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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

Bloomington PCB Sites
Bloomington, Monroe County, Indiana
and
Spencer, Owen County, Indiana


WINSTON-THOMAS FACILITY (Monroe County)

BACKGROUND

A. Site Description and History

The Winston-Thomas facility is an inactive sewage treatment plant owned by the City ofBloomington, Indiana, and located on the southwest side of the City of Bloomington (see Figure1). The facility operated from 1933 until 1982. In November of 1975, Westinghouse advised theCity of Bloomington that they had been discharging PCBs into the city sewer system. PCBs werethen sampled for and confirmed at high concentrations in sewage, Tertiary Lagoon clay andsludge, and in the trickling filter at the plant.

The facility was made part of a comprehensive cleanup as defined in the Consent Decree. Thissite was not on the NPL at the time of the Consent Decree settlement in 1983, nor is it currentlyon the NPL. (IDEM. General Overview of Consent Decree Sites. July 1992.)

Interim Measures

The Winston-Thomas facility was shut down in 1982 and a new sewage treatment plant wasopened at the Dillman Road site southwest of Bloomington.

In July 1986, the Bloomington Cities Utilities Board approved temporary storage of wastes oncity property at the Winston-Thomas site. After this approval and receipt of all necessary permitsneeded for construction, Westinghouse constructed the Interim Storage Facility prior tocommencement of remediation at the other sites as outlined in the Consent Decree.

In May of 1987, the first excavated materials from Anderson Road Landfill were taken to thefacility for storage. Excavated materials also began arriving from the stream sites designated forcleanup. A total of 205, 55-gallon drums filled with capacitors and capacitor parts fromAnderson Road Landfill and Lemon Lane Landfill were taken to the site and properly stored. Atotal of 391 cubic yards of stream sediment are stored at the facility along with a total of 706loads of excavated materials from Anderson Road Landfill weighing 4,847 tons. The Conard'sBranch excavation project, which ended in October 1988, generated a total of 1,877 tons ofexcavated bank material and 2,748 tons of stream bed sediment, all of which is being stored at thefacility. In September 1990, APTUS, a wholly owned subsidiary of Westinghouse, drummedPCB-contaminated trash from other containers, labeled all 377 drums stored at the InterimStorage Facility, and transported them to Coffeyville, Kansas for incineration. This materialconsisted of protective clothing, rags, filters, etc. that had accumulated during routinemaintenance and inspections of the Consent Decree sites. In December 1990, APTUS removed605 capacitors being stored on the site for incineration in Coffeyville.

In November 1990, Westinghouse notified the Consent Decree parties that water hadaccumulated over the years in three digester tanks on-site and was close to overflowing. With theapproval of all the Consent Decree parties, Westinghouse decontaminated 410,000 gallons ofwater from the three digesters. Hydrogeological investigations were also begun on-site in Augustof 1987.

PCB Sampling of Indicator Sediment Areas of Clear Creek

In June 1988, the IDEM oversaw the PCB sampling by Westinghouse of two sediment areasalong Clear Creek as required by the Consent Decree.

Current Status

Westinghouse conducts monthly inspections of the Interim Storage Facility and submits inspectionreports to the EPA, IDEM, and the City of Bloomington.

The City of Bloomington utilities has contracted for the removal of muskrats at the Winston-Thomas Tertiary Lagoon because of the concern they may undermine the dike and allow PCB-contaminated water to escape. Some of the muskrats that are removed will be submitted to theU.S. Fish & Wildlife Service for PCB tissue analysis.

The City of Bloomington has contracted with an environmental firm to assess the degree, if any,of microbial degradation of the PCB-contaminated sewage sludge.

B. Site Visit

On January 28, 1993, Ms. Dollis Wright and Mr. Garry Mills of the ISDH, and staff from IDEMand Westinghouse visited the Consent Decree sites. Observances made during the site visit to theWinston-Thomas facility are listed below.

