA/State Enf. 8/85
NPL 9/84
NPL 9/83
NPL 6/86
NPL 9/83
EPA/State Enf. 8/85
Monroe County
Monroe County
Monroe County
Owen County
Monroe County
Monroe County

Four of these sites (Bennett Stone Quarry, Lemon Lane Landfill, Neal's Landfill, and Neal'sDump) are listed on the EPA National Priorities List (NPL) of sites targeted for cleanup under theComprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liabilities Act (CERCLA) as Superfund sites. Anderson Road Landfill and the Winston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant arenot listed on the NPL as Superfund sites, but weremade part of the comprehensive cleanupdefined in the Consent Decree.

The first phase of the Consent Decree cleanup involves removal and remedial measures tocontainthe six sites until the extensive excavation of PCB-contaminated materials begins. Soil samplesfor cleanup levels were not performed. A thorough discussion of site-specific prior remediationcan be found under the Site Description and History subsection for each site. An interim storagefacility was constructed by Westinghouse in 1986 at the former Winston-Thomas SewageTreatment Plant to store excavated PCB-contaminated materials until the high-temperature PCBincinerator is constructed. Groundwater investigations have also been initiated at five of the sites. The sixth site (Anderson Road Landfill) was remediated in 1987 by excavating and hauling allPCB-contaminated materials from this site to the interim storage facility.

The second phase of the Consent Decree cleanup involves the permitting, construction, andoperation of a municipal solid waste fueled, high-temperature incinerator which will incinerate thePCB-contaminated materials excavated from all the Consent Decree sites.

Westinghouse submitted permit applications for the PCB incinerator on July 30, 1991. Theseapplications included:

  1. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) incinerator application;
  2. Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Air Quality application; and
  3. Certificate of Environmental Compatibility (CEC) application.

On August 22, 1991, Westinghouse submitted the RCRA landfill application for theincineratorash landfill, and on September 30, 1992, the CEC application for the ash landfill was submitted tothe Indiana Hazardous Waste Facility Site Approval Authority. The board membership of the Indiana Hazardous Waste Facility Approval Authority is appointedby the governor, and is not a part of the IDEM. The IDEM as a party to the Consent Decree,however, is presently prohibited from reviewing these permit applications pursuant to SenateEnrolled Act 649, which requires IDEM to conduct a study of "alternative PCB technologies"before considering permit applications related to the proposed PCB incinerator.

Legislation was also passed [House Enrolled Act 1298] prohibiting the Indiana HazardousWasteFacility Site Approval Authority from issuing Certificates of Environmental Compatibility for theincinerator and ash landfill sites before IDEM completes this study. This study was to beconcluded by July 1, 1993, but has been delayed. The study must now be concluded by July 1,1995.

Westinghouse has the responsibility of regrading, capping, and revegetating all sites afterremovalmeasures are completed. Once all Consent Decree sites have been remediated, Westinghouse willcontinue groundwater monitoring and site maintenance through a post-closure period of up to 30years.

Current Status

HEA 1429 also required incinerators using solid waste as fuel to be included in the local SolidWaste Management District Plan (which is approved by IDEM) before they can be constructed. The Monroe County Solid Waste Management District Board submitted their plan to IDEM onJune 30, 1992. The plan does not include incineration but does state that the plan will be revisedif the PCB incinerator is built. IDEM has approved the Monroe County Solid WasteManagement District Solid Waste Plan.

The Coalition Opposed to PCB Ash in Monroe County, Inc. (COPA), a local anti-incineratorgroup, was awarded a $200,000 EPA TechnicalAssistance Grant (TAG) in June 1992. Thisgrant will allow COPA to hire expert advisors to study and interpret the EPA's investigation ofthe four Westinghouse NPL sites. (IDEM. General Overview of Consent Decree Sites. July1992.)

