Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content

PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

Bloomington PCB Sites
Bloomington, Monroe County, Indiana
and
Spencer, Owen County, Indiana


ANDERSON ROAD LANDFILL (Monroe County)

BACKGROUND

A. Site Description and History

The Anderson Road Landfill, currently operated as the Monroe County Landfill, is a sanitarylandfill approximately 11 miles northeast of Bloomington in Monroe County, Indiana (see Figure1). An approximate 3/4-acre area at this landfill was used by the Westinghouse ElectricCorporation in the 1960s and early 1970s for disposal of PCB-contaminated capacitors andmaterials. Only the portion of the site where PCB-contaminated materials were disposed has beenremediated under the Consent Decree (U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Indiana.Consent Decree. 1985). Contaminated soil removed from the site (1987) was transported to theInterim Storage Facility of the Winston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant. There was also a pondon-site which was drained and the water and silt were transported to the Winston-ThomasSewage Treatment Plant's Tertiary Lagoon and Interim Storage Facility, respectively. (IDEM.General Overview of Consent Decree Sites. July 1992.)

Interim Measures

All interim measures required under the Consent Decree for this site were completed byWestinghouse in 1987. These measures included:

  1. the excavation and transportation of 4,847 tons of PCB-contaminated capacitors, soil, and materials to the Interim Storage Facility;
  2. the removal and transportation of all water and silt from an on-site pond to the Winston-Thomas Tertiary Lagoon and Interim Storage Facility, respectively;
  3. the regrading and backfilling of all excavated areas; and
  4. the placement of a soil cover capable of supporting vegetation on top of the final clay capinstalled by Monroe County.

Closure

In 1989, the IDEM approved a request from Monroe County to use the remediated AndersonRoad Landfill site for future solid waste disposal as part of the Monroe County Landfill operation.

Current Status

As of July 1992, there was no change in status.

B. Site Visit

On January 28, 1993, Ms. Dollis Wright and Mr. Garry Mills of the ISDH, and staff from theIDEM and Westinghouse visited the Consent Decree sites. Observations made during the sitevisit to the Anderson Road Landfill site are listed below.

  1. The site is accessible from the north.
  2. The Anderson Road Landfill is now operating as the Monroe County Landfill.
  3. The area on the back side where the Anderson Road Landfill was formerly located has been remediated.
  4. There were residences located east and west within a ¼- to ½-mile radius of the landfill.

C. Demographics, Land Use, Natural Resource Use, and Environmental Setting

Demographics

The Anderson Road Landfill site is in a sparsely populated area of Monroe County. Thepopulation within a ½-mile radius of Anderson Road Landfill consists of approximately 30-45people. The population in the area is predominantly white. There are no sensitive populations(schools, nursing homes, parks, hospitals) in the immediate vicinity of the site. Residences closestto the site are located east and west within a ¼- to ½-mile radius.

Land Use

The area around the Anderson Road Landfill site is mainly farm land.

Natural Resource Use

Aquifer units in the area of Anderson Road Landfill yield very little water. This is due to the find-grained nature of the surface soil material, and the impermeable nature and thickness of thebedrock found in this area.

Data logs of private wells within a 1-mile radius of the site indicate that most of the wellspenetrate into and derive very little water from the shale and siltstone bedrock.

Washington Township Water Company supplies water to the homes along Anderson, Lydy, andFish Roads. Future groundwater use in this are is expected to be very limited (Monroe CountySolid Waste Management District. Permit Application for Anderson Road Landfill 1990Expansion)

Environmental Setting

Shale and siltstone underlie Anderson Road Landfill. This geological material is relativelyimpermeable and forms a confining layer for water flow. Groundwater flow is toward thesoutheast. Although the soils are in general impermeable, leachate seeps may develop due to thecontrast between the native soil materials and the solid waste buried there.

Boring data indicates that there are four geological units under the site. Units one and two are theprinciple zones for lateral water movement because of their coarser texture and because theyoverlie impermeable siltstone and shale bedrock. Units one and three are believed to be semi-confined and hydraulically connected. Leakage into the bedrock along fractures and beddingplanes is believed to occur. (Monroe County Commissioners. 1988. Geologic and HydrogeologicEvaluation of the Monroe County Anderson Road Landfill.)

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS

A. On-site Contamination

Ambient Air

Air sampling for PCBs was conducted at the Anderson Road Landfill site by Westinghouse duringSeptember of 1986, and May through August of 1987. Sampling was done east, west, north, andsouth at the perimeter of the site. The method of sampling was not reported in the data. NoPCBs were detected in any samples. (Sara Technologies. Anderson Road Landfill, June 1987through August 1987, personnel, site and perimeter air monitoring results during remediation.January 1988.)

Surface Soil

Soil samples were collected by EPA at six locations at the Anderson Road Landfill site in March1987. Sample locations and depths are unknown due to the absence of a summary sheet and asite map being attached to the raw data. Samples were analyzed for solvents, total PCBs, andpesticides. Seven solvents and total PCBs were detected. Pesticide levels were below theirrespective detection limits. PCBs shown in Table 1 were the only chemicals of concern. (GulfCoast Laboratories Inc. Analytical Report)

Table 1.

On-Site Surface Soil Sample Results for Anderson Road Landfill, March 1987
ChemicalSample
ID
Concentration
Range (ppm)
Comparison Value
ppmSource
PCBs (total)S40-S36<1-9D0.01EMEG

D = Results are on a dry weight basis


Subsurface Soil

In November 1981 a soil investigation study for PCBs was conducted by a private contractor forthe City of Bloomington (see Figure 2). The scope of the study included the investigations offour areas at the site property. At each location a core soil sample from the ground surface to adepth of 2 feet was collected. (A-1 Disposal Corporation. Letter to Monroe CountyCommissioner regarding PCB Contamination, Monroe County Landfill.)

Area A - The temporary storage area for open and leaking capacitors and soil. Soil samples were collected at five locations (A-1,-2,-3,-4,-5,) within this area. At the center of this area, an additional soil sample was collected from 2 to 3 feet. PCBs were detected from 2,400 - 3,600 ppm.

Area B - This area was possibly contaminated as a result of movement of the capacitors and soils to Area A. Soil samples were collected at six locations (B-6 - 11) within this area. PCBs were detected at 60 ppm (B-10).

Area C - This area was possibly contaminated due to vehicular traffic. Soil samples were collected at ten locations (C-12 - 21) within this area. PCBs were detected at 50 ppm (C-19).

Area D - This is the original dump site. Soil samples were collected at 16 locations (D-22 - 37) within this area. At four locations, an additional core soil sample from 2 to 4 feet was collected. PCBs were detected at 180 ppm (D-26).
Soil Gas

Soil gas sampling at the Anderson Road Landfill was conducted by Westinghouse in May 1987. Eighteen samples (SG51 - 68) were collected, plus one blank sample, and analyzed for volatileorganic chemicals(VOCs) only. Sample depths are unknown due to the absence of informationdetailing the procedures used. A total of 13 VOCs were detected during sampling. Chemicals ofconcern in soil gas sampling are shown in Table 2.


Table 2.

On-Site Soil Gas Organic Sample Results for Anderson Road Landfill, May 1987
ChemicalSample
Number
Concentration
Range (ppm)
Comparison Value
ppmSource
1,1-dichloroethaneSG58-SG623-16*
trans-1,2-dichloroetheneSG60-SG556-5310CREG
fluorotrichloromethaneSG65-SG672-2,100*
vinyl chlorideSG59-SG6546-1802 ppbEMEG
xyleneSG64-SG6510-700*

* No comparison value available


Groundwater - Monitoring Wells

Groundwater samples were collected for PCB analyses from three monitoring wells (MW # 1, 2,& 3) by Monroe County Health Department on May 1982 through August 1983. PCBs were notdetected until 1983, when results showed concentrations of 0.5 ppb and 0.2 ppb, respectively, inmonitoring well numbers 2 and 3. (Monroe County Health Department. Letter regarding testresults for Monroe County Landfill. 12/2/83.)

In May and August of 1985, monitoring well numbers 1, 2, and 3 were tested once again. Thehighest levels of PCBs that were detected in these wells was 0.1 ppb, 0.2 ppb, and 0.3 ppb,respectively.

Testing of these same wells in May of 1986 revealed no PCBs. In 1987, all analysis of samplestaken from monitoring well numbers 1, 2, and 3 were non-detect for PCBs (<0.1 ppb). (MonroeCounty Solid Waste Management District. Letter to Indiana State Department of Healthregarding groundwater and leachate data. 2/16/94.)

From October 1989 through June 1993, groundwater monitoring was done for volatile organiccompounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and inorganic chemicals. Allchemicals were below their respective detection limit and/or comparison value. (Monroe CountySolid Waste Management District. Letter to Indiana State Department of Health regardinggroundwater and leachate data. 2/16/94.)

In January 1987, a private contractor for the City of Bloomington collected water samples fordioxin and furan congener groups at the Anderson Road Landfill site. Samples were collectedfrom the surface of the east leachate pond and a "pop up" of leachate which drained into the westleachate pond.

Congeners are chemical compounds that are closely related to one another by virtue of theirchemical makeup and the effects they exert on each other as well as other chemicals. As certainchemicals show similar properties, they are assumed to produce similar health effects. A toxicequivalency factor is a number that has been assigned to a chemical that represents its relativedegree of toxicity (ATSDR. Interim Procedures for Estimating Risks Associated with Exposureto Mixtures of Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Dibenzofurans. 1989 Update). This number isthen multiplied by the concentration of the chemical found in the media. The product is the toxicequivalency factor concentrations for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Three congeners,heptachloro-dioxin at 27 ppt, hepatachloro-dibenzofuran at 5 ppt, and octachloro-dioxin at 74 pptwere detected. Heptachloro-dibenzofuran and heptachloro-dioxin were the only congeners foundat a level of concern. (Analytical Services Inc. Analysis of Samples for Dioxins and FuransTetrachloro through Octachloro Congener Groups, Water Samples #S-1 and S-2. January 16,1987.; Monroe County Health Department. Letter to Mr. Lamb regarding Consent Decree;Monroe County Solid Waste Management District. Groundwater data at the Monroe CountyLandfill. March 1993.) Chemicals of concern in these media are shown in Table 3. Dioxins andfurans have not been detected in any subsequent leachate analysis taken from 1990 to 1993.