  1. Access to the site is restricted by a locked chain-link fence.
  2. Ducks were seen swimming on the Tertiary Lagoon.
  3. Inside the on-site Interim Storage Facility (an aluminum, steel support building) a plastic liner had been placed on top of the contaminated soil. A concrete floor and liner prevents contamination from excavated soil from entering the soil under the storage facility.
  4. There was a protective clothing and decontamination area in the Interim Storage Facility which included two above-ground storage tanks that are used for cleaning equipment.
  5. The Winston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant is located in a mixed business/residential area.

C. Demographics, Land Use, Natural Resource Use, and Environmental Setting

Demographics

The Winston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant site area has high schools within a ½- to 1½-mileradius of the site. The population in the site area is predominantly white. Approximately 500people live within a 1-mile radius of the site.

Land Use and Natural Resource Use

The site is surrounded by residential areas to the west and south, and by commercialdevelopments to the north and east. A residential area lies west of the site beyond Clear Creekand the Illinois Central Railroad tracks. The municipal water supply serves the area in the vicinityof the site. The current status of residential well use in the area is unknown.

Environmental Setting

The site is located in the north to south trending valley of Clear Creek on a nearly level tomoderately sloping plateau. Steep slopes are located along the berm edges of the TertiaryLagoon. Clear Creek was at one time where the Tertiary Lagoon is presently located. Before theTertiary Lagoon was made, Clear Creek was re-routed to the western edge of the site flowingsouth.

There are two layers of bedrock under the soil layer. Grey limestone and shale ranging in depthsfrom 22-36 feet thick, make up the first layer. The second layer is made up of a water-holding,dark gray, silty shale with pyrite specks.

Groundwater flow is interpreted to flow generally to the southwest toward Clear Creek, whichappears to be the discharge point. In the northern portion of the site, the groundwater flowdirection trends more west-southwest, and in the central and southern areas of the site, it trendssouth-southwest.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS

A. On-site Contamination

Ambient Air

As part of Section 7.4 of the Westinghouse Project Safety Plan, April 1987, air monitoring forVOCs, and other chemicals that might be detected, is conducted on a quarterly basis for theInterim Storage Facility at the Winston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant site.

Monitoring results for VOCs and PCBs conducted by Westinghouse from April 1988 throughFebruary 1993 have shown the samples to be below detectable limits. (Westinghouse. Quarterlyinactive status air sample results for the Interim Storage Facility, 1988-1992.)

Abandoned Lagoon Borings

Between March and April 1984, on-site boring samples were collected by EPA at two abandonedlagoons at the Winston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant site (see Figure 25). The formerlagoons are located south of the Tertiary Lagoon near the sludge drying beds. Samples werecollected at ten locations (B-1 - B-10) and analyzed for total PCBs. Sample depths ranged from 0inches to 9 feet 4 inches (B-6). PCBs in the abandoned lagoon boring samples (Table 41) had aconcentration range of less than 1 to 700 ppm (B-4). (Westinghouse. Phase I Progress Report onWinston-Thomas Facility and Bennett's Dump. January 1987.)


Table 41.

On-Site Abandoned Lagoon Total PCB Sample Results for Winston-Thomas Facility, March/April 1984
Boring
Number
Sample Depth
Feet (')
Inches (")
PCB Concentration
Range
(Dry Weight)
(ppm)
Comparison Value
ppmSource
14"-5"
2'4"-2'6"
2'11"-3'
150
120
<1
0.01EMEG
26"-8"
2'11"-3'
3'3"-3'4"
<1
<1
<1
0.01EMEG
30"-6"
9"-10"
6'6"-6'7"
6'7"-6'8"
6'8"-6'9"
82
190
<1
<1
<1
0.01EMEG
411"-1'7"
4'-4'1"
4'11"-5'
700

270
3

0.01EMEG
54"-5"
2'9"-2'10"
4'3"-4'4"
36
150
<1
0.01EMEG
67"-8"
5'8"-5'9"
8'1"-8'2"
8'2"-8'3"
8'3"-9'4"
160
290
<1
5
3
0.01EMEG
71'-1'6"
4'6"-5'
19
<1
0.01EMEG
82'11"-3'
5'9"-5'10"
120
<1
0.01EMEG
911"-1'2"
4'4"-4'5"
7'3"-7'4"
7'4"-7'5"
7'5"-7'6"
6
<1
<1
<1
<1
0.01EMEG
101'-1'1"
2'6"-3'2"
4'7"-4'8"
20
140
3
0.01EMEG



