PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
ZIONSVILLE, BOONE COUNTY, INDIANA
This site is a public health hazard. Evidence exists that exposures to sodium and potentially tochlorinated volatile organic compounds and inorganic chemicals has occurred in the past, arepresently occurring, or are likely to occur in the future. The source of the sodium is not certainas it was found in the on-site soil, but not in the one on-site groundwater monitoring well. Site-related contamination could migrate to private wells.
- The estimated exposures are to sodium and potentially to site-related substances at concentrations in the residential wells that, upon long-term exposures (greater than 1 year), can cause adverse health effects to any segment of the receptor population.
- Aquatic life in Finley Creek may have bioaccumulated site-related inorganic and organic contaminants.
- The off-site surface soil has not been sampled.
- Existing ATSDR Toxicological Profiles for chloroethane, chloromethane, and 1,1-dichloroethane lack information that would allow a better assessment of the site's public health implications.
- Provide frequent monitoring of residential wells for contaminant migration in groundwater.
- Provide off-site groundwater monitoring designed to ensure that no contamination reaches the residential wells.
- Provide drinking water to households with sodium contaminated private wells.
- Inform residents with private wells of the possible health effects caused by the drinking of water containing high levels of sodium.
- Implement institutional controls in the near future to prevent the use of the contaminated aquifer for drinking water supplies. Institutional controls are required until remediation has reduced contaminant concentrations to levels below levels of health concern.
- Inform area residents of the potential dangers of eating aquatic species taken from Finley Creek.
- Implement actions for monitoring, or other removal and/or remedial actions needed to ensure that humans are not exposed to significant concentrations of site-related chemicals in the off-site surface water.
- Protect persons on and off the site from exposure to dusts or vapors that may be released during remediation.
- Characterize off-site surface soil.
- Provide remedial workers with adequate protective equipment and training in accordancewith 29 CFR 1910.120, and follow appropriate National Institute for Occupational Safetyand Health, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines.
Recommendations 7, 8, and 10 are part of the Consent Decree plans for the site.
Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) Recommendations
In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and LiabilityAct of 1980 as amended, ATSDR and the state have evaluated the Envirochem Corporation sitefor appropriate health follow-up activities. Due to the continued educational activitiesundertaken by IDEM and EPA, the human interaction with a pathway of exposure, and theindications or allegations of adverse health outcomes, the following activities are recommended.
- Provide immediate community health education to the exposed populations about the possible health effects from site contaminants and sodium, and about interim measures to reduce exposures.
- Educate health professionals in Boone County about the potential health effects caused by site-related contaminants and sodium.
- Consider whether substance-specific applied research should be conducted to identify achronic MRL for ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure to chloroethane,chloromethane, and 1,1-dichloroethane.
If data become available that suggest human exposure is occurring, additional follow-up activities will be considered.
Based on the recommendations made in this public health assessment, the following public health actions have been or will be undertaken.
- The ISDH, Environmental Epidemiology Section will provide health education to two groups of individuals:
- Individuals who use private wells for potable water. These individuals will be provided information about potential adverse health effects that could occur if they are on sodium-restrictive diets.
- Individuals who live in the general community of the landfill. These individualswill be cautioned against eating aquatic biota taken from Finley Creek in thevicinity of the landfill. They will also be informed of the potential health riskinvolved if they did eat aquatic biota from Finley Creek.
- The ISDH in cooperation with ATSDR, Division of Health Education, will providehealth education to health professionals in Zionsville. This will consist of activities toimprove the knowledge, skill, and behavior of health professionals in screening,surveillance, diagnosing, treating, and preventing injury or disease due to possibleexposure to excess concentrations of sodium. This program will be initiated as resources permit.
Mr. Garry L. Mills
Environmental Epidemiology Section
Indiana State Department of Health
Ms. Dollis M. Wright
Environmental Epidemiology Section
Indiana State Department of Health
ATSDR Regional Representative:
Ms. Louise Fabinski
Regional Operations Region V
Office of the Assistant Administrator
ATSDR Technical Project Officer:
Mr. William Greim
Remedial Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment & Consultation
The Envirochem Corporation Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Indiana StateDepartment of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances andDisease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and proceduresexisting at the time the public health assessment was begun.
Technical Project Officer, SPS, RPB, DHAC
The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.
Robert C. Williams
Director, DHAC, ATSDR
ATSDR. December 1989. Toxicological Profile for Chloroethane. U.S. Department of Healthand Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and DiseaseRegistry, Atlanta, Georgia.
ATSDR. December 1990. Toxicological Profile for Chloromethane. U.S. Department of Healthand Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and DiseaseRegistry, Atlanta, Georgia.
ATSDR. December 1990. Toxicological Profile for 1,1-Dichloroethane. U.S. Department ofHealth and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and DiseaseRegistry, Atlanta, Georgia.
ATSDR. February 1992. Draft Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene. U.S. Department ofHealth and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and DiseaseRegistry, Atlanta, Georgia.
ATSDR. February 1992. Draft Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride. U.S. Department ofHealth and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and DiseaseRegistry, Atlanta, Georgia.
ATSDR. July 1992. Toxicological Profile for Aluminum. U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry,Atlanta, Georgia.
EPA. March 14, 1986. Final Remedial Investigation Report on ECC Site, Zionsville Site,Volumes 1 & 2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region V. Chicago, Illinois.
EPA. December 5, 1986. Public Comment Feasibility Study, ECC Site, Zionsville, Indiana. U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, Region V. Chicago, Illinois.
EPA. September 1987. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection. U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency, Region V. Chicago, Illinois.
EPA. April 1991. Public meeting on Record of Decision Amendment proposed for the Enviro-Chem Superfund site, Zionsville, Indiana. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region V.Chicago, Illinois.
EPA. June 1991. Declaration for the Record of Decision Amendment. U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency, Region V. Chicago, Illinois.
NAS. 1977. Drinking Water and Health. National Academy of Sciences.
Sittig M. 1981. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals. Noyes Publications.
U.S. District Court, Southern District of Indiana. September 1991. Consent Decree.