Table 3.

Leachate Ponds for Dioxin and Furan at Anderson Road Landfill, January 1987
ChemicalMaximum
Concentration
(ppt)
*TEF**TEFC
(ppt)
***2,3,7,8-TCDD
Comparison Value
pptSource
heptachloro-dibenzofurans50.010.050.04EMEG
heptachloro-dioxin270.010.30.04EMEG

* Toxic equivalency factor
** Toxic equivalency factor concentration
*** 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin


B. Off-Site Contamination

In November of 1983, results of samples taken from off-site monitoring wells by the City ofBloomington Utilities revealed PCBs at <0.1 ppb at monitoring wells 1 and 3, and PCBs at 0.2ppb in monitoring well 2 (see Figure 31). (Monroe County Health Department. Letter to ISDHDivision of Land Pollution Control regarding November 1983 results of water quality monitoringprogram for Monroe County Landfill. 2/29/84.)

PCB analysis of samples taken in December of 1983 from the leachate collection system revealed1.2 ppb, and analysis of samples from the leachate pond revealed a concentration of 1.6 ppb(Monroe County Health Department. Letter to Purdue University regarding test results forMonroe County Landfill, 12/83.)

Analysis of the leachate effluent at Monroe County Landfill from 1990 to 1992 were all non-detect for PCBs and/or below the detection limit for cadmium, chromium copper, lead, nickel,silver, zinc, and cyanide (Monroe County Solid Waste Management District. Letter to IndianaState Department of Health regarding groundwater and leachate data. 2/16/94.)

C. Quality Assurance and Quality Control

Acetone and methylene chloride were detected in the blank, as well as the soil samples collectedin March 1987. These two chemicals are present in all laboratories. Low levels of thesecontaminants in the blanks as well as the unknown samples indicate a possible/probable blankcontamination.

D. Physical and Other Hazards

This site is accessible on the northside. Per the site visit on January 28, 1993, however, therewere no apparent physical hazards. The buildup of methane gas in the soil can be a problem atmunicipal solid waste landfills. No information was found at the time of the writing of the reporton methane gas sampling.


PATHWAYS ANALYSES

A. Completed Exposure Pathways

On-site Ambient Air

Prior to the remediation of this site, capacitors and related debris were located in areas ofAnderson Road Landfill. Landfill workers and scavengers for capacitor metals and trespasserscould potentially have been exposed to air contaminated with PCBs. PCBs can be released intothe environment from poorly maintained hazardous waste sites. PCBs do not readily evaporate;they bind very strongly to soil particles and can become airborne as a result of blowing dust. PCBs in air can be present as both airborne solid and liquid particles, and vapor that eventuallyreturns to the land and water by settling snow, and rainwater.

Air is a past completed inhalation exposure pathway for landfill workers, and for individuals whoscavenged capacitors and trespassed on the Anderson Road Landfill.

On-site Surface Soil

Before the remediation of Anderson Road Landfill, PCB-contaminated capacitors, soil, andmaterials were located on this site. As the site was accessible, on-site scavenging of PCBcapacitors and general trespassing occurred. Surface soil is a past completed exposure pathwayfor landfill workers, scavengers, and trespassers through ingestion and dermal contact, andinhalation due to off-gassing of soils.

The landfill is currently accessible on the north side. All remedial measures required under theConsent Decree were completed in 1987. The site has been capped with clay, and soil has beenplaced on top of the cap to support vegetation. This remediation measure eliminates surface soilas an exposure pathway.


Table 4.

Completed Exposure Pathways for Anderson Road Landfill
PATHWAY
NAME
EXPOSURE PATHWAY ELEMENTS TIME
SOURCE ENVIRONMENTAL
MEDIA
POINT OF
EXPOSURE
ROUTE OF
EXPOSURE
EXPOSED
POPULATION
NUMBER
OF
EXPOSED
PERSONS
On-site Ambient
Air
Anderson
Road
Landfill
Ambient Air Anderson
Road Landfill
Inhalation Trespassers
Scavengers
Landfill workers
Nearby residents
Unknown
*50
2-3
Unknown
Past
On-site Surface
Soil
Anderson
Road
Landfill
Soil Anderson
Road
Landfill
Ingestion
Dermal contact
Inhalation
Trespassers
Scavengers
Landfill workers
Unknown
*50
2-3
Past

* Possibly exposed at all Consent Decree sites


B. Potential Exposure Pathways

Off-site Groundwater - Private Wells

At the time of the writing of this report, limited data was found for off-site groundwater. Nosampling data was found for private wells. The direction of groundwater flow in this area istoward the southeast. The closest residence is about ½ mile from the site. All on-sitegroundwater samples were non-detect to less than 1 ppb for PCBs. Volatile chemicals werefound in the soil gas analysis; however, residential wells have not been sampled for these volatileorganic chemicals. For individuals who live downgradient from the site, there is a potentialexposure pathway through the ingestion of private well water.

Although the soils in this area are, in general, impermeable, leachate seeps could develop. Leakage into the bedrock is believed to occur. Data logs of private wells within a 1-mile radiusindicate, however, that most of the wells derive very little water from the shale and siltstonebedrock. Available logs of private wells indicate that there are approximately six wells within a 1-mile radius of the site. The closest wells (W3 & W5) are upgradient from the site. Only twowells (W1 & W6) could potentially be affected by on-site contamination migrating off-site. Theactual purpose of these wells are unknown as they are located in the state forest.

On-site Surface Water

The on-site pond contained PCB-contaminated debris, and capacitors. This pond was notsupportive of aquatic life. Photographs revealed a murky, uninviting pond of water. It is assumedthat no one would want to wade in this water. On-site activities of scavengers and trespassersmay have involved dermal contact with the water in this pond. PCBs do not readily evaporate;they bind very strongly to soil particles and can become airborne as a result of blowing dust. PCBs in air can be present as both airborne solid and liquid particles, and vapor that eventuallyreturns to the land and water by settling snow, and rainwater.

The water and silt from this pond was removed during the remediation of this site and placed inthe Winston-Thomas Tertiary Lagoon and Interim Storage Facility respectively. The surfacewater in this pond is a past potential exposure pathway for inhalation of contaminated liquid andparticles due to off-gassing of the pond, and incidental dermal contact. Consumption of gamesuch as rabbit, raccoon, and squirrel that may have roamed Anderson Road Landfill are pastpotential exposure pathways for people who ate them.

Based on a pilot study on the use of animal sentinels in environmental health, dogs that roamedthese Consent Decree sites had elevated PCB serum levels (Schillig et al. 1988). Excretion ofPCBs is slow, so accumulation occurs even at low exposure levels. The higher the chlorination,the longer it takes to be excreted by the body. If wild game forage in the brush on the site, theaccumulation of PCBs is very likely.


Table 5.

Potential Exposure Pathways for Anderson Road Landfill
PATHWAY
NAME
EXPOSURE PATHWAY ELEMENTSTIME
SOURCEENVIRONMENTAL
MEDIA
POINT OF
EXPOSURE
ROUTE OF
EXPOSURE
EXPOSED
POPULATION
NUMBER
OF
EXPOSED
PERSONS
Off-site
Groundwater
Anderson
Road
Landfill
GroundwaterPrivate
Wells
Ingestion
Inhalation
Dermal
contact
Residents
who use private
wells
UnknownPast
Present
Future
On-site Surface
Water
Anderson
Road
Landfill
WaterAnderson
Road
Landfill
Inhalation
Dermal contact
Trespassers
Scavengers
Unknown
*50
Past
On- and Off-Site
Wild Game
Anderson
Road
Landfill
Rabbit, Raccoon,
Squirrel
Anderson
Road
Landfill
IngestionPeople who ate
game that roamed
on-site
UnknownPast

* Possibly exposed at all Consent Decree sites


BENNETT STONE QUARRY (Monroe County)

BACKGROUND

A. Site Description and History

The Bennett Stone Quarry site, also known as Bennett's Dump, is in central Monroe County,Indiana about 2½ miles northwest of Bloomington (see Figure 1). The dump is adjacent to StarQuarry, an active limestone quarry, and consists of a 3½-acre main site, an adjacent smaller ½-acre site, and a very small area to the north of the two main fill areas. Stout's Creek runs northalong the west side of the site. Stout's Creek formerly was used for the watering of cattle as wellas being used for mud baths by several of the local residents who would go to this area to swimand bathe in the quarries. This site was used for the dumping and scavenging of PCB-contaminated electrical capacitors manufactured by Westinghouse and was discovered in 1983through a citizen complaint to the Monroe County Board of Health. A site assessment was madeby the EPA in May 1983 which resulted in a Federal Emergency Cleanup Action in June 1983. Atthe time of the site assessment, surface samples were contaminated with PCBs at concentrationsranging from non-detectable levels to 380,000 ppm. Formerly, there was a small pond on the site. The pond water and pond sediments were also contaminated at concentrations of 7 ppb and 102ppm respectively. Stream sediment samples taken from Stout's Creek had concentrations of PCBsranging up to 5 ppm. This site was subsequently listed on the NPL in September 1984. (IDEM.General Overview of Consent Decree Sites. July 1992.)

Federal Immediate Action Cleanup

The EPA conducted an Immediate Removal Action at the Bennett Stone Quarry site in June andJuly 1983. This action included:

  1. removal of 252 visible capacitors and grossly contaminated soils;
  2. aerial photographic, geophysical, and soil sampling surveys to determine the extent of PCB contamination;
  3. installation of a 14- to 16-inch clay cap and 6-inch top soil cover over the site; and
  4. construction of security fencing around the contaminated areas.