Tertiary Lagoon Borings

In May 1984, Tertiary Lagoon boring samples were collected by EPA for PCB analysis from sixlocations (B-11 - B-16) at the Winston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant site (see Figure 25). The Tertiary Lagoon is 17 acres in size and maintains a water depth of 18 inches. The sampledepth involving a clay surface was 0-3 inches. Sample results ranged from 2 ppm in sample B-16to 660 ppm in sample B-14. (Westinghouse. Phase I Progress Report on Winston-ThomasFacility and Bennett's Dump. January 1987.)

Tertiary Lagoon Sludge

In July 1982, sludge samples were collected by the City of Bloomington and analyzed for PCBs (see Figure 26). A total of 11 sample points (#1-11) were involved with an average depthin excess of 55 inches. Liquid and sludge were identified at approximately 55 feet. For sludgeonly, the average depth was in excess of 23 inches. PCBs were detected at all 11 sample points(Table 42). (Grodner & Fore Atty. Letter regarding Winston-Thomas Sewage Treatment PlantLagoon Samples. November 10, 1982.)


Table 42.

On-Site Tertiary Lagoon Sludge PCB Sample Results, Winston-Thomas Facility, July 1982
Sample Point
Number
PCB
Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value
ppmSource
17180.01EMEG
22750.01EMEG
31190.01EMEG
41,7500.01EMEG
59930.01EMEG
65270.01EMEG
71,9900.01EMEG
82,4000.01EMEG
92,0000.01EMEG
101,1370.01EMEG
111480.01EMEG



Tertiary Lagoon Core Sludge

In the early 1980s, tertiary core sludge samples were collected at the site and analyzed for PCBs(see Figure 27). The second set of data were collected by a private contractor (sampling dateunknown) for the City of Bloomington, and were documented by City of Bloomingtoncorrespondence dated February 1983.

A total of ten sample locations (B-top, middle, bottom, D, E, G, J, L, M, O), plus one duplicate(B-middle), were analyzed in this data set. Samples taken from the top to the bottom of the coresection were analyzed. PCBs were detected at all ten locations for Tertiary Lagoon sludge. Results from this set of data are presented in Table 43. (Grodner & Fore Atty. Letter to O'Brien& Gere Engineers Inc. regarding Winston-Thomas Treatment Plant core sludge sample results.February 3, 1983.)


Table 43.

On-Site Tertiary Lagoon Core Sludge Total PCB Sample Results, Winston-Thomas Facility
Sample
Location
Core
Section
Mid 1980s Sampling
PCB Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value
ppm Source
B Top 150 0.01 EMEG
B Middle 1,000 0.01 EMEG
B Bottom 3,100 0.01 EMEG
D Entire 1,450 0.01 EMEG
E Entire 2,400 0.01 EMEG
G Entire 1,170 0.01 EMEG
J Entire 1,200 0.01 EMEG
L Entire 530 0.01 EMEG
M Entire 3,700 0.01 EMEG
O Entire 2,600 0.01 EMEG



Tertiary Lagoon Core Sludge and Clay

In June 1983, EPA correspondence documented that previous core sludge and clay samples hadbeen collected and analyzed for total PCBs (see Figure 28). A total of eight core locations, plusone duplicate, were sampled. The average length of the sludge and clay in cores was in excess of21 inches each. Samples taken from the top to the bottom of the core section were analyzed. PCBs were detected at all eight core sludge locations, while PCBs in the core clay were detectedat three locations (E,G,M). PCB analyses results for lagoon core sludge and clay are shown inTable 44. (O'Brien & Gere. Letter to Blasland regarding Winston-Thomas Tertiary Lagoonsludge and clay core sample results. June 23, 1983.)


Table 44.