This report is written with the intent to further characterize and evaluate all past, present, andfuture human exposure pathways, available health outcome data (including all previouslyconducted health studies of human exposure to PCBs), andcommunity health concerns associatedwith the six Consent Decree sites. This report will be incorporated into the final ATSDR PublicHealth Assessment of these six sites.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS

The tables in this section list the contaminants of concern. All data for the Consent DecreePCBsites may not be listed in this report. This report has been written from information provided tothe ISDH by various individuals and agencies. Environmental data have been collected for manyyears. There is no one single source for the results of all the environmental sampling that has beenperformed by all the concerned parties. Some data were provided without summary sheets andlaboratory quality assurance or controls. Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) is providedonly wherein it was available. The ISDH relies on the information provided in the referenceddocuments and assumes that adequate QA/QC measures were followed with regard to chain ofcustody, laboratory procedures, and data reporting. This type of data was evaluated and thenincorporated using professional judgment. It is possible that pertinent data have beeninadvertently left out of this document or does not exist. As pertinent information becomesavailable, it will be incorporated in the this report, and the conclusions and recommendations willbe adjusted whenever warranted. All chemical concentrations have been rounded whenappropriate.

Normally, surface soil samples are considered to be taken from the surface to a maximumdepth of3 inches. Any samples taken below 3 inches are usually considered to be a subsurface soil sample. When the depth of the soil sample is unknown, the sample is considered to be a subsurface soilsample. When PCBs are spilled onto the ground, the soil will absorb the PCBs until it issaturated, with any residual PCB continuing to migrate further into the soil. Soil samplesidentifying PCB contamination at subsurface levels would also have corresponding surface soilcontamination at equal or greater concentrations. Therefore, for those samples where sampledepths are unknown, or where the sample depth may be deeper than what is normally consideredfor surface soil samples, these types of samples will be categorized as surface samples. This willalso allow these samples to be used as worst-case scenarios to evaluate the potential for adversehealth outcomes resulting from human exposure.

The contaminants of concern in the subsequent sections of this report are evaluated, and then,it isdetermined whether exposure to them haspublic health significance. The ISDH selects anddiscusses a chemical as a contaminant of concernbased upon the following factors:

  1. the chemical has no comparison value and/or may be toxic to humans at specified levels;
  2. the comparison of on-site and off-site concentrations with public health assessment comparison values for (1) noncarcinogenic endpoints and (2) carcinogenic endpoints; and
  3. an evaluation of the field data quality, laboratory data quality, and sample design;
  4. community health concerns related to a particular chemical.

In the data tables that follow under the On-site Contamination and Off-site Contaminationsubsections, the listed chemical does not mean that it will cause adverse health effects fromexposures. Instead, the list indicates which chemicals will be evaluated further in the report.

Comparison values for this report are contaminantconcentrations in specific media that are usedto select contaminants for further evaluation.

The comparison value for PCBs in groundwater is 0.05 ppb. In many instances, the level ofdetection determined and used by the laboratory is 0.1 ppb. A laboratory test for PCBs in thewater supply could show non-detect and still be above the comparison value. We thereforeconsider groundwater to be a potential route of exposure where privatewells are being used as asource of potable water.

The data tables include the following acronyms:
  • CREG=
  • Cancer risk EvaluationGuide. CREGs are estimated contaminant concentrationsbased on a one excess cancer in a million persons exposed over a lifetime. They are calculatedfrom EPA's cancer slope factors.

  • EMEG =
  • Environmental media Evaluation Guide. EMEGs are media-specific comparisonvalues that are used to select chemicals of concern at hazardous waste sites. They are derived byATSDR from the minimal risk level.

  • FDA =
  • Food and Drug Administration

  • LTHA =
  • Lifetime Health Advisory (for drinking water). The LTHA is derived by EPA fromthe Drinking Water Equivalent Levels (DWEL) for noncarcinogens. For noncarcinogenic organicand inorganic compounds, LTHAs are 20% and 10% respectively of the DWEL. For possiblecarcinogens, the LTHA is divided by an additional factor of 10.

  • MCL =
  • Maximum contaminant Level (fordrinking water). MCLs represent contaminant concentrations that EPA deems protective of public health (considering the availability andeconomics of water treatment technology) over a lifetime (70 years) at an exposure rate of 2 litersof water per day. While MCLs are regulatory concentrations, Proposed Maximum contaminant Level Goals and Maximum contaminant LevelGoals are not.