Interim Removal and Remedial Measures

Pursuant to the Interim Remedial Measures defined in the Consent Decree, Westinghouse hascomplied with the posting of PCB warning signs along the length of Stout's Creek bordering theBennett Stone Quarry, and has maintained the integrity of the clay and vegetative cap over thissite. During the preliminary remediation of the sites, in order to facilitate the fencing of the site,areas with stands of trees were included. Open areas, where significant contamination existed,were covered with a clay cap. The cap was subsequently seeded. Currently the site is coveredwith grass. Also required under the Consent Decree was the removal of PCB-contaminatedstream sediments from Stout's Creek. A Westinghouse contractor hydro-vacuumed streamsediment from 1,600 linear feet of Stout's Creek in 1987 and transported this material to theInterim Storage Facility to await incineration. Westinghouse must also monitor stream sedimentsin Stout's Creek for PCB contamination during the excavation of the Bennett Stone Quarry. Inorder to establish pre-closure baseline PCB data, Westinghouse conducted PCB sampling ofindicator sediment areas in Stout's Creek in June 1988.

Final Removal Measures

An estimated 55,000 cubic yards of material will be excavated for incineration by Westinghouse. This will include all solid waste plus an additional 2-foot depth of soil to bedrock as a buffer zone.

Current Status

The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) is considering a new proposal for theconstruction of an interchange for State Roads 46 and 37 in Monroe County. This project is partof a proposal for improvements to State Road 46 between Bloomington and Ellettsville that willtraverse within about 250 feet of the Bennett Stone Quarry site.

This new proposal being studied includes the construction of an underpass below State Road 37,which will require the removal of 600,000 cubic yards of material over an old quarry known asMule Hole #2. This quarry is alleged by scavengers to be a Westinghouse PCB dump site and islisted on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability ActInformation System (CERCLIS) list. In January and March 1991, IDEM and the EPA,respectively notified INDOT of their agencies' general concerns about this new proposal. Bothagencies have asked for more information and plans so that detailed comments can be provided.

The Monroe County Health Department submitted a letter to INDOT on June 4, 1993 regardingthis problem. Their recommendation to INDOT was to conduct an environmental impactstatement for this project, paying close attention to groundwater contamination, the presence ofproducts of incomplete combustion, and other contaminants besides PCBs.

The IDEM did receive additional information on the INDOT project after completion of the datagathering phase of this report. The IDEM submitted comments on July 26, 1993, to INDOTconcerning a draft boring location, sampling, and testing plan. A report has not been prepared forpotential human exposure pathways.

B. Site Visit

On January 28, 1993, Ms. Dollis Wright and Mr. Garry Mills of the ISDH, and staff from IDEMand Westinghouse visited the Consent Decree sites. Observances made during the site visit to theBennett Stone Quarry site are listed below.

  1. Access to the site is restricted by a locked chain-link fence with posted warning signs.
  2. The site has a clay cap with vegetation and trees on it. There are also areas within the boundaries of the site, adjacent to the cap, where trees are growing.
  3. There was an active stone-cutting operation (Star Quarry) near Stout's Creek, which is located southwest of the site.
  4. The closest residence, which may be vacant, is located ¼ mile northwest of the site.
  5. A quarry adjacent to the site (east) is partially fenced with posted warning signs. It wasreported that this quarry was used in the past for swimming by students.

C. Demographics, Land Use, Natural Resource Use, and Environmental Setting

Demographics

The Bennett Stone Quarry site is in a sparsely populated area. Less than 10 people live within a½-mile radius of the site. Sensitive population areas (high school) are within a ½- to 2-mile radiusof the site. The population in the site area is predominantly white.

Land Use

Historically, land in the vicinity of the site has been used for quarry operations. There is an activestone mill within 50 feet of the southwest corner of the site. Properties to the west and northwestare farms raising beef cattle. There is a quarry immediately east of the site that has been usedoccasionally by local residents for swimming and hiking. Warning signs prohibiting swimming areposted. Light manufacturing and some retail business are also in the area. A residentialdevelopment has been proposed in the area immediately west of Stout's Creek across from thesite.

Natural Resource Use

Stout Creek flows north along the west side boundary and ultimately empties into Bean BlossomCreek 4 miles to the north. Water from Stout Creek was and may be used by cattle raised on thefarm to the west and northwest of the site. According to county health officials, residents to thenorth along Stout Creek are not currently serviced by public water supplies and use groundwaterwells. There are still an unknown number of residential wells being used in the immediate vicinityof the site.

Environmental Setting

The Bennett Stone Quarry is on relatively flat terrain with moderate slopes. Underneath the soillayer there are three different types of rock. The first rock layer is limestone. The second layer isa fine grain calcite; and the third layer, which is less than 3-feet thick, is grey/black shale.

On-site groundwater is 2.5 to 14 feet below the soil surface. Recharge to the groundwater occursthrough the quarries located around the site. The number and depth of aquifers below the sitewere not provided in the reviewed data. The major origin of water in the quarries is believed tobe through groundwater. The major discharge for site groundwater is believed to be Stout Creek. Two seeps within the main fill are also discharge points. Groundwater flow at this site is west-northwest toward Stout Creek.


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS

A. On-site Contamination

On May 12, 1983, the Monroe County Health Department, the ISDH, and the EPA conducted asite assessment tour of the Bennett Stone Quarry. The inspection team collected a total of ninemulti-media samples for PCB analysis. All collections of soil, water, and creek sediments (Table6) were grab samples (see Figure 3). (EPA. Site Assessment and Emergency Action Plan for Bennett's Quarry. May 1983.)


Table 6.

On-Site Multi-Media Sample Results from Bennett Stone Quarry, May 1983
MediaLocationMaximum PCB
Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value
ppmSource
Soil*S-01263,0000.01EMEG
Soil*S-02380,0000.01EMEG
Soil*S-03353,0000.01EMEG
WaterS-047
(ppb)
0.05
(ppb)
EMEG
Pond SedimentsS-051020.01EMEG
Creek SedimentsS-06<50.01EMEG
Creek SedimentsS-07<50.01EMEG
Surface SoilS-08310.01EMEG
Creek SedimentsS-09<50.01EMEG

* Depth not specified


Surface Soil

Two soil samples were collected in October 1984 and one composite soil sample was taken byEPA in November 1984 for dioxins and dibenzofurans from east/northeast of the former fill area. These three samples are considered surface soil samples as depths are unknown. A backgroundsample was collected from a nearby city park for baseline data comparison.

Sample results show that two separate dioxin isomers hepta (0.04-0.3 ppt) and octa (1.3-3.3 ppt)are present in the soils at the Bennett Stone Quarry site. The higher chlorinated isomers, inparticular the octa form, were more prevalent. The octa isomer was also present in thebackground sample (0.3 ppt) from the park. All samples were below a level of concern. (EPA.Final report on Bennett Stone Quarry dioxin sampling. March 1986)

In May 1992, Westinghouse collected soil samples for PCB analysis on-site along the securityfence of the satellite area of Bennett's Dump. All samples were non-detect for PCBs.

Subsurface Soil

In June 1983, EPA collected 60 soil borings from this site. PCBs in soils ranged from 0 to 52,332ppm. No site sampling map was provided with this information.

In May 1984, Westinghouse collected 27 soil boring samples throughout the site. No map wasprovided with this information. Boring depths ranged from 0 to 12 inches with a concentration of<1 ppm. The higher concentrations were found in 0 to 6-inch samples (<1-3 ppm). At boringdepths of 0 to 3 inches, PCBs were found at <1 to 3 ppm. PCBs in select samples ranged from 1to 3 ppm. (Westinghouse. Phase I Progress Report on Winston-Thomas Facility and Bennett'sDump. January 1987.)

The EPA conducted sampling activities at the Bennett Stone Quarry in November 1984. Theprimary objective of the work was to obtain representative soil samples to be analyzed for dioxinsand dibenzofurans (results not reported in document). Auger cuttings from the boreholecontained evidence of likely PCB-contaminated refuse, including pieces of capacitors, capacitorbinding, insulation, pieces of brown ceramic insulators, and oil. PCBs were found in this debris ata concentration range of non-detect to 3.3 ppm. No split spoon samples could be retrieved below4 feet due to the debris encountered.

Groundwater - Monitoring Wells

Four quarterly groundwater sampling events were conducted at the site during the period fromMarch to December 1988. Analyses of the samples were performed by EMS Laboratories, Inc. Groundwater sampling events are presented in Figure 4.

All wells installed at the Bennett Stone Quarry, except for Well MW-5, were sampled during eachsampling round. Well MW-5 was not sampled during the June, August, and December samplingrounds because oil was observed in this well during the March 1988 first quarterly event, and allsamples were considered invalid. The top of the water column in this well was examined andfound to exhibit an oily sheen; however, no product layer of globules was noted in a sample thatwas withdrawn for closer visual examination. The PCB levels of concern from the groundwatermonitoring well samples are listed in Table 7. (Westinghouse Environmental Services. QuarterlyGroundwater Sampling Results, December 5-7, 1988, for Bennett's Dump and Winston-ThomasFacility Supplemental Hydrogeologic Investigation, Bloomington, Indiana. January 1989.)


Table 7.

On-Site Groundwater PCB Sample Results for Bennett Stone Quarry, 1988
LocationLatest PCB
Concentration
December
1988
(ppb)
Concentration Range
March - December 1988
(ppb)
Comparison Value
ppbSource
MW-3NDND-0.10.05EMEG
MW-5NS1,100,000*0.05EMEG
MW-6I212-210.05EMEG
MW-61
Duplicate
271-270.05EMEG
MW-6D20.3-70.05EMEG

NS = not sampled
ND = non-detect
* = sampled on 03/09/88


B. Off-site Contamination

Groundwater - Residential Wells

In June 1983, residential water sampling was done in homes surrounding the Bennett StoneQuarry site (see Figure 5). The selection process for these homes was not provided. Thesesamples were taken from yard faucets and cold-water taps in garages. PCBs were detected atconcentrations from non-detect to less than 1 ppb.