On-Site Tertiary Lagoon Core Sludge & Clay PCB Sample Results, Winston-Thomas Facility, June 1983
Core
Location
Core
Section
PCB
Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value
ppmSource
BTop
Middle
Bottom
220
1,400
4,400
0.01EMEG
DEntire7700.01EMEG
EEntire(sludge)   2,000
(clay)           15
0.01EMEG
GEntire(sludge)     600
(clay)             9
0.01EMEG
JEntire1,0000.01EMEG
LEntire2410.01EMEG
MEntire(sludge)   2,500
(clay)           3
0.01EMEG
OEntire1,4000.01EMEG



Groundwater - Monitoring Wells

Ten bedrock monitoring wells were installed in September and October 1987 around theperimeter of the Winston-Thomas facility (see Figure 29). One monitoring well, MW-3S, wasinstalled in the unconsolidated material in July 1987. The monitoring wells were designated asMW-1, -2, -3S, -3I, -3D, -4, -5I, -5D, -6, -7, and -8 (S = shallow, I = intermediate, & D = deep). Eight wells are located hydraulically downgradient, while three wells are located upgradient. Four rounds of groundwater sampling for PCBs were performed by Westinghouse beginning inMarch 1988 and were completed in December 1988. Monitoring well depths ranged from inexcess of 40 feet to in excess of 55 feet.

With respect to these sampling events, PCBs were not detected in the groundwater samplesobtained from wells MW-1, -2, -3D, -4, -5I, -6, and -8. PCBs were detected in two of the fourrepresentative groundwater samples obtained from wells MW-3I and -5D; in all three samplesobtained from well MW-7 (and in the duplicate sample from well MW-7); and in all four samplesobtained from well MW-3S. PCB sample results are shown in Table 45. (Westinghouse.Quarterly Groundwater Sampling Results, Bennett's Dump and Winston-Thomas FacilitySupplemental Hydrogeologic Investigation, December 5-7, 1988. January 1989.)


Table 45.

On-Site Monitoring Well PCB Sample Results for Winston-Thomas Facility, March-December 1988
LocationPCB Concentration
Range
(ppb)
Comparison Value
ppbSource
MW-3S2-70.05CREG
MW-3I0.4-10.05CREG
MW-5D0.30.05CREG
MW-71-20.05CREG
    Concentrations listed as one number indicate only a single sample at that location.

In 1992, the Fish and Wildlife Service implemented a waterfowl PCB uptake study using 72yearling mallard hens. Five were processed as controls immediately, and the remaining 67 weremarked and released. Five ducks were collected every ten days until none remained.

Liver tissues were analyzed for cytochrome P-450 induction and composite duck samples weretaken for congener specific PCBs. The PCB uptake rate was remarkable. A concentration of 2ppm was seen in the ducks after only 2 to 10 days of foraging at this site.

Up to several hundred waterfowl at a time can be observed for up to several months during falland early winter migrations.

B. Off-site Contamination

Groundwater - Residential Wells

In November 1986, the Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs inBloomington conducted a well user survey of approximately 30 residential wells within 5,000 feetof the Winston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant site. Samples were collected at faucets nearestto the well head for drinking water and were analyzed for PCBs. Documentation for the well usersurvey did not include a location map of the residences sampled. Samples detected for PCBs hada concentration range of non-detect to 98 ppt. (Indiana University. Collection and Analysis ofDrinking Water Well Samples for PCB Content. November 1986.)

Surface Water

Between March 1976, September 1977, and June/July 1980, off-site surface water samples werecollected (see Figure 30) by the ISDH and analyzed for total PCBs at ten sample locations: ClearCreek (CC-1 & -3), Salt Creek (SC-2,-3,-5), Pleasant Run (PR-1), and East Fork of the WhiteRiver (EW-3,-4,-5,-6) (Indiana State Department of Health. Memorandum from C. Bridges to O.Hert regarding PCB levels in water sediment and fish from Clear Creek, Salt Creek, Pleasant Run,and the East Fork of White River (Monroe and Lawrence Counties, Indiana) in 1980. February23, 1981.)