  • MRL=
  • The MRL is an estimate of daily human exposure to a chemicalbelow whichnoncancer, adverse health effects are unlikely to occur. In lieu of sufficient human data, MRLsare typically based on the results of animal studies in which the most sensitive adverse effect level(LOAEL) or the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) has been identified. To derive theMRL, the LOAEL or the NOAEL is divided by levels of uncertainty ranging from 10 to severalthousand to account for species differences and human variability in response. (MRL isreferenced in the Public Health Implications section.)

  • NAS =
  • National Academy of Sciences. It has been suggested by the NAS, that where watersupplies contain more than 20,000 ppb of sodium, dietary restriction to less than 1 g of sodium isdifficult to achieve and maintain.

  • ppm =
  • Parts per million

  • ppb =
  • Parts per billion

  • ppt =
  • Parts per trillion

  • RMEG =
  • Reference dose media Evaluation Guide. RMEGs are media-specific comparisonvalues that are used to select chemicals of concern at hazardous waste sites. They are derived byATSDR from the reference dose level.

    Toxic Chemical Release Inventory

    The Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) is an EPA database that contains information onchemical releases from industries in the United States. It is used to determine the potentialsources of contamination near NPL sites. The TRI includes only chemical releases that have beenreported since the database was initiated in 1987. The utility of this database is limited in thisreport as the sites in question have undergone remediation prior to 1987. A computer search wasconducted by county of all available toxic release inventory (TRI 87-90) data to determine thenumber of industries in Monroe and Owen Counties that potentially emit chemicals into theenvironment which are in common with the Bloomington PCB sites.

    The TRI listed six facilities in Monroe County which emit the following chemicals into the air: xylene, toluene, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, dichloromethane, n-butyl alcohol, and nitric acid. There were no water or land emissions reported for these chemicals. Emissions listed in the TRIare quite possibly within a facility's allowable emission rate limits.

    No TRI data were found for Owen County.

    PATHWAYS ANALYSES

    To determine whether nearby residents are exposed to contaminants migrating from the site,andif former non-remediation workers were exposed to contaminants on the site, the ISDH evaluatesthe environmental and human components that lead to human exposure. These pathwaysanalysesconsist of five elements: a source of contamination, transport through an environmental medium,a point of exposure, aroute of human exposure, and an exposedpopulation.

    The ISDH categorizes an exposure pathway as acompleted or potential exposure pathway if the exposure pathwaycannot be eliminated. Completed pathways require that the five elements existand indicate that exposure to a contaminant hasoccurred in the past, is currently occurring, orwill occur in the future. Potential pathways, however, require that at least one of the fiveelements is missing, but could exist. Potential pathways indicate that exposure to a contaminant could have occurred in the past, could be occurring now, or could occur in the future. An exposure pathway canbe eliminated if at least one of the five elements is missing and will never bepresent.

    Separate tables identify the completed and potential exposure pathways foreach site. Thediscussion that precedes these tables incorporates only those pathways that are important andrelevant to the site. Scavenging and trespassing are treated as having past completed exposure pathways to contaminants due to past visible evidence of these activities, as well as reports fromlocal officials regarding these activities. It is impossible to estimate the actual number ofindividuals who may have trespassed on these sites, particularly where the capacitors weredeposited. Information was also provided by approximately 50 individuals on the location andnumber of times that scavenging for metal from discarded capacitors took place. Mostscavengers performed activities at most, if not all, of the six Consent Decree sites resulting inmultiple exposures. Other documented activities included swimming in the quarries locatedaround the Bennett Stone Quarry, and children playing on the sites (Stehr et al. 1986). Some ofthe exposure pathwaysthat have been eliminated are also discussed.



    Next Section         Table of Contents

      
     
    USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341
    Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888-232-6348

    A-Z Index

    1. A
    2. B
    3. C
    4. D
    5. E
    6. F
    7. G
    8. H
    9. I
    10. J
    11. K
    12. L
    13. M
    14. N
    15. O
    16. P
    17. Q
    18. R
    19. S
    20. T
    21. U
    22. V
    23. W
    24. X
    25. Y
    26. Z
    27. #