In November 1986, the Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs inBloomington conducted a well user survey of approximately 70 residential wells within 5,000 feetof the Bennett Stone Quarry site. Samples were collected at faucets nearest to the well head fordrinking water and were analyzed for PCBs. Documentation for the well user survey did notinclude a location map of the residences sampled. PCBs were detected from non-detect to lessthan 1 ppb. (Indiana University. Collection and Analysis of Drinking Water Well Samples forPCB Content. November 1986.)

In August 1988, the residential wells sampled in 1983 were sampled again. PCBs were the onlyparameter analyzed. All samples had a PCB concentration of less than 1 ppb.

Surface Water - Stout's Creek

Stream samples for PCB analysis were collected by IDEM and Westinghouse in June 1988. These samples were taken to determine baseline PCB concentrations prior to any excavationactivities. The area sampled at Stout's Creek was just downstream of the site. Five samples weretaken upstream, and five samples were taken downstream. All samples were non-detect. (IDEM.Memorandum to Westinghouse CERCLA File regarding indicator stream area sampling, Bennett'sDump - Stout's Creek. June 30, 1988.)

Sediment - Stout's Creek

On June 21, 1988, IDEM and Westinghouse sampled indicator sediment areas as designated bythe state and required by the Consent Decree. All samples were taken at or below the water lineon the north bank. All samples were non-detect. (IDEM. Memorandum to WestinghouseCERCLA File regarding PCB sampling of Stout's Creek. June 30, 1988.)

Fish

Fish sampling of Stout's Creek taken in 1984 consisted of eleven creek chubs (5-7" long) and wasconducted at Acuff Road downstream of the Bennett Stone Quarry site and Bean Blossom Creek. The PCB concentration detected (6.5 ppm) was above the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)action level of 2 ppm and is indicative of contamination (Table 8). Fish from the Bean BlossomCreek sample had low levels of PCBs and are not indicative of serious contamination from Stout'sCreek. (Indiana State Board of Health Memorandum, March 5, 1984)


Table 8.

Off-Site Fish PCB Sample Results, Bennett Stone Quarry, March 1984
Sample LocationSpeciesPCB
Concentration
Range
(ppm)
Comparison Value
ppmSource
Stout's Creek at Acuff Roadcreek chub72FDA
Bean Blossom Creek at Mel CurryRoad above Stout's Creekcarp crappie, bluegill,longear sunfish0.1-0.52FDA
Bean Blossom Creek at
Moon Road below Stout's Creek
channel catfish, pumpkinseed, longear and greensunfish, smallmouth bass0.4-0.92FDA

Concentrations listed as one number indicate only a single sample at that location.

C. Quality Assurance and Quality Control

Data from the groundwater residential well samples collected in August 1988 were reviewed andfulfilled all requirements for QA/QC. All duplicates (field and lab), blanks (field and lab),reference standards, associated retention times, matrix spike and matrix spike duplicates, andsurrogates detection limits were met.

A review of the 1984 data from the soil samples collected for dioxin and dibenzofuran analysisrevealed the tetra isomer as an estimate only, not a true detection level. All other samples weredeemed acceptable for use.

Invalid data were found in the March 1988 groundwater monitoring well sample results and arelisted as non-detect in the data range as there was suspected cross contamination caused fromwell MW-5 at the site.

D. Physical and Other Hazards

Per the site visit on January 28, 1993, there were no apparent physical hazards. This site isaccessible only by key.


PATHWAYS ANALYSES

A. Completed Exposure Pathways

On- and Off-site Ambient Air

PCBs can be released into the environment from poorly maintained hazardous waste sites thatcontain PCBs. PCBs in air can be present as both airborne solid and liquid particles, and vaporthat eventually return to the land and water by settling, snow, and rainwater. This settling can beassumed to occur off-site as well as on-site.

Before June 1983 (interim remediation) there were areas at Bennett Stone Quarry where the soilswere visibly stained with PCB oils. Burning of PCB-contaminated debris was also reported. There is no documentation of the degree of ambient air contamination on the site. Due to thestained soil, as well as the burning, there is a past completed exposure pathway through inhalationfor landfill workers, scavengers, and trespassers.

A 14- to 16-inch clay cap and 6 inches of top soil were placed on Bennett Stone Quarry. Thisinterim remedial measure removes the potential for volatilization of PCBs from contaminatedsurface soil to the air.

On-site Surface Soil

Before the remediation of Bennett Stone Quarry, PCB-contaminated capacitors, soil, andmaterials were located on this site. As the site was accessible, on-site scavenging of PCBcapacitors and general trespassing to access the quarries for swimming occurred. Surface soil is apast completed exposure pathway for landfill workers, scavengers, and trespassers throughingestion and dermal contact, and inhalation due to off gassing of soils.

Soil samples taken after the remediation of the site all revealed chemical samples below a level ofconcern. The clay cap and 6 inches of clean top soil, along with the preliminary remediation ofthis site, remove the potential for exposure to surface soil.

Off-site Surface Water - Stout's Creek/Quarries

Swimming was reported to have occurred in the quarries (Stehr et al. 1986). It is possible thatthe quarries northwest of Bennett Stone Quarry may have PCB contamination due togroundwater being the primary origin of water. These quarries are considered to be pastcompleted exposure pathways for anyone coming into contact with the waters.

As previously mentioned, groundwater from Bennett Stone Quarry discharges directly into Stout'sCreek. Sediments at the bottom of a body of water like Stout's Creek or the quarries generallyact as a reservoir from which PCBs may be slowly released over a long period of time into thewater. The latest water sampling performed at Stout's Creek (June 1988) was non-detect forPCBs. Surface water is a past completed exposure pathway for individuals participating inrecreational activities in Stout's Creek through dermal contact and incidental ingestion.

Off-site Sediment

The sediment route of entry to the human body would be through incidental or accidentalingestion of stream water and/or absorption of the chemicals through the skin. It is important tonote that these chemicals are bound to soil particles, considerably reducing the amount of humanskin and stomach absorption. Swimmers, especially young children, could swallow watercontaining these sediments. The amount of sediment ingested during swimming, wading, and mudbathing is expected to be minimal.

The primary discharge of groundwater from Bennett Stone Quarry is to Stout's Creek. Rechargeto the groundwater occurs through the quarries located around the site.

Sediments were removed from a 1,600-foot section of Stout's Creek. Stream sediment samplestaken from Stout's Creek had PCB concentrations ranging up to 5 ppm. The latest streamsediment sampling data (June 1988) showed all samples were non-detect for PCBs. Sedimentsfound in Stout's Creek presented a past completed exposure pathway through dermal contact andincidental ingestion for individuals who participated in recreational activities in Stout's Creek andthe quarries. Due to an ever changing ecosystem, the current concentrations of PCBs in streamsediments are unknown.


Table 9.

Completed Exposure Pathways for Bennett Stone Quarry
PATHWAY
NAME
EXPOSURE PATHWAYTIME
SOURCEENVIRONMENTAL
MEDIA
POINT OF
EXPOSURE
ROUTE OF EXPOSUREEXPOSED POPULATIONNUMBER OF
EXPOSED
PERSONS
On- and Off-site Ambient AirBennett Stone QuarryAmbient AirBennett Stone QuarryInhalationNearby residents,
Trespassers,
Landfill workers,
Scavengers
Unknown
Unknown
2-3
*50
Past
On-site Surface SoilBennett Stone QuarrySurface SoilBennett Stone QuarryIncidental ingestion,
Dermal contact,
Inhalation
Trespassers,
Landfill workers,
Scavengers
Unknown
2-3
*50
Past
Off-site Surface WaterBennett Stone QuarryWaterStout's Creek,
Quarries
Incidental ingestion,
Dermal contact
Mud Baths, Wading, Recreationalusers of Stout's Creek and the quarries(swimmers)50-100Past
Off-Site SedimentBennett Stone QuarrySedimentStout's CreekIncidental Ingestion,
Dermal contact
Mud baths, wading Recreational Usersof Quarries and Stout's Creek50-100Past
    * Possibly exposed at all Consent Decree sites

B. Potential Exposure Pathways

On-site Surface Water

Based on photographs of the site prior to the interim remediation, there were areas of the sitewhere water pooled and formed a sludge. These areas appeared to be in locations where therewas a lack of, or distressed, vegetation possibly due to PCB contamination. Because of thescavenger and trespasser activities on the site, surface water is a past exposure pathway throughdermal contact. The site is currently capped, removing on-site surface water as an exposure pathway.

Off-Site Groundwater

Based on the 1986 well users survey performed on a 5,000-foot radius of Bennett Stone Quarry,there are approximately 75 private wells in use. Presently, municipal water is supplied to thegeneral area, but there are an unknown number of individuals continuing to use private wells forpotable water.

Groundwater flow is west-northwest toward Stout's Creek. The primary discharge ofgroundwater is to Stout's Creek, with some discharge to two seeps within the main fill area. Thenumber and depth of aquifers below the site were not provided in the reviewed data. There is apast, present, and future potential for private wells that are west and northwest of Bennett StoneQuarry to be contaminated by on-site PCB-contaminated groundwater. Off-site groundwater is apast, present, and future potential pathway for individuals using private wells for potable water.


Table 10.