All sample results are reported as total PCBs whether or not the samples collected detected oneor more PCB types. Total PCBs detected in the off-site surface water samples had aconcentration range of non-detect to 0.9 ppb (CC-1).

Sediment

Between March 1976, September 1977, and June/July 1980, off-site sediment samples werecollected (see Figure 30) by the ISDH and analyzed for total PCBs at ten sample locations: ClearCreek (CC-1 & -3), Salt Creek (SC-2,-3,-5), Pleasant Run (PR-1), and East Fork of the WhiteRiver (EW-3,-4,-5,-6). PCB analyses results are shown in Table 46. The Consent Decreerequires Westinghouse to sample from these areas. (ISBH. Memorandum to O. Hert regardingPCB levels in water sediment and fish. February 23, 1981.)

All sample results are reported as total PCBs whether or not the samples collected detected oneor more PCB types. Total PCBs detected in the off-site sediment samples had a concentrationrange of non-detect to 1,300 ppm (PR-1).

Between June and July 1988, sediment samples were collected from two indicator areas for PCBsalong Clear Creek, near Gordon Pike and the town of Harrodsburg. Sampling was overseen byIDEM. These samples were taken after hydrovacuuming of Clear Creek had been performed byWestinghouse.

The first indicator area was designated within 300 feet downstream of Gordon Pike. Tensampling locations were selected; no PCBs were detected.

The second indicator area for PCB sampling along Clear Creek is approximately 12 miles south ofthe first indicator area, Gordon Pike. This area was designated as within 200 feet upstream ofOld State Road 37 near Harrodsburg, Indiana. Ten sampling locations were selected. Except forone detection of 12 ppm, all other samples were non-detect.

As part of the sediment sampling conducted at the Lemon Lane Landfill by IDEM in November1991 (RK6320-RK6324), sediment samples were also collected off-site near the Winston-ThomasSewage Treatment Plant site (IDEM. Memorandum. February 25, 1992). These samples were only analyzed for PCBs.


Table 46.

Off-Site Surface Water and Sediment Total PCB Sample Results for Winston-Thomas Facility
Station or
Sample
Number
Location Sample Date Water Samples Sediment Samples
Concentration Range
(ppb)
Comparison
Value
Concentration Range
(dry weight) (ppm)
Comparison Value
ppb Source ppm Source
CC-1 Clear Creek north of Harrodsburg 3/11/76
6/19/80
ND-0.9
<0.1-0.2
0.05 EMEG ND
<200-2,200
0.01 EMEG
CC-3 Clear Creek 1 mile up from mouth
Clear Creek 100 yds. up from mouth
9/27/77
7/1/80
ND-0.2
ND-0.3
0.05 EMEG <100-<100
ND-540
0.01 EMEG
SC-2 Salt Creek just below Monroe Dam 3/11/76
7/1/80
ND-<0.1
ND-<0.1
0.05 EMEG ND
ND-150
0.01 EMEG
SC-3 Salt Creek below Clear Creek near Logan 3/11/76
9/27/77
7/1/80
ND-0.1
ND-0.2
ND-<0.1
0.05 EMEG ND
100-1,600
ND-2,200
0.01 EMEG
PR-1 Pleasant Run at Peerless Road 9/27/77
6/19/80
0.4-12
0.1-9
0.05 EMEG ND-1,300,000
<200-315,000
0.01 EMEG
SC-5 Salt Creek, 0.25 mile above mouth 9/28/77
7/2/80
ND-0.6
ND-<0.1
0.05 EMEG <100-1,500
ND-2,100
0.01 EMEG
EW-3 E. Fork White River just above Salt Creek 6/17/80 <0.1-0.1 0.05 EMEG <200-<250 0.01 EMEG
EW-4 E. Fork White River just below Salt Creek 9/28/77
6/18/80
ND-<0.1
<0.1-0.2
0.05 EMEG 150-610
410-1,100
0.01 EMEG
EW-5 E. Fork White River above Williams Dam 6/18/80 <0.1-<0.1 0.05 EMEG <200-<250 0.01 EMEG
EW-6 E. Fork White River below Williams Dam 9/28/77
6/18/80
ND-<0.1
<0.1-<0.1
0.05 EMEG <100-120
<200-<250
0.01 EMEG
RK6320 Clear Creek at Gordon Pike Bridge 11/91 - - - 0.19 0.01 EMEG
RK6321 Clear Creek at drain tile under Winston-Thomas 11/91 - - - 0.13 0.01 EMEG
RK6322 Swampy area northwest of Winston-Thomas lagoon 11/91 - - - BDL 0.01 EMEG
RK6323 Clear Creek north of Winston-Thomas 11/91 - - - 0.19 0.01 EMEG
RK6324 Clear Creek north of Country Club Road 11/91 - - - 0.50 0.01 EMEG