Potential Exposure Pathways for Bennett Stone Quarry
PATHWAY
NAME
EXPOSURE PATHWAY ELEMENTSTIME
SOURCEENVIRON-
MENTAL
MEDIA
POINT OF
EXPOSURE
ROUTE OF
EXPOSURE
EXPOSED
POPULATION
NUMBER
OF
EXPOSED
PERSONS
On-site Surface WaterBennett Stone QuarryWaterPooled on-site
water
Dermal contactTrespassers

Scavengers

Unknown

*50

Past
Off-site GroundwaterBennett Stone QuarryGroundwaterPrivate
Wells
Ingestion,
Inhalation,
Dermal contact
Residents
who use private
wells (3-mile
radius)
245Past
Present
Future

* Possibly exposed at all Consent Decree sites


LEMON LANE LANDFILL (Monroe County)

BACKGROUND

A. Site Description and History

Lemon Lane Landfill is an approximate 10-acre landfill located on the northwest side of the Cityof Bloomington in Monroe County, Indiana (see Figure 1). The site is adjacent to a residentialneighborhood to the east and within 1,000 feet of a residential neighborhood to the southwest. Arailroad line and a cemetery are adjacent to the site on the south. The City of Bloomingtonoperated the landfill from 1950 to 1964 as a municipal waste landfill and accepted PCB-contaminated electrical capacitors from Westinghouse from 1957 to 1964. Lemon Lane Landfillwas opened in 1933 as a refuse dump in a large elongated compound sinkhole and valleyapproximately 30 feet deep. No records of types or quantities of wastes disposed at this site werekept during its operation. In addition to the original compound sinkhole, other Karst and surfacewater features identified around Lemon Lane Landfill include numerous smaller sinkholes, a fewcaves, three creeks, 14 perennial springs, 14 intermittent springs, and one sinking stream. (IDEM.General Overview of Consent Decree Sites. July 1992.)

Immediate and Interim Removal and Remedial Measures

The EPA contracted for the installation of a security fence around the perimeter of the site in June1983. Following the approval of the Lemon Lane Grading Plan pursuant to the Consent Decree,interim removal and remedial measures began in May 1987. The site was first cleared of all treesand vegetation, and all exposed capacitors were removed and transported to the Interim StorageFacility. Once the eroded south slope was stabilized with a clay cap, the entire site was coveredwith a synthetic liner (TYPAR), followed by 30,000 tons of clean fill and a 36 mil plasticmembrane (HYPALON) cover. Gas collection and filter systems were installed on top of the488,000 square feet of HYPALON cover to complete the immediate and interim removalmeasures in September 1987.

Westinghouse began hydrogeological investigations in the summer of 1987 as part of the interimremedial measures. These investigations resulted in the installation of three new on-sitegroundwater monitoring wells and two additional off-site monitoring wells. Westinghouseconducted a high-flow dye trace study in April 1989, which revealed that during high-flowconditions, there are hydrologic connections between Lemon Lane Landfill and about a dozensprings that discharge within 6,000 feet of the landfill. Based on this dye trace study,Westinghouse determined the original tier-level monitoring well plan outlined under the ConsentDecree to be inadequate to detect PCB contaminant migration from this site. To furthercharacterize the groundwater flow around this site and to determine the possible impact on arearesidential water wells, a second dye trace study was conducted in the summer of 1990. Thetracer dye was injected into three monitoring wells around the landfill and then the springs, andapproximately 80 residential wells were monitored for eight weeks for the presence of dye. Whendye was found, EPA sampled for priority pollutants including dioxins and furans. Only twoabandoned residential wells were found to contain the dye in addition to several springs. Thisstudy revealed that 97% of the dye recovered from the Lemon Lane Landfill discharged at QuarrySpring southeast of the landfill.

Currently, IDEM staff are working with the EPA and Westinghouse to draft a new spring-basedmonitoring plan for the Lemon Lane Landfill site.

Adjacent to the site was a former farm where cattle were raised. A small pond was on the farmnear the site and was used as a source of drinking water for the cattle. Westinghouse purchasedthis property prior to the implementation of the interim removal measures.

Final Removal Measures

Ultimately, approximately 176,000 cubic yards of materials will be excavated for incineration byWestinghouse. This will include excavation of refuse to the pre-Westinghouse landfilling depthsplus a 3-foot buffer zone of soil.

B. Site Visit

On January 28, 1993, Ms. Dollis Wright and Mr. Garry Mills of the ISDH, and staff from IDEMand Westinghouse visited the Consent Decree sites. Observances made during the site visit to theLemon Lane Landfill site are listed below.

  1. Access to the site is restricted by a locked 6-foot chain-link fence with posted warning signs.
  2. A synthetic membrane cap covers the entire site. In addition, there is a clay cover on the south slope underneath the membrane cap.
  3. There was a gas venting system for the site.
  4. The sampling locations at Quarry Springs A, B, and C southwest of the site near railroad tracks were identified.
  5. Coyotes were seen off-site to the south.
  6. The closest residences in the area are located adjacent to the site. Businesses are also within ½- to 1-mile of the site.
  7. An off-site fenced farm pond that was formerly used as a source of drinking water for cattlewas seen to the northwest.

C. Demographics, Land Use, Natural Resource Use, and Environmental Setting

Demographics

The Lemon Lane Landfill site is adjacent to a residential neighborhood to the east and within1,000 feet of a residential neighborhood to the southwest. Approximately 300 residences arewithin 2,000 feet of the site. Sensitive population areas (students at schools) are located within a1- to 1½- mile radius of the site. Indiana University is located 2 miles east of the site. Thepopulation in the site area is predominantly white.

Groundwater flow within the shallow zone during low-flow conditions is interpreted to flow tothe southeast and eventually drain at a series of springs. A minor amount of groundwater frombeneath the site is believed to flow to the northwest and discharge at the following springs: Slaughterhouse, Packing House Road, Packing House Culvert, and to other headwaters of ClearCreek. During low-flow periods, groundwater flow in the deeper, lower zone beneath the site isgenerally to the north/northwest. During high-flow periods, the groundwater flow in the lowerzone is interpreted as being to the east.

Land Use

Within several hundred feet to the west of the site is undeveloped land owned by Westinghouse. Other properties in the area include a commercial area and a cemetery south of the site. TheBennett Stone Quarry Superfund site lies approximately ¾ mile northwest of the site.

Natural Resource Use

Residences and businesses within the immediate vicinity and downgradient of the site are servedby a municipal water supply. There is only one residential well still in operation in the area. Thiswell is on the east side of the site. Testing has indicated that no PCBs are present in this well. The owner of this well had declined to be connected to the municipal water supply. As of April19, 1993, ISDH representatives were informed this individual has agreed to have his residenceconnected to the municipal water.

Environmental Setting

The soils at the Lemon Lane Landfill consist of fill material and native soils ranging in depth from10.5 to 43 feet. The soil under the fill is made up of indigenous red clay. Two different types ofsedimentary rock underlie the soil, St. Louis Limestone and Salem Limestone. St. LouisLimestone is composed of gray to yellow-brown limestone, dolostone, and shale, with a water-bearing zone. Salem Limestone is composed of light grayish and yellow to gray, thick cross-bedded calcarenite (Indiana Limestone). The bedrock at this site dips west to southwest atapproximately 30 feet per mile.

The primary recharge to the groundwater flow system occurs through sinkholes andswallowholes. Some recharge does occur via rain percolation through the soils adjacent to thelandfill.

Two aquifers exist below the site. The shallow aquifer is located at approximately 11 to 22 feetbelow the surface with the deep aquifer occurring at 38 to 50 feet below the soil surface. Theshallow aquifer flows to the southeast and drains at a series of springs during low-flow periods. During high-flow periods, water from the shallow aquifer flows to the northwest discharging atthe slaughterhouse, Packinghouse Road, Packinghouse Culvert, springs, and to other springs ofClear Creek.

Based on hydraulic testing, the deeper zone is less transmissive than the shallow zone. Duringlow-flow periods, the deep aquifer flows to the north and northwest. During high-flow periods,the flow is to the southeast.

Springs and surface streams associated with this site include, but are not limited to the following:

Slaughterhouse
Packinghouse Road
Packinghouse Culvert
Illinois Central
Quarry
Sargent's Pond
Clear Creek
Stout's Creek
Griffy Creek
ICG-1
ICG-2
ICG-3
Fell Iron Spring
Crestmont
WN-1
WS-2
Stony East
Stony West
Detmer A
Detmer B
Pumping Station
17th Street
Urban
Snoddy A
Snoddy B
Hinkle
Abrams
Walcott A
Walcott B
Robertson



ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS

A. On-site Contamination

Ambient Air

During June and July 1983, EPA conducted a pre-cleanup on-site air monitoring study for PCBsat the Lemon Lane Landfill site (see Figure 6). Airborne PCB measurements were collected atthree on-site locations (A, B, & C). Locations A and B were atop a large bank of capacitorswhich extended along the southern edge of the site. Location C was alongside the west boundarytoward the south end of the site.

Battery operated, personal-type pump systems were used to sample during 8-hour, low-volumedaytime periods at a fixed height above the sample locations. High-volume systems wereemployed to sample for 24-hour periods.

Sample location A, for the 8-hour low-volume period, had a concentration detection range of 30-89 µg/m3 (micrograms per cubic meter); B showed 60-194 µg/m3; and C showed 6-20 µg/m3.

Sample location A, for the 24-hour high-volume period, had a concentration detection range of43-45 µg/m3; B showed none; and C showed 13-34 µg/m3.

Because there are no health-based comparison values for PCBs in air, and in accordance withATSDR guidelines, the public health implications of the levels of PCBs found in ambient air atthis site will be discussed later in this report. The levels of PCBs found in the ambient air at thissite are considered to be of concern as there is no health-based comparison value for PCBs in air.

Soil Borings

In March 1984, soil samples were collected by Westinghouse from three boring locations (B-1,-2,-3) in the fill material of the Lemon Lane Landfill site and were analyzed for PCBs. A total ofeight samples were collected at depths ranging from 12 to 24 feet at B-1, 4 to 32 feet at B-2, and6 to 12 feet at B-3. PCBs were found (Table 11) at all three boring locations with aconcentration range of less than 1 to 22 ppm (4 to 6 feet). The detection limit was 1 ppm. (Blasland & Bouck Engineers, P.C. Letter to U.S. Department of Justice regarding laboratoryanalysis of Lemon Lane refuse samples. 5/2/84.)


Table 11.

On-Site Soil Boring PCB Sample Results for Lemon Lane Landfill, March 1984
Soil Boring
Number
PCB
Concentration
Range (ppm)
Comparison Value
ppmSource
B-1<1-20.01EMEG
B-2<1-220.01EMEG
B-3<1-30.01EMEG

In early October 1984, two on-site soil samples were collected by EPA at the site, and wereanalyzed for dioxins and dibenzofurans (see Table 12). The samples collected by EPA weredocumented as surface soil. Polychlorinated-dibenzodioxins and furans were detected in only oneof the samples at 0.002 ppm and 0.001 ppm respectively.

In late October 1984, additional on-site sampling was conducted by EPA at the site. Threesamples were collected from two different boreholes. Sampling also included one blank sample(E-26). All seven samples were analyzed for dioxins and dibenzofurans (see Table 12). Dioxinswere detected in one sample at 0.002 ppm. Dibenzofurans were detected in three other sampleswith a concentration range of 0.0002 to 0.002 ppm.

As certain chemicals show similar properties, they are assumed to produce similar health effects. A toxic equivalency factor is a number that has been assigned to a chemical that represents itsrelative degree of toxicity compared to the most toxic congener of the chemical family. Thisnumber is then multiplied by the concentration of the chemical found in the media. The product isthe toxic equivalency factor concentrations for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Based on therespective toxic equivalency factor for dioxins and furans, the levels found are at the comparisonvalue for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2E-6 ppm). These chemicals are thereforeconsidered to be at a level of health concern.


Table 12.

On-Site Surface Soil/Boring Sample Results for Dioxins and Furans, October 1984
ChemicalSample PeriodMaximum
Concentration
(ppm)
*TEF**TEFC2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-
dibenzo-p-dioxin
ppmSource
octachloro
dioxin
(surface soil)
Early October
1984
0.0020.0012E-62E-6EMEG
octachloro
dibenzofuran
(surface soil)
Early October
1984
0.0010.0011E-62E-6EMEG
octachloro
dioxin
(soil boring)
Late October
1984
0.0020.0012E-62E-6EMEG
octachloro
dibenzofuran
(soil boring)
Late October
1984
0.0020.0012E-62E-6EMEG

* = Toxic equivalency factor
** = Toxic Equivalency Factor Concentration


Subsurface Soil

Four on-site subsurface soil samples were collected at the site by the ISDH and the City ofBloomington in June 1981. All samples were found to contain PCBs. Because the sample depthsranged from surface to 5 feet, all samples are considered subsurface. Samples contained PCBsranging from 1,700 to 330,000 ppm (Table 13).


In June/July 1981, on-site soil samples were collected by EPA at the site and were anal

Table 13.

On-Site Subsurface Soil Total PCB Sample Results for Lemon Lane Landfill, June 1981
Sampled By Sample
Date
Sample
Location
Concentration
Range
(ppm)
Comparison
Value
ppm Source
ISDH 6/81 I-B - I-A 1,700-330,000 0.01 EMEG
City of Bloomington 6/81 B-2 - B-1 28,118-69,160 0.01 EMEG

yzed for PCBs, VOCs, SVOCs, and pesticides (see Figure 7). Soil samples were collected from nine locations (81CL06S01 -81CL06S09) with a sample depth range of surface to 5 feet. Therefore, all soils will be considered subsurface, unless otherwise indicated. Two sample locations (81CL06S08 and 81CL06S09) were capacitor areas.

PCBs were detected at all nine locations with a concentration range of 0.1 to 57,000 ppm (Table14). No other chemicals were reported at their respective detection limits. (EPA. Memorandumto chief of Water and Hazardous Materials Enforcement Branch regarding data results fromLemon Lane Landfill in Bloomington, Indiana. September 9, 1981.)


Table 14.

EPA On-Site Subsurface Soil PCB Sample Results for Lemon Lane Landfill, June/July 1981
Sample
Number
Sample Depth
(feet)
Concentration
Range (ppm)
Comparison Value
ppmSource
81CL06S01Surface60.01EMEG
81CL06S0210.40.01EMEG
81CL06S0330.40.01EMEG
81CL06S0450.10.01EMEG
81CL06S05130.01EMEG
81CL06S0630.10.01EMEG
81CL06S0750.80.01EMEG
81CL06S08Soil around
capacitors,
south side
1,5500.01EMEG
81CL06S09Soil around
capacitors,
west side
57,0000.01EMEG



Soil Gas

On-site soil gas sampling was conducted at the site in April 1987 (see Figure 8). The purpose ofthe sampling was to detect and characterize vapors in the soil pore space at the site. The resultswere analyzed for VOCs. A total of 23 samples were collected from 15 locations. VOCs werenot detected in any samples. (Westinghouse. Letter to EPA, 1987).


Groundwater - Monitoring Wells

Between December 1982 and January 1983, on-site groundwater samples were collected byWestinghouse at the site (see Figure 9). Samples were collected for PCB analysis at fourlocations: MW-3, -4 (shallow), -4 (intermediate), and -4 (deep). Sample depths ranged from 105feet in MW-3, 80 feet in MW-4 (shallow), and 99 feet in MW-4 (intermediate, and in excess of123 feet in MW-4 (deep).

Total PCBs were detected in all wells except MW-4 (intermediate) with a concentration range of1 ppb in MW-3 and MW-4 (shallow) to 2 ppb in MW-4 (deep).

In February 1983, on-site groundwater samples were collected by Westinghouse at the site. Samples were collected at MW-3, MW-4 (shallow, intermediate, and deep), and were analyzedfor total PCBs. Total PCBs were detected in MW-4 (intermediate) at 2 ppb. All other sampleswere detected at less than 1 ppb.

Sediment

In March 1987, on-site sediment samples were collected by EPA from 18 locations at the site andanalyzed for total PCBs, VOCs, and SVOCs.

A total of 22 solvents and 17 PCBs (total) were detected in March 1987. Chemicals of concern insediment samples are shown in Table 15. No congener-specific analyses were available for thesesamples. Data for dibenzofurans were only reported as total dibenzofurans. Therefore, wecannot apply toxic equivalency factors to these data. (EPA. Letter to Westinghouse BloomingtonProject Manager regarding analytical data for Anderson Road Landfill and sulfide data fromLemon Lane Landfill. April 10, 1987.)


Table 15.

On-Site Sediment Sample Results for Lemon Lane Landfill, March 1987
ChemicalConcentration
Range (ppm)
Comparison Value
ppmSource
benzo(b)fluoranthene** and
benzo(k)fluoranthene**
0.7-2*
benzo(a)pyrene10.1CREG
chrysene* and
benzo(a)anthracene
1-2*
dibenzofuran0.5*
2-methylnaphthalene1*
naphthalene1*
PCB (total)13-4,3000.01EMEG
phenanthrene0.7-1*

Concentrations listed as one number indicate only a single sample at that location.
* No comparison value available
** These two parameters are reported as a total

B. Off-site Contamination

Ambient Air

During June and July 1983, EPA conducted a pre-cleanup off-site air monitoring study for PCBsat the Lemon Lane Landfill site. Airborne PCB measurements were collected at three off-sitelocations upwind and downwind (locations 1 and 2, see Figure 6). Downwind locations 1 and 2were situated in the yards of residences that border the north side of the site. The upwindmonitoring location was located at a cemetery behind a mausoleum near the southern edge of thesite boundary.

Battery-operated, personal pump systems were used to sample during 8-hour, low-volumedaytime periods. High-volume systems were employed to sample for 24-hour periods. Samplelocations upwind for the sample type 8-hour low-volume period showed a concentration rangedetection of less than 1 µg/m3. No 8-hour low-volume period measurement was taken for thedownwind locations.

The upwind location for the sample type 24-hour high-volume period also had a concentrationrange of less than 1 µg/m3; downwind locations 1 and 2 for the sample type 24-hour high-volumeperiod had a concentration range of less than 0.3 - 1 µg/m3.

Ambient air monitoring samples were collected by personal and perimeter air monitoring at thesite by Westinghouse from June to September 1987. All samples were analyzed for PCBs. Concentration ranges detected in June and September 1987 for personal air monitors were 30µg/m3 in June to 1 µg/m3 in September. Concentration ranges detected from June-September1987 for the perimeter air monitoring were 1 µg/m3 (July 1987, east) to 21 µg/m3 (August 1987,west). Details of how the samples were taken, and the height at which the samples were takenwere not provided with these data. (Sara Technologies. Lemon Lane Landfill, June 1987 throughSeptember 1987, personnel, site, and perimeter air monitoring during remediation. January 1988.)

Surface Soil

Surface soil samples were collected by the City of Bloomington at a private residence in June1981 and in a wooded depression area in February 1982. One of the two samples from theprivate residence detected PCBs at 3,500 ppm. This sample was collected from a junk disposalsite north of the residence. Five samples were taken in the wooded depressions southeast of thesite. These depressions flood during periods of wet weather resulting from a combination ofsurface runoff and spring flow. All samples detected PCBs ranging from 0.2 to 360 ppm.

Concurrent with the spring water sampling in June 1983, soil samples were obtained from pointsnorth and south of the railroad embankment adjacent to Illinois Central Spring. The north samplewas taken at the inlet where flow from the spring passes under the embankment; the second soilsample was taken at the spring outlet south of the embankment.Soil samples were analyzed for PCBs and VOCs. PCBs were detected at a concentration range of2.5 ppm in the south sample to 5.8 ppm in the north sample. Methylene chloride was detected ata concentration range of 0.07 ppm at the spring outlet to 0.1 ppm at the north sampling location. Methylene chloride was not found in the laboratory blank.