ND = non-detect
Concentrations listed as one number indicate only a single sample at that location.


Fish

Between March 1976, September 1977 and 1979, and June/July 1980, fish samples were collected(see Figure 30) by the ISDH and analyzed for total PCBs at ten sample locations: Clear Creek(CC-1 & -3), Salt Creek (SL-2,-3,-5), Pleasant Run (PR-1), and East Fork of the White River(EW-3,-4,-5,-6). (ISBH. Memorandum to Water and Sewage Laboratory. February 1981.)

All sample results in Table 47 are reported as total PCBs whether or not the samples collecteddetected one or more PCB types. Total PCBs detected in the fish data (whole fish basis) had aconcentration range of non-detect to 85 ppm (CC-3).


Table 47.

Off-Site Fish PCB Sample Results for Winston-Thomas Facility
StationDateType of FishPCB Concentration
(Whole Fish Basis)
(ppm)
Comparison Value
ppmSource
CC-11976
1980
1980
1980
1980
Creek Chub
Creek Chub
Bluegill Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
Largemouth Bass
66
20
1
25
5
2FDA
CC-31976

1977

1980

Yellow Bass
Bluegill Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
Largemouth Bass
Northern Pike
Largemouth Bass
Bluegill Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
20
12
85
ND
ND
ND
ND
20
16
2FDA
SC-21976

1980

Bluegill Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
Striped Bass (Morone sp.)
Bluegill Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
9
1
0.1
4
8
2FDA
SC-31976

1977

1980

Largemouth Bass
Longear Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
Spotted Bass
Largemouth Bass
Largemouth Bass
Longear Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
7
10
ND
ND
ND
7
11
9
2FDA
SC-51976
1977

1980

Largemouth Bass
Largemouth Bass
Longear Sunfish
Largemouth Bass
Largemouth Bass
Longear Sunfish
28
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2FDA
EW-31976

1980

Spotted Bass
Channel Catfish
Bluegill Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
Spotted Bass
Channel Catfish
Flathead Catfish
Sunfishes (Lepomis spp.)
12
5
10
13
ND
ND
ND
ND
2FDA
EW-41976

1977

1980

Longear Sunfish
Flathead Catfish
Bluegill Sunfish
White Crappie
White Crappie
Longear Sunfish
Channel Catfish
Channel Catfish
Channel Catfish
10
3
ND
ND
ND
19
ND
ND
ND
2FDA
EW-51976

1979
1980

Spotted Bass
Bluegill Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
Largemouth Bass
Longear Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
Channel Catfish
2
2
13
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2FDA
EW-61976

1977

1980

Largemouth Bass
Longear Sunfish
Largemouth Bass
Longear Sunfish
Bluegill Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
Bluegill Sunfish
Largemouth Bass
3
8
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2FDA



C. Quality Assurance and Quality Control

For the first groundwater sampling event (March 1988), the PCB analytical data are invalid forwells MW-1, -2, -4, -6, -7, and -8. The data are invalid because the pump utilized for samplingcontained residual PCBs from sampling well MW-5 at the Bennett Stone Quarry site. A PCBconcentration of 6 ppb was detected in the methods blank QA sample obtained from the pump. The PCB analytical data for the last three quarterly sampling events (June, September, andDecember 1988) are valid for the aforementioned wells, except for well MW-6 in the June 1988sampling event. PCBs were apparently still present in this well from the March 1988 samplingevent. The PCB analytical data are valid for wells MW-3S, -3I, -3D, -5I, and -5D for all fourquarterly events.

D. Physical and Other Hazards

This site is surrounded by a chain-link fence. In the unlikely event that a trespasser were to gainaccess to the site, there is a potential for accidental drowning due to the number of areas withstanding water. Per the site visit on January 28, 1993, there were no other apparent physicalhazards present on this site.


PATHWAYS ANALYSES

A. Completed Exposure Pathways

Off-site Fish

Fish sampling of Clear Creek indicates that they are contaminated with PCBs. PCBs bind tightlyto sediment particles. Due to the lipophilic nature of PCBs, they readily bio-concentrate. It isassumed that fish in Clear Creek bioaccumulated PCBs through contaminated water and ingestionof contaminated sediments. A level 2 fish advisory has been issued by the ISDH on Clear Creeksince 1988 to the present.

A level 2 fish advisory means that women of child bearing age and children under the age of 18should not consume any of the fish listed in the advisory for the named waterway. All otherindividuals should limit their consumption of those designated fish species to no more than onemeal per week.

Eating fish taken from Clear Creek is a past, present, and future exposure pathway for humanexposure to PCBs.

Off-site Sewage Sludge

Sludge was used by various individuals in the Bloomington area for gardening. From 1972through 1976, approximately 500 to 1,000 persons had obtained sludge at the Westinghouse plantfor organic gardening. It is important to note that studies of PCB uptake in plants indicate thatPCBs may be taken up by the root system of plants. It is possible, however, that contamination ofplants may be due to wind-blown dust versus the root uptake system (Sommers. 1976). Ingestionof vegetables from gardens which had PCB-contaminated sludge is a past, present, and futurecompleted exposure pathway (Baker et al. 1980).

On- and Off-site Wild Game

Even though the Tertiary Lagoon is fenced, wildlife such as ducks and muskrats have beenobserved on the site. During the daily activities of these animals, sludge in the lagoon could quitenaturally be disturbed. It is likely that the ducks and muskrats in the Tertiary Lagoon havemigrated and accumulated PCBs from contaminated sludge in their bodies. Excretion of PCBs isslow, so accumulation occurs even at low exposure levels. Further, the higher the chlorination,the longer it takes to be excreted by the body. Human ingestion of these wild game is a past,present, and future pathway for PCBs to enter the body.


Table 48.

Completed Exposure Pathways for Winston-Thomas Facility
PATHWAY
NAME
EXPOSURE PATHWAY ELEMENTSTIME
SOURCEENVIRONMENTAL
MEDIA
POINT OF
EXPOSURE
ROUTE OF
EXPOSURE
EXPOSED
POPULATION
NUMBER OF
EXPOSED
PERSONS
Off-site FishWinston-
Thomas
Site
FishClear CreekIngestionIndividuals
eating fish from
Clear Creek
200-230Past
Present
Future
Off-site
Sewage Sludge
Winston-
Thomas
Site
SludgeGardensIngestion
Dermal
Contact
Individuals
eating home-
grown produce,
Gardeners
500-1,000Past
Present
Future
On- & Off-site
Wild Game
Winston-
Thomas
Site
Ducks
Muskrats
Tertiary
Lagoon
IngestionIndividuals
eating wild game
that roamed the
Winston-Thomas
site
65-70Past
Present
Future


B. Potential Exposure Pathways

On- and Off-site Ambient Air

PCBs in air can be present as both airborne solid and liquid particles, and vapor that eventuallyreturn to the land as water, snow, rain, and the settling of dust particles. During its operation, theWinston-Thomas Sewage Treatment Plant had two sludge lagoons, three areas of sludge dryingbeds, and the Tertiary Lagoon. PCBs were found in these areas at up to 2,500 ppm. These sixareas presented the potential for contamination of ambient air.

Monitoring results for VOCs and PCBs from April 1988 through February 1993 have all beennon-detect. As the site is no longer operating, the sludge lagoons, sludge drying beds, andtertiary lagoons present a past potential inhalation exposure pathway.