In early October 1984, six off-site soil samples were collected by EPA from residences in theimmediate neighborhood of the site, and were analyzed for dioxins and dibenzofurans. Thesamples collected by EPA were documented as surface soil; depths were not listed. Dioxins were detected in all six samples with a concentration range of 0.0001 to 0.005 ppm. Dibenzofurans were detected in one sample at less than 0.00002 ppm. Based on the respectivetoxic equivalency factor for dioxins and furans, the levels found are higher than the comparisonvalue for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2E-6 ppm). These chemicals are considered to beat a level of health concern.

Groundwater - Monitoring Wells

Between December 1982 and January 1983, off-site groundwater samples were collected byWestinghouse for the Lemon Lane Landfill site (see Figure 9).

Samples were collected for total PCB analysis at nine locations: MW-1 (shallow), MW-1 (deep),MW-8 (deep), MW-2, -5, -6, -7, -8 (shallow), and -9. Sample depths ranged from in excess of 49feet in MW-1 (shallow), 65 feet in MW-1 (deep), in excess of 121 feet in MW-5, 69 feet in MW-6, in excess of 66 feet in MW-7, 60 feet in MW-8 (shallow), 91 feet in MW-8 (deep), and 107feet in MW-9. All samples detected total PCBs at less than 1 ppb.

In February 1983, off-site groundwater samples were collected for PCB analysis by Westinghouseat the site. Samples were collected at nine locations: MW-1 (shallow), -1 (deep), -2, -5, -6, -7, -8 (shallow), -8 (deep), -9, plus two duplicates at MW-1 (deep) and -5. All samples detected totalPCBs at less than 1 ppb.

Between October 1982 and June 1983, off-site groundwater samples were collected by EPA fromaround the periphery of the site (see Figure 10). Samples were collected at five locations: MW-B1, -B2, -B3, and -B4, plus a pond on private property (now owned by Westinghouse) directlynorthwest of the site. These samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, metals, and cyanide. Sample depths ranged from excess of 47 feet in MW-B1, in excess of 57 feet in MW-B2, inexcess of 52 feet in MW-B3, and in excess of 47 feet in MW-B4. Due to a partially cloggedscreen, MW-B3 contained only enough water for a VOC sample. In addition, the samplingincluded one duplicate (MW-B4) and one blank. A total of 12 VOCs/SVOCs and six metals weredetected with no cyanide in October 1982.

In June 1983, off-site groundwater samples were collected by EPA at MW-B1, -B2, -B3, and -B4. These samples were only analyzed for VOCs/SVOCs and total PCBs. No PCBs weredetected, but VOCs/SVOCs and heavy metals were detected in June 1983. Chemicals of concernin groundwater monitoring well samples are shown in Table 16. There was no sampling datafound for dioxins and furans in off-site groundwater monitoring wells. (Westinghouse. Phase IReport Supplemental Hydrogeologic Investigation, Lemon Lane Landfill. November 1989;Westinghouse. 1990 Lemon Lane High Flow Tracer Test Report. March 1991.)


Table 16.

Off-Site Groundwater Monitoring Well Sample Results for Lemon LaneLandfill, October 1982 and June 1983
ChemicalOctober 1982 SamplingJune 1983 SamplingComparison
Value
Sample
Point
Concentra-
tion Range
(ppb)
Sample
Point
Concentra-
tion Range
(ppb)
ppbSource
cadmiumB-2 & B-4
- B-1
3-8--2EMEG
ironB-4 - B-275-103--*
trichloroethyleneB-161B-1113CREG

Concentrations listed as one number indicate only a single sample at that location.
* No comparison value available


Groundwater - Residential Wells

In June 1981, groundwater samples were collected in the site area by the City of BloomingtonUtilities Lab and were analyzed for PCBs (see Figure 10). A total of 17 residences were sampled. All sample results were non-detect. (City of Bloomington Utilities Lab. Laboratory report onsurface water and residential well water samples for Lemon Lane Landfill site. June 1981.)

Between June and July 1981, residential well samples were collected by EPA at three residences(samples 81CL06512 to 14) in the site area and were analyzed for PCBs (see Figure 7). Allsamples were non-detect. The residential well samples collected were part of a soil samplingevent in June/July 1981 by EPA. (EPA. Letter to Chief of Water and Hazardous MaterialsEnforcement Branch regarding data results for Lemon Lane Landfill. September 9, 1981.)

As an addendum to the dioxin soil sampling conducted by EPA in early October 1984, EPA wasasked to sample a residential well (junkyard property) near Vernal Pike for PCBs and pesticides. Sample results were non-detect. (EPA. Memorandum to File, December 11, 1983; EPA, DraftRemedial Action Master Plan, June 6, 1983; Indiana University. Collection and Analysis ofDrinking Water Well Samples for PCB Content. November 1986.)

In November 1986, the Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs inBloomington conducted a well user survey of approximately 13 residential wells within 5,000 feetof the site. Samples were collected at faucets (used for drinking water) nearest to the well head. All samples were analyzed for PCBs. Documentation for the well user survey did not include alocation map of the residences sampled. Samples detecting PCBs had a concentration range ofnon-detect to less than 1 ppb. (Indiana University. Collection and Analysis of Drinking WaterWell Samples for PCB Content. November 1986.)

Surface Water

In June 1981, off-site surface water samples were collected by the City of Bloomington UtilitiesLab in the Lemon Lane Landfill area, and were analyzed for PCBs. Two surface water samples(#1 and #2) were collected from private ponds on the north and northwest side of the site, plus asurface water sample from Hensenberg Creek. The sampling event was conducted in relation tothe residential well samples collected in June 1981. All sample results showed non-detect. (Cityof Bloomington Utilities Lab. Laboratory report on surface water and residential well watersamples for Lemon Lane Landfill site. June 1981.)

Between June and July 1981, off-site surface water samples were collected by EPA at the LemonLane Landfill area, and were analyzed for PCBs. As part of the EPA soil sampling event inJune/July 1981, one surface water sample (81CL06S10) was collected from a private pond 25yards west of the northwest corner of the site, along with one blank sample. PCBs were detectedat 0.9 ppb in the pond water (see Figure 7). There was no sampling data found for dioxins andfurans for off-site surface water. (EPA. Letter to Chief of Water and Hazardous MaterialsEnforcement Branch regarding data results from Lemon Lane Landfill. September 9, 1981.)

Spring Water

In July 1982 nine springs in the vicinity of the site were sampled by EPA (see Figure 11). Thesesample points were identified as: Stoney Spring East (#1), Stoney Spring West (#2), IllinoisCentral Spring (#4), Snoddy Spring (#6), Robertson Spring (#8), Packinghouse Road Spring (#9),Slaughter House Spring (#10), Packing Plant Spring (#11), and Detmer Spring (#7). Twoadditional points, Quarry Spring (#3) and Hinkle W-W Rise (#5), were to be sampled, but werefound to be dry. The sampling also included two blank samples.

Samples collected were analyzed for VOCs, semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), inorganicchemicals and PCBs/pesticides. A total of seven VOCs and eight inorganic chemicals weredetected. No PCB/pesticides were detected in July 1982. EPA requested a second set of springsamples in December 1982. Quarry Spring and Hinkle W-W Rise were sampled after flow wasobserved at their originating points. The other nine spring samples were also again sampled. Allsamples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, PCB/pesticides, inorganic chemicals, and cyanide. Sampling included two blank samples plus a duplicate (Packing Plant Spring). A total of 13VOCs/SVOCs, one PCB, and 11 inorganic chemicals were detected. No cyanide was detectedduring sampling. Chemicals of concern in spring water samples are listed in Table 17.


Table 17.

Off-Site Spring Surface Water Sample Results for Lemon Lane Landfill, July/December 1982
ChemicalJuly 1982 SamplingDecember 1982 SamplingComparison
Value
Sample
#
Concentration
Range (ppb)
Sample
#
Concentration
Range (ppb)
ppbSource
PCB-1248--1,42-120.05EMEG
tetrachloro-
ethylene
732770.7EMEG
1,2-trans-
dichloroethylene
4,731-2067,46-7*
trichloroethylene7457,48-413CREG
    * No comparison value available
    Concentrations listed as one number indicate only a single sample at that location.

In June 1983, the four springs closest to the site (Stoney Spring East and West, Quarry Spring,and Illinois Central Spring) were sampled for VOCs only. The Hinkle W-W Rise Spring was tobe included in this group, but was not flowing at sampling time. Only VOCs, acetone (#2) at 14ppb and trichloroethylene (#3 & #4) at 12-24 ppb, were detected during sampling.

Springs and Streams

In November 1991, water samples were collected by EPA from various springs and streamsassociated with the Lemon Lane Landfill site (see Figure 12). The IDEM collected sedimentsamples (see sediment section). This project was designed by EPA in conjunction with the IDEMto determine whether PCBs were present in the springs and streams that were believed to possiblybe in contact with PCB-contaminated material buried at the Lemon Lane Landfill site.

The collection of stream samples began at the most downstream location to minimize thepossibility of cross contamination. When possible, water samples were collected prior tocollection of the sediment samples. At some locations it was apparent IDEM would have to tryseveral locations along the stream bed in order to find a sufficient quantity of fine-grained silt. For these locations, IDEM first collected the sediment sample. The water sample was thencollected immediately upstream of these locations while IDEM was sampling, or at the locationafter the water had cleared following the sampling.

The EPA samples 1 through 6 were submitted for analyses of VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, PCBs,and metals. These six samples included a duplicate from the Swallow Hole (sample 3), abackground sample collected from Oard Spring at Oard Road Bridge (sample 5), and a field blankprepared with distilled water (sample 6).

Fifteen additional samples (including three duplicate samples, although duplicates are not listed inthe table) were found to contain PCBs. Thus, 14 of the 33 locations sampled (also not includingthe background sample from Oard Spring) contained detectable levels of PCBs. Fifteen of theselocations are from Quarry Springs (including the Illinois Central Springs) or the Quarry SpringsBranch.

No VOCs, SVOCs, or pesticides were detected during this sampling. A total of seven metalswere detected during sampling at the locations (01, 04, & 05) with a concentration range of 6 ppb(cadmium) to 78,300 ppb (calcium). Chemicals of concern in surface water samples are listed inTable 18.