Off-site ambient air is a past, present, and future inhalation exposure pathway for individuals whoused sewage sludge for their gardens. It is possible that both airborne, solid, and liquid particles,and vapors from the sewage sludge contaminated the ambient air around these gardens.

Off-Site Sediment

Interim remediation involved the removal of 1,100 feet of sediment from Clear Creek. Before thisremoval, sediment was contaminated with unknown levels of PCBs. The sediment route of entryto the human body would be through incidental or accidental ingestion of stream water and/orabsorption of the chemicals through the skin.

PCBs are bound to soil particles reducing the amount of human skin and stomach absorptionconsiderably. Swimmers, especially young children, could swallow water containing thesesediments. The amount of sediment ingested during swimming and wading is expected to beminimal. Sediment is a past potential exposure route for individuals participating in recreationalactivities at Clear Creek prior to the interim remediation.

The June 1988 sampling of Clear Creek revealed sediment samples contaminated with PCBs at 12ppm. Because groundwater under the site discharges primarily into Clear Creek, and PCBsbioaccumulate rapidly, sediment is considered a future potential pathway for PCBs to reach thesurrounding community during recreational activities by incidental ingestion and dermal contact. The IDEM performed the last sampling of Clear Creek in November 1991; PCBs were detected0.19 ppm.

Off-site Surface Water

The sewage treatment plant was functional from 1933 to 1982. Clear Creek was at one timewhere the Tertiary Lagoon is presently located. Before the Tertiary Lagoon was made, ClearCreek was re-routed to the western edge of the site flowing south. Although interim remedialremoval of sediments from Clear Creek were done by 1987, the last sampling data for Clear Creekshowed PCBs at 0.19 ppm. Surface water presents a past, present, and future potential exposurepathway for individuals participating in recreational activities in Clear Creek through incidentalingestion of sediments and dermal contact.

Off-site Groundwater - Private Wells

The Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs performed a well user surveyin 1986 for the Winston-Thomas site. Forty private wells were located within a 5,000-foot radiusof the site. Results showed all samples taken from the private wells to be non-detect to 98 ppt forPCB. Although the area is currently served by municipal water, it is unknown how many privatewells are still being used for potable water.

Groundwater under the site flows generally to the south, southwest toward Clear Creek. There isa potential for private wells to be contaminated with PCBs emanating from the site. The privatewells south and southwest of the site are the most likely to potentially be contaminated. The useof the private wells in the vicinity of the Winston-Thomas site is a past, present, and futurepotential exposure pathway for individuals using them for potable water.

Off-site Cattle

Some of the individuals that obtained sludge for organic gardening also used sludge in pastureswhere cattle grazed. Accumulation of PCBs in the tissues of these cattle is possible. Cattle thatgrazed on sludge covered fields are a past potential exposure pathway to individuals who ate thismeat.


Table 49.

Potential Exposure Pathways for Winston-Thomas Facility
PATHWAY
NAME
EXPOSURE PATHWAY ELEMENTSTIME
SOURCEENVIRONMENTAL
MEDIA
POINT OF
EXPOSURE
ROUTE OF
EXPOSURE
EXPOSED
POPULATION
NUMBER OF
EXPOSED
PERSONS
On-site/Off-site
Ambient Air
Winston-
Thomas
Site
AirArea Around
Winston-
Thomas Site
InhalationIndividuals
around Winston-
Thomas site &
those who used
sewage sludge in
their gardens
250Past
Present
Future
Off-site SurfaceWater/SedimentWinston-Thomas SiteWater/SedimentClear CreekIngestion
Dermal Contact
Recreational
Users of Clear
Creek
UnknownPast
Present
Future
Off-site
Groundwater
Winston-
Thomas
Site
GroundwaterPrivate
Wells
Ingestion,
Inhalation,
Dermal Contact
Residents
who use private
wells (5,000 ft
radius)
120Past
Present
Future
Off-site CattleWinston-
Thomas
Site
MeatPastures with
sewage
sludge
IngestionIndividuals eating
meat from cattle
that grazed on
pastures with
PCB-
contaminated
sludge
UnknownPast


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