Table 18.

Off-Site Springs & Streams Surface Water PCB Sample Results from Lemon Lane Landfill, November 1991
ChemicalSample
Number
Concentration
Range - ppb
Comparison Value
ppbSource
PCBs (total)1
2
3
4
20
24
26
27
28
29
31
32
33
12
9
10
8
1
8
9
8
8
0.4
13
11
12
0.05EMEG
aluminum1 - 5410-2,300*
cadmium1 - 46-92EMEG
    Concentrations listed as one number indicate only a single sample at that location.
    * No comparison value available

Sediment

In June/July 1981, off-site sediment samples were collected by EPA in the Lemon Lane Landfillarea and were analyzed for PCBs. As part of an EPA soil sampling event in June/July 1981, onesediment sample (81CL06S11) was collected from a private pond 25 yards west of the northwestcorner of the site, along with one blank sample. PCBs were detected at 0.52 ppm in the pond. (EPA. Letter to Chief of Water and Hazardous Materials Enforcement Branch regarding dataresults from Lemon Lane Landfill. September 9, 1981.)

In October 1981, off-site sediment samples were collected by EPA at four locations: 1) Stout'sCreek, 2) Quarry Spring, 3) Stoney Springs East, and 4) Stoney Springs West. All samples wereanalyzed for total PCBs and were below the detection limit.

The IDEM conducted two sediment sampling events for total PCB analysis in June 1991 (seeFigure 13) and November 1991 (see Figure 14) from various springs and streams associated withthe Lemon Lane Landfill site. In June 1991 a total of 15 locations were sampled. Sampling inJune 1991 included two duplicate sample locations, both at Illinois Central Spring - midstream. Total PCBs were detected in 11 samples (Table 19) with a maximum concentration of 58 ppm(IDEM. Memorandum. September 23, 1991; IDEM. Memorandum. February 25, 1992).


Table 19.

Off-Site Sediment Total PCB Sample Results for Lemon Lane Landfill, June 1991
Sample LocationMaximum
Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value
ppmSource
Quarry Spring - North Seep
Quarry Spring - South Seep
Quarry Spring Weir
Illinois Central Spring - Midstream
Illinois Central Spring - Midstream
Illinois Central Spring
Illinois Central Spring (Duplicate)
Illinois Central Swallowhole
Slaughterhouse Spring
Robertson Spring
Detmer (B) Spring
Detmer (A) Spring
2
0.7
5
8
11
58
21
17
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.7
0.01EMEG

In November 1991, sediment samples were collected from various springs and streams associatedwith the Lemon Lane Landfill site. The IDEM sediment samples were coordinated with the EPAwater samples (see Off-Site Springs and Streams subsection). Five IDEM samples were analyzedfor PCBs, VOCs, SVOCs, and metals. Lead was the only metal found at a level of concern. NoSVOCs were found, and methyl ethyl ketone at very low levels was the only VOC found. Allother samples were analyzed for PCBs only. A background sample taken from a spring (OardSpring at Oard Road Bridge) in the area, that presently has not been linked to any site in this area,was also taken. This sample was below the detection limit and indicates the ambient levels ofnaturally occurring analytes.

The highest concentrations of PCBs were detected at the Illinois Central Springs. At the IllinoisCentral bridge north of Allen Street, only one sample had detectable levels of PCBs at 1 ppm. PCBs were indicated both north and south of this junction. Nine samples for PCBs were belowthe detection limit.

C. Quality Assurance and Quality Control

The July 1982 spring water inorganic sampling results were of questionable validity and were notused. In the March 1987 sediment samples, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was a suspected laboratorycontaminant and therefore not used. Contaminants levels reported to be below the quantifiabledetection limit, or were indicated an estimated concentration, were not considered for discussion.

D. Physical and Other Hazards

Per the site visit on January 28, 1993, there were no apparent physical hazards present on thissite.


PATHWAYS ANALYSES

A. Completed Exposure Pathways

On- and Off-site Ambient Air

On-site burning of capacitors and PCB-contaminated materials was reported to health officials bynearby residents, and by anecdotal reports from scavengers. Landfill workers, scavengers,trespassers, and individuals living around the site had past completed exposures to PCB-contaminated ambient air through inhalation. PCBs in air can be present in both airborne, solid,and liquid particles, and vapor that eventually return to the land and water from settling snow andrainwater. PCBs can be released into the environment from poorly maintained hazardous wastesites. Sampling of the ambient air was not done during this time. Ambient air on and around theLemon Lane Landfill is considered to be a past completed exposure pathway through inhalation. The latest air monitoring of this site was non-detect.

On-Site Surface Soil

PCB oil-stained dirt was excavated from this site and moved to the Interim Storage Facility. Before this and other remediation measures were undertaken, this site was accessible to thegeneral public. There were reports of individuals pouring the PCB oils out of capacitors andscavenging them for metal. Surface soil is a past completed exposure pathway for landfillworkers, trespassers, and scavengers through dermal contact, and incidental ingestion. Becausechildren have more hand-to-mouth activities than adults, they are of particular concern for thispast completed exposure pathway.

On- & Off-site Wild Game

Based on a pilot study on the use of animal sentinels in environmental health, dogs that roamedthese Consent Decree sites had elevated PCB serum levels (Schillig et al. 1988). Excretion ofPCBs is slow, so accumulation occurs even at low exposure levels. The higher the chlorination,the longer it takes to be excreted by the body. If wild game forage in the brush on the site, or inthe springs and/or depressions that are associated with this site, the accumulation of PCBs is verylikely. Consumption of game such as rabbit, raccoon, and squirrel that roamed the Lemon LaneLandfill and/or its associated springs and depressions are past, present, and future completedexposure pathways for people who eat them. Staff from the ISDH have had personal contactwith individuals undertaking such activities.


Table 20.

Completed Exposure Pathways for Lemon Lane Landfill
PATHWAY
NAME
EXPOSURE PATHWAY ELEMENTSTIME
SOURCEENVIRON-
MENTAL
MEDIA
POINT OF
EXPOSURE
ROUTE OF
EXPOSURE
EXPOSED
POPULATION
NUMBER
OF
EXPOSED
PERSONS
On- and Off-siteAmbient AirLemon Lane LandfillAirLemon Lane
Landfill
InhalationLandfill workers
Scavengers
Trespassers
Nearby
Residents
2-3
*50
100
750
Past
On-site Surface SoilLemon Lane LandfillSurface SoilLemon Lane
Landfill
Ingestion
Inhalation
Dermal Contact
Trespassers
Scavengers
Landfill workers
100
*50
2-3
Past
On- & Off-site WildGameLemon Lane LandfillRabbits
Squirrels
Raccoon
Lemon Lane
Landfill and
surrounding
streams and
springs
IngestionPeople who eat
game that roam
on-site and
around the site
associated
springs and
streams
50-100Past
Present
Future

* Possibly exposed at all Consent Decree sites


B. Potential Exposure Pathways

Off-Site Ambient Air

All of the latest air monitoring for the site is reported to be non-detect for PCBs; air qualityaround the associated springs and streams is questionable. Anecdotal reports suggest that aftermajor rainfall events, the ambient air in Conard's Branch, the unnamed tributary to Clear Creek,and downstream at the Illinois Central Railroad seep is compromised. Off-site ambient air is apast, present, and future exposure pathway to individuals who live near or the above-mentioned areas.

Off-Site Groundwater

Dye tracer tests were performed at the Lemon Lane Landfill. Two aquifers exist below the site. The shallow aquifer ordinarily flows southeast and drains at a series of springs. During heavyrainfalls, however, the flow is to the northwest toward the site-related springs. The deep aquiferflows northwest ordinarily, but during heavy rainfall flows to the east. The groundwater flowsystem occurs primarily through sinkholes and swallow holes, and to a lesser extent, by rainpercolation through the soils adjacent to the landfill.

The thirteen residential wells that were tested by Indiana University in 1986 were all non-detect orbelow 0.001 ppb for PCBs. All residents surrounding the site are on municipal water. Off-sitegroundwater is a past potential exposure pathway for individuals using private wells for potablewater.

Off-Site Surface Water/Sediment

The highest reported detection of PCBs in surface water was at the Illinois Central Spring. Afence with warning signs had been constructed around this spring; however, it is in a state ofdisrepair. There is downstream transport of PCBs. Sampling results indicate that PCB levels insurface water are non-detect in downstream samples taken below Third Street. PCBs bind tighterto sediment than to water. Sediment PCB levels ranged from 0.7 to 58 ppm in samples takendownstream from the site. It has been reported to ISDH staff that children play in and aroundthese springs and streams on a regular basis. Surface water and sediment from Lemon LaneLandfill is a past, present, and future potential exposure pathway through dermal contact forchildren who play in and around the springs associated with this site.


Table 21.

Potential Exposure Pathways for Lemon Lane Landfill
PATHWAY
NAME
EXPOSURE PATHWAY ELEMENTSTIME
SOURCEENVIRONMENTAL
MEDIA
POINT OF
EXPOSURE
ROUTE OF
EXPOSURE
EXPOSED
POPULATION
NUMBER
OF
EXPOSED
PERSONS
Off-site Ambient AirLemon Lane LandfillAmbient AirSprings & StreamsInhalationNearby residents750Past
Present
Future
Off-site GroundwaterLemon Lane LandfillGroundwaterPrivate WellsIngestion,
Inhalation,
Dermal contact
Residents
who use private
wells (3-mile
radius)
40Past
Off-site Surface WaterLemon Lane LandfillSurface WaterSpringsIngestion
Dermal contact
Nearby
residents
300Past
Present
Future
Off-site SedimentLemon Lane LandfillSedimentSpringsDermal contact
Incidental
ingestion
Nearby residents
children
300Past
Present
Future


Next Section          Table of Contents

  
 
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341
Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888-232-6348

A-Z Index

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #