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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

LUKE AIR FORCE BASE
PHOENIX, MARICOPA COUNTY, ARIZONA


TABLES

Table 1. Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards Associated with the Installation Restoration Program Sites at Luke Air Force Base

Table 1.

Perchlorate levels in the City of Loma Linda's water supply wells
SiteSite Description/Waste DisposalHistoryInvestigational Results/EnvironmentalMonitoring ResultsCorrective Activities and CurrentStatusPublic Health Evaluation
OT-O1
Old Incinerator Site
An incinerator for general refuse operated at this site from 1941 to 1946 and again from 1951 to 1953. The facility was demolished in 1972. No known or suspected hazardous wastes were disposed of at the site. The site currently consists of Building 343 and a parking lot. Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) parties reviewed operational history and current conditions of the site. No environmental investigations were considered necessary at this site. Corrective Activities:
  • No further action (NFA) was recommended (awaiting Record of Decision [ROD]).
  • No public health hazard is associated with this site because no known or suspected hazardous wastes were disposed of at the site.
    RW-02
    Wastewater Treatment Annex Landfill
    The base's main landfill for the disposal of general refuse. Operated from 1953 to 1970. Small quantities of low-level radioactive electron tubes (encased in concrete), hazardous waste, asbestos, and medical wastes were also disposed of at the site. Soil Gas: Some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected at low levels in soil gas samples.
    Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected (no comparison values [CVs] available). Low levels of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were detected in soil samples. Cadmium, lead, and zinc were detected above background. Radiological surveys indicated radioactive constituents within background levels.
    Groundwater: No VOCs were detected in any of the base monitoring wells on this site. Metal concentrations detected in groundwater were within naturally occurring background ranges.
    Corrective Activities:
  • In 1991, bank stabilization was conducted to prevent erosion into the Agua Fria River.

  • Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending). Additional surface and subsurface soil sampling was required to support this decision. No VOCs or SVOCs were detected above Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) CVs.
  • Area will be fenced in Spring/Summer 1998.
  • Deed restrictions preventing unrestricted future land use were also recommended.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil or groundwater at the site.

    Petroleum hydrocarbons, SVOCs, and metals were detected in soils. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    No contaminants were detected in groundwater. Because on-site monitoring wells on site are not used for drinking water, no exposure; and therefore, no health hazard exists.

    LF-03
    Outboard Runway Landfill
    Former landfill area, used for limited disposal of general refuse from 1951 to 1953. No known or suspected industrial- type wastes or hazardous wastes were disposed of at this site. Over half of the site is currently covered by the outboard runway. Surface and Subsurface Soil: Low levels of petroleum hydrocarbons were detected (no CVs available). No SVOCs or VOCs were detected in most surface and subsurface soil samples. Arsenic (15.9 parts per million [ppm]), cadmium (7.8 ppm), chromium (386 ppm), copper (4,700 ppm), and lead (796 ppm) were detected at concentrations above background levels. Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending). Additional sampling was required to address data quality issues and to support this decision: no VOCs or SVOCs were detected.
  • Deed restrictions preventing unrestricted future land use were also recommended.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to surface and subsurface soils at this site.

    Metals were not detected at levels associated with health effects. Most soil samples contained no SVOCs and VOCs. Furthermore, over half of the site soil is currently covered by the runway, and is, therefore, inaccessible. Under past, current and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    OT-04
    Perimeter Road POL Waste Site

    ADD KEY

    From 1951 to 1970, up to 50,000 gallons per year of petroleum, oil, and lubricant (POL) wastes were sprayed on this site to control excessive dust. The site is unpaved. Surface and Subsurface Soil: No SVOCs or VOCs were detected. Metals were detected at low levels. Current Status:
  • NFA required (ROD pending).
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to surface and subsurface soil at this site

    This site is inaccessible to the public, no VOCs or SVOCs were detected in soil, and the levels of metals detected are not associated with adverse health effects.

    DP-05
    POL Waste Disposal Trench
    From approximately 1970 to 1972, POL waste was discharged into 11 shallow trenches and a shallow lagoon on this site. The waste was allowed to weather for 4 to 6 weeks, then it was covered with soil. The Air Force has estimated (without documentation) that 100,000 gallons per year of POL waste were dumped between 1970 and 1972. The site currently consists of bare ground covered with sparse vegetation. Roughly 40 to 50 percent (%) of the site is covered with construction debris, including asphalt and concrete. Surface and Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected (no CVs available). No polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), VOCs, or SVOCs were detected at concentrations above ATSDR CVs. All metals were detected below background ranges, except lead (39 ppm to 115 ppm in surface soil).
    Groundwater: No VOCs, SVOCs, or metals were detected at concentrations above ATSDR CVs.
    Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending). Additional surface and subsurface samples were required to support this recommendation : no VOCs or SVOCs were detected.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil and groundwater at this site.

    This site is inaccessible to the public. No VOCs or SVOCs were detected in soils at concentrations above CVs, and the levels of metals detected are not associated with adverse health effects.

    No SVOCs, VOCs, or metals were detected in groundwater at levels that pose a health problem.

    FT-06
    South Fire Training Area
    This site was used as the original fire department training area for the base between 1941 and 1946 , and again from 1951 to 1973. POL waste was poured onto a mock aircraft in a cleared, unlined, bermed circular pit (total of 13 pits). The structures were then set on fire and extinguished with water and aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF). Eighty percent of the site is currently paved, including portions that are under building foundations, parking lot asphalt, and a concrete-lined storm drain canal. Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons, SVOCs, and VOCs (including BTEX, Trichloroethylene [TCE], and tetrachloroethylene [PCE] were detected in subsurface soils. No PCBs were detected in subsurface soils.
    Surface Soil: No dioxins or furans were detected in surface soil samples.
    Groundwater: No VOCs, SVOCs, or metals were detected above background levels. 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), an agricultural pesticide, was present in groundwater at levels below ATSDR CVs.
    Current Status:
  • Pits were taken out of service (Rothrock, 1998). These pits are under the concrete parking lot on site and inaccessible to the public.
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending). Additional subsurface samples were required to support this recommendation: no VOCs or SVOCs were detected at levels above ATSDR CVs.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil or groundwater contamination at this site.

    Some contaminants were detected in subsurface soils. Subsurface contamination is inaccessible to the public. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    No contaminants were detected in groundwater at levels above CVs. Therefore, no health hazard is expected to result from groundwater exposure at this site.

    FT-07E
    Eastern Portion of North Fire Training Area
    Fire training operations took place on this site from 1973 to 1989. The site consists of three bermed fire training pits (FTPs), two of which (FTP-3 and FTP-4) have a sprinkler that dispenses POL. Flammable POL wastes were dispensed onto mock aircraft or similar structures. The mock aircraft were then ignited and extinguished with water or AFFF for training purposes. Surface and Subsurface Soil:
    FTP-3 and FTP-4: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in surface soils (no CVs available). BTEX was detected in soils at depths of up to 80 feet.
    FTP-6: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in one sample (no CVs available). No BTEX compounds were detected in soils in this area.
    Groundwater: No SVOCs were detected at levels above ATSDR CVs. 1,2-Dichloroethane (DCA) was detected at levels above ATSDR CVs but below the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Chloroform was consistently detected in groundwater at levels below ATSDR CVs.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Soil vapor extraction (SVE) system operating from April to December 1992 removed over 14,000 pounds of contaminants from the soil.
  • After soil treatment, BTEX compounds detected in a limited number of samples were all below ATSDR CVs.

  • Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending). Additional sampling was required to support this decision: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in surface soils. VOCs (ethyl benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were only detected in one sample, at relatively low concentrations, in soils 8 to 10 feet below ground surface (bgs); most levels were below ATSDR CVs.
  • Deed restrictions preventing unrestricted future land use were also recommended.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soils or groundwater at this site.

    Petroleum hydrocarbons and BTEX contamination were detected in soils. Soil has been treated to levels that do not pose a health problem. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    Contaminants were detected slightly above CVs in groundwater. Because no one is drinking from the monitoring wells, no exposure, and therefore no health hazard, exists.

    FT-07W
    Western Portion of the North Fire Training Area
    Fire training exercises were conducted at this site. POL waste was poured into circular unlined bermed areas (10 total) containing mock aircraft and then ignited for fire fighting training. Fires on this site were extinguished with water and AFFF. Approximately 50% of the site is currently occupied by a new fire training facility, which was constructed in spring of 1996. The remaining portion of the site consists of bare ground covered with sparse vegetation. Surface and Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected (no CVs available). SVOCs were detected at concentrations below ATSDR CVs. Lead was detected above background concentrations (in two samples).
    Groundwater: See discussion above for FT-07E.
    Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (pending ROD).
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil or groundwater at this site.

    No contaminants were detected at levels that are associated with adverse health effects.

    OT-08
    F-15 Burial Site
    Base personnel buried an F-15 aircraft at this site after it crashed and was destroyed in a fire. The aircraft was reportedly shrouded in plastic prior to disposal. No known or suspected hazardous wastes were disposed of at this site. FFA parties reviewed the operational history and current conditions of the site. No environmental investigations were considered necessary. Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (awaiting ROD).
  • No public health hazard is associated with this site because no known or suspected hazardous wastes were disposed of at this site.
    OT-09
    Canberra Burial Site
    A Canberra aircraft was buried at this site in the early 1950s after it had crashed. No known or suspected hazardous wastes were disposed of at this site. FFA parties reviewed the operational history and current conditions of the site. No environmental investigations were considered necessary. Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (awaiting ROD).
  • No public health hazard is associated with this site because no known or suspected hazardous wastes were disposed of at this site.
    OT-10
    Concrete Rubble Burial Site
    Beginning in 1951, concrete and asphalt rubble from runway repair and extension operations were accumulated above ground at this site. In 1974, all of the accumulated rubble was buried in a pit. No known or suspected hazardous wastes were disposed of at this site. The site is currently used as a radar station and preparedness training area. Because this site is located within the boundaries of DP-13, and because the landfill contents are presumed to be similar, the two sites were investigated as a single unit. See DP-13 for more information. See DP-13. See DP-13.
    SS-11
    Former Outside Transformer Storage
    Prior to 1981, the base electric shop used this site for temporary storage of out-of-service electrical transformers, some of which may have contained PCBs. The transformers were reportedly stored directly on the ground. Interviews and a records search found no indication that PCBs spilled or leaked from transformers stored in this area. About 20% of the site consists of exposed/unvegetated soils. The remainder of the site is covered with degraded asphalt, which has been in place for 40 years. Soil: No PCBs were detected at levels above ATSDR CVs. Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (awaiting ROD).
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil at this site.

    This site is not expected to be associated with adverse health effects because no contaminants were detected.

    OT-12
    Old Explosive Ordnance Division Burial Pit
    Former landfill area, reportedly in existence since the early 1970s. This site is located just south of a demolition and burn facility, constructed in 1963. A pit was most likely excavated at that time to dispose of the residue from the incineration or detonation of unused or outdated ordnance. The majority of the site lies in a low depression covered with soil and grass. Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in the upper 10 feet of soil (no CVs available). SVOCs were detected at low concentrations and were generally associated with detections of petroleum hydrocarbons. No VOCs were detected at levels above ATSDR CVs. Current Status:
  • NFA is required. Additional sampling was conducted to support this decision: no VOCs or SVOCs were detected at levels above ATSDR CVs.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil at this site.

    Low levels of petroleum hydrocarbons and SVOCs were detected in soils. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    DP-13
    Drainage Ditch Disposal Area
    This site is part of a general landfill area that was expanded to include OT-10. During the 1940s, this site was the location of a drainage ditch that was reportedly used for general refuse disposal. The ditch was filled and covered when the base was deactivated in 1946. In 1974, asphalt and concrete rubble stored in the northwest corner of OT-10 was disposed of in a burial pit. No known or suspected industrial-type wastes or hazardous wastes were disposed of at this site. Currently, a majority of the site is unvegetated soil. The northern portion of the site is used an area for preparedness training. Soil Gas: VOCs were detected at levels near the detection limits in numerous soil gas samples scattered across the site.
    Surface and Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected (no CVs available). No VOCs were detected. No SVOCs were detected at levels above ATSDR CVs. Chromium (2.9 ppm to 15,900 ppm) and lead (6 ppm to 36,000 ppm) were detected at concentrations above background; these detected concentrations are approximately 1000 times greater than the levels found in other samples on site. Additional sampling was required as a result of possible hazards to excavation workers, identified in the risk assessment. During additional sampling, no VOCs were detected. No SVOCs were detected at concentrations above ATSDR CVs.
    Current Status:
  • Site was fenced in 1997 and is now inaccessible to the public.
  • Military training exercises are conducted infrequently (approximately two per year).
  • Deed restrictions preventing unrestricted future land use were also recommended.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil at this site

    SVOCs and some metals were detected in soils. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    LF-14
    Old Salvage Yard Burial Site
    In the 1940s, this site was part of the main drainage canal (unlined) for the north end of base. The canal was abandoned when the path of the drainage was changed in the 1950s. The abandoned canal may have been used as a landfill and was completely filled and covered by 1962. PCB-containing transformer fluids may have been disposed of on site. The site is currently unpaved and covered with bare soil. Soil Gas: Elevated levels of VOCs were detected.
    Surface and Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected, with the highest concentration occurring in surface samples (no CVs available). No VOCs were detected. No SVOCs were detected at concentrations above ATSDR CVs. PCBs were detected in an isolated area at levels above ATSDR CVs (maximum PCB of 2,300 parts per billion [ppb]).
    Current Status:
  • NFA recommended (ROD pending). Additional sampling was required to support this decision: no VOCs or SVOCs were detected in subsurface soil samples at levels above ATSDR CVs.
  • Deed restrictions preventing unrestricted future land use were also recommended.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to surface or subsurface soils at this site.

    Petroleum hydrocarbons, SVOCs, and PCBs were only detected in an isolated area. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    SS-15
    Facility 328 Spill Site
    Facility 328 is the Fuels Quality Control Laboratory. Laboratory rinse water containing petroleum ether, cleaning compounds, and solvent wastes is generated in small quantities. Prior to 1994, the rinse water drained from a sink in the laboratory, by gravity feed piping, to an underground storage tank (UST). This tank was replaced in 1994 during UST upgrades conducted by the base. A spill of approximately 100 gallons of fuel was reported to have occurred at this site during replacement of an old underground fuel line with a new aboveground fuel line. No such fuel line exists on this site, however, and the listing of the site is considered to be an editorial error. FFA parties reviewed the operational history and current conditions of the site. No environmental investigations were considered necessary. Current Status:
  • The site has been removed from the NPL process and placed under the jurisdiction of the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) UST program.
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending).
  • No public health hazard is associated with this site because no known or suspected hazardous wastes were disposed of or spilled at the site.
    SS-16 Facility
    321 USTs
    This site contains six USTs used for storage of motor fuels, diesel fuel, and jet propulsion-4 fuel. Infrequent spills occurred at this site as a result of overfilling of tanks. A minor spill, estimated to be less than 1,000 gallons, was reported to have occurred when the connection was made from underground lines to aboveground lines in 1964. FFA parties reviewed the operational history and current conditions of the site. No environmental investigations were considered necessary. Current Status:
  • The site is removed from the NPL process and placed under the jurisdiction of the ADEQ UST program.
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending).
  • No public health hazard is associated with this site. Overfilling spills were reported to be insignificant, and the bulk of the spilled fuel is expected to have evaporated because the area surrounding the tanks is paved.
    SS-17
    Former Defense Property Disposal Office (DPDO) Yard
    During the 1950s and 1960s, hazardous materials and drums of industrial wastes were stored on the floor of the former DPDO building. Hazardous wastes included spent thinners and strippers, paint, solvents, mercury-contaminated rags, and asbestos-containing material. Forty % of the site is now covered with old asphalt and concrete pads (assumed to be the floor of the DPDO building) and 60% is exposed/unvegetated soils. Surface and Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in soil samples across the site, with the highest concentration detected in the surface (no CVs available). No VOCs or SVOCs were detected. PCBs were detected at concentrations below ATSDR CVs. Corrective Activities:
  • In 1986, all wastes stored on site were shipped from the site for proper disposal in California.

  • Current Status:
  • The site is considered closed, with closure acknowledged by ADEQ.
  • Although reports indicate that all impacted soils around the concrete pads were removed from the site prior to closure, additional subsurface soil sampling data was performed to confirm this. No VOCs were detected. No SVOCs were detected at concentrations above ATSDR CVs.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil at this site.

    The area is inaccessible to the public. Furthermore, no VOCs or SVOCs were detected on site, and PCBs were detected only at low levels. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    ST-18
    Facility 993
    Former liquid waste storage facility originally consisting of a single refueling tank truck that was coated and buried in 1968 and served as a UST. This UST* was used for temporary storage of all liquid POL* and solvent wastes generated at the base. In 1972, two more USTs were installed at the facility and the area around all three USTs was enclosed with a fence. This facility was classified as an interim status treatment, storage, and disposal facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1979. Surface and Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in soils (no CVs available). While VOCs were detected in the subsurface, no VOCs were detected in the surface and near surface soils. No SVOCs were detected above ATSDR CVs.
    Groundwater: Toluene and DBCP were detected at levels below ATSDR CVs.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Closure of this facility began in 1982 to facilitate the construction of a new Air Force Reserve maintenance building.
  • USTs were removed in October 1983.
  • The site was capped with concrete in 1987 as part of the RCRA post-closure requirements.
  • Surface controls and groundwater monitoring wells were installed. Groundwater monitoring to continue for 30 years.

  • Current Status:
  • Base continues to inspect and maintain the cap to ensure the integrity of the concrete and sealed joints.
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending). No additional sampling was required to support this decision.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil or groundwater at this site.

    No contamination was detected in soil at concentrations above CVs. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    No contamination was detected in groundwater at concentrations above CVs. Drinking water wells sampled in the vicinity of this site have not shown contamination at concentrations above CVs. Consequently, no health hazards are expected to result in exposure to groundwater at this site.

    ST-19
    BX Leaking USTs
    Unleaded gasoline and diesel fuel were dispensed at this site, for use by military vehicles. The site contained three USTs used to store unleaded and diesel gasoline. Petroleum fuel leaked and contaminated soils in August 1987. The site is currently covered with asphalt pavement and is part of the base vehicle maintenance facility.
  • Investigation of the site after UST removal confirmed the presence of gasoline contamination.
  • FFA parties reviewed the operational history and current conditions of the site and agreed to leave site under ADEQ jurisdiction.
  • Corrective Activities:
  • Suspected release of unleaded gasoline at the facility was reported to the ADEQ and the UST on site was removed in 1987. The contamination was limited and only 70 feet deep.

  • Current Status:
  • ADEQ UST Compliance Unit issued a formal case closure letter, dated November 1, 1989.
  • NFA required unless future groundwater contamination is attributed to the release from this facility (ADEQ, 1989). Site remains under the jurisdiction of the ADEQ UST program.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil at this site.

    Contamination was at depth and inaccessible to the public. The site is currently covered with asphalt pavement, further preventing any human exposure to site soil. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    SD-20 Oil/Water Separator Canal and Earth Fissures This unlined drainage canal, which originates at Oil/Water Separator 912, receives wastewater containing petroleum-based materials from several sources. Historically, the oil/water separator periodically overflowed into the canal during storm conditions. The canal discharges over an area of subsidence earth fissures. The canal remains active, but the oil/water separator has been fixed (1992) and no longer overflows into the canal. Surface and Subsurface Soil and Sediments: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected (no CVs available). VOCs and SVOCs were detected at concentrations below ATSDR CVs. Most metals were detected in soil and sediment samples at concentrations below background levels.
    Groundwater: TCE, DCA, dichloropropane, and benzoic acid were detected in monitoring wells at concentrations below ATSDR CVs. No contaminants have been detected since the second quarter of 1995.
    Corrective Activities:
  • The oil/water separator was fixed in 1992 to prevent overflow problems.
  • Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending).
  • Groundwater monitoring will continue throughout 1998.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil or groundwater at this site.

    Low levels of contaminants were detected in soils. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    No contaminants were detected in groundwater at levels above CVs. In addition, no one is using the monitoring wells for drinking water and no drinking water wells are present in this area. For these reasons, no exposures, and therefore no health hazards, exist.

    SD-21
    Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Canal
    Treated effluent is discharged to this canal from the Base Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), which was built in the early 1940s. The WWTP flow is approximately 95% domestic flow and 5% industrial wastewater flow from the base. Industrial wastewater is pretreated at 14 oil/water separators prior to entry into the base sanitary sewer system. Surface and Subsurface Soil and Sediments: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected at levels above ATSDR CVs. Most metals were detected at concentrations below background levels.
    Groundwater: No metals were detected at concentrations above background ranges. VOCs and SVOCs were only detected at levels below ATSDR CVs.
    Surface Water: No VOCs or SVOCs were detected in any surface water samples.
    Current Status:
  • The treated effluent from the WWTP is routinely monitored in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System.
  • NFA was recommended (awaiting ROD).
  • No public health hazard is associated with direct contact with soil, groundwater, or surface water at this site. No SVOCs or VOCs were detected at levels that pose a health hazard.
    DP-22
    POL Trench at Northeast Runway
    This site was used for the disarmament and defueling of aircraft during the 1940s and 1950s. Waste POL was reportedly dumped into shallow trenches at this site. No evidence of trenches were visible on aerial photographs. Approximately 30% of the site is covered with concrete, 20% with bituminous cover, and 50% with sparsely vegetated gravel. Surface and Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected (no CVs available). No SVOCs were detected in soil samples. The only metals detected at concentrations above background were barium (51.2 ppm to 245 ppm) and lead (7 ppm to 34.1 ppm). Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (awaiting ROD). Additional soil sampling was performed to support this decision: no VOCs or SVOCs were detected.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil at this site.

    No VOCs or SVOCs were detected. Some metals were detected at levels above CVs. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    DP-23
    Old Surface Impoundment Area
    In the late 1940s, an impoundment dam was constructed along an old natural drainage system flowing south off the base. This site may have been used for the disposal of POL waste until construction covered the site in 1969. The dam was buried, but was not removed during construction. Eighty % of this area is either paved with asphalt, under tarmac, or under concrete. Surface and Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected (no CVs available). VOCs were detected at trace levels, below ATSDR CVs. Only one SVOC, benzo(a)pyrene, was detected at concentrations above the Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRG). Benzo(a) pyrene was detected at concentrations in surface and subsurface soils, extending beyond the base property, at concentrations ranging from 0.17 ppm to 3.3 ppm; these concentrations exceed the PRG of 0.78 ppm and ATSDR CVs. Corrective Activities:
  • All soils with benzo(a) pyrene concentrations above the PRGs were excavated.
  • Excavated soils were biologically treated to reduce contaminant concentrations. Monitoring was conducted to confirm effectiveness of treatment. Treated soils were returned for final disposal in 1995.
  • Current Status:
  • Treatment is ongoing and is anticipated to be completed by the beginning of 1998.
  • Deed restrictions preventing unrestricted future land use were also recommended.
  • No public health hazard is likely to result from exposure to soils at this site.

    Although contamination existed in areas beyond the base, past exposures to soil contamination were unlikely because this site is located in a remote and undeveloped area. Members of the public probably accessed the area infrequently, if at all. No current or future public health hazards are associated with exposure to soil because all soils with contamination have been or are being removed.

    DP-24
    Base Ammo Storage Area
    This site has been used for storage of explosive ordnance and ammunition since the 1950s. FFA parties reviewed the operational history and current conditions of the site. No environmental investigations were considered necessary. Current Status:
  • FFA parties signed a consent decree stating this site was included on NPL as the result of a clerical error.
  • NFA was required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with this site.
    LF-25
    Northwest Landfill
    This site was used as a landfill until 1989. Construction debris, including asphalt, scrap metal, and some drums from base subcontractors, were disposed of on this site. According to base personnel, no liquid wastes were disposed of at the site. The site is currently a grassy, low-lying area.

    This site is located immediately downrange of the base skeet range (OT-41). Shot and broken clay pigeons from the skeet range routinely fall on the southern portion of the site.

    Soil Gas: Chlorinated hydrocarbons were not detected in any soil gas samples. Low levels of BTEX were detected in soil gas.
    Surface and Subsurface Soil:
    Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected (no CVs available). Some SVOCs, but no VOCs were detected at concentrations above ATSDR CVs. Antimony (one detect of 368 ppm at 2 feet bgs), beryllium (0.6 ppm to 7.6 ppm), and lead (5 ppm to 110,100 ppm) were detected at concentrations above background levels.
    Corrective Activities:
  • During the spring and summer of 1992, construction debris was removed from the southern portion of the site to facilitate subsurface sampling. All excavated material, much of it concrete rubble, was removed and taken to a permitted solid waste construction landfill.
  • Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending). Additional surface and subsurface sampling was performed to support this decision: no VOCs or SVOCs were detected at levels above ATSDR CVs.
  • Deed restrictions preventing unrestricted future land use were also recommended.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil at this site.

    Some contaminants were detected at levels above CVs. The highest metal concentrations appear to be related to the presence of shot associated with the nearby skeet range (OT-41). With only one exception, the samples containing metals at concentrations above background were collected from areas located directly downrange of the skeet range. This site is located in a remote part of the base; therefore, human exposure to soil contamination is likely to occur infrequently, if at all.

    SD-26
    Hush House Canal
    This surface drainage canal operated from the mid 1960s until 1993. During that time, the oil/water separators attached to the Hush House discharged directly into the canal and were the source of contamination. The oil/water separators were connected to the base's WWTP in 1993 and no longer discharge to the canal. Drainage from the runway and taxiway to the west, and most of the facilities for the 944th Tactical Air Group, are also channeled to this canal. This surface drainage canal merges with the Oil/Water Separator canal (SD-20) and eventually discharges to an area of subsidence earth fissures. Surface and Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected mainly in shallow soil samples (no CVs available). No VOCs or metals were detected at concentrations above ATSDR CVs.
    Sediment: Sediment samples were also collected from 0 to 3 inches in the canal. No VOCs or metals were detected at concentrations above ATSDR CVs. SVOCs were detected in two samples (one taken from the head of the canal and one from an outfall of the Hush House oil/water separator).
    Corrective Activities:
  • The Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis process was initiated in 1992, and the oil/water separator no longer discharges into this canal (since 1993).

  • Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending). Additional sampling was performed to support this decision: no VOCs or SVOCs were detected at levels above ATSDR CVs.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil at this site.

    No contamination was detected at levels above ATSDR CVs. The source of contamination (oil/water separator) no longer discharges to this site. Furthermore, the site is located in a remote area of the base so human exposure is likely to occur infrequently, if at all. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposure to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    LF-37
    Northeast Landfill
    Aerial photos suggest that this area may have contained some pits used as landfills. The site is currently unpaved, except for the perimeter road. Soil Gas: Chlorinated hydrocarbons were not detected in any of the soil gas samples collected. Some BTEX contaminants were detected at concentrations below ATSDR CVs.
    Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected (no CVs available). No SVOCs were detected at concentrations above ATSDR CVs. No VOCs were detected. A common, asbestos-containing building material was also found.
    Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending). Additional surface and subsurface soil sampling was performed to support recommendation: no VOCs or SVOCs were detected at concentrations above ATSDR CVs.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil gas or soil at this site.

    No contaminants were detected at levels above CVs. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    SD-38
    Southwest Oil/Water Separator at Auto Hobby Shop
    The southwest oil/water separator served Building 248, the old base hobby shop, which was built in 1957. In 1990, a new auto hobby shop was constructed to the west of this site. A variety of auto repair activities still occur at both locations. Waste passing through or collected in the oil/water separator may include oil, antifreeze, transmission fluid, and various degreasers and solvents associated with vehicle maintenance. Surface and Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons, VOCs (0.5 ppm to 450 ppm), and SVOCs (9.4 ppm to 25 ppm) were detected at concentrations above ATSDR CVs. Subsurface soils also contained lead in excess of background ranges.
    Groundwater: VOCs and SVOCs were not detected.
    Corrective Activities:
  • In March 1991, an inspection of the oil/water separator found that it did not have a concrete floor. Samples indicated that the sludge from the bottom of the oil/water separator contained elevated concentrations of gasoline constituents. A concrete bottom has since been installed.
  • Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending). Additional subsurface soil sampling was required to support recommendation: no VOCs or SVOCs were detected.
  • Deed restrictions preventing unrestricted future land use were also recommended.
  • No public health hazard exists from exposure to subsurface soils because contamination is not accessible to the public.

    No public health hazard is associated with exposure to groundwater because no contamination was detected.

    SD-39
    Waste Discharge at Old Lockheed Site
    Prior to 1964, facilities in this area were used by the base for aircraft ground equipment maintenance. Lockheed Aircraft company occupied the facilities in the area from 1964 to 1982. Presently the facilities are occupied by the 405th Maintenance Shop. This site was identified as a potential source of contamination because of the lack of information on the composition and quantity of wastes released. Surface and Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected (no CVs available). No VOCs or metals were detected at concentrations above ATSDR CVs. No PCBs were detected. Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending). Additional soil sampling was required to support this recommendation: no VOCs or SVOCs were detected.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soils at this site.

    No contaminants were detected at levels above CVs. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    SD-40
    Taxiway Fuel Discharge Area
    Between the early 1970s and 1990, defueling of jet aircraft onto the bituminous cover was reportedly conducted during fuel tank maintenance. Fuels were reportedly drained from the aircraft fuel tanks onto the dust cover adjacent to the taxiways. Surface and Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected (no CVs available). No PCBs or SVOCs were detected at concentrations above ATSDR CVs. Most metals were detected at concentrations below background levels. Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending). Additional surface and subsurface sampling was performed to support the recommendation: no SVOCs or VOCs were detected.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil at this site.

    No PCBs or SVOCs were detected. Under past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in adverse health effects.

    OT-41
    Skeet Range
    The base skeet range was built in 1976 and continues to be used for recreational target practice. Five % of the site is paved. The remainder of the site consists of desert soil and grass and an unlined irrigation canal that passes through the site. This site was identified as a potential source of contamination because lead shot from skeet shooting could potentially enter the canal and be transported to off-base properties. Surface and Subsurface Soil and Sediments: Sediment samples collected from the irrigation canal indicate low lead levels (up to 33 ppm) that are above background. Sediment samples collected further downstream from the site did not contain elevated levels of lead.
    Surface Water: No lead was detected.
    Current Status:
  • NFA was recommended (ROD pending).
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil or sediment contamination because the contaminants are not at levels that pose a health hazard and are inaccessible to the public.

    Given the analytical results, lead does not appear to be transported off site via the irrigation canal.

    SS-42
    Bulk Fuel Storage Area
    This site formerly housed a UST that was part of an oil/water separator system receiving condensate from two large aboveground fuel tanks. These tanks, which currently store jet petroleum (JP)-8, previously stored JP-4 and aviation gasoline. In March 1993, the leak detection system for the oil/water separator UST sounded, indicating a release had occurred. Six other USTs are located near this site. Subsurface Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene (0.06 ppm to approximately 150 ppm) were detected in subsurface soils at levels, exceeding ATSDR CVs. The highest levels of contamination were detected in the subsurface (140 feet to 160 feet bgs).
    Groundwater: 1,2-Dichloropropane (DCP) (common component of insecticides typically used for agricultural purposes) was the only VOC detected, and it was below drinking water standards and ATSDR CVs. Only one metal, chromium, was detected at levels above ATSDR CVs.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Bioventing treatability study conducted; treatment abandoned because ineffective for this site.
  • SVE treatability was tested; treatment (using an internal combustion engine) was initiated and is on-going.
  • Groundwater will be monitored for an undetermined amount of time.
  • No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil or groundwater at this site.

    Some contaminants were detected in subsurface soils at concentrations above CVs. Because contaminants were detected in the subsurface, they are inaccessible to the public. Furthermore, a treatment option is currently in place to remove any of the soil contamination. Under the past, current, and proposed future use, sporadic exposures to contaminants at detected levels are not expected to result in health effects.

    No contaminants were detected in groundwater at levels that pose health hazards. Because the monitoring wells on site are not used for drinking and no drinking water wells are located in this area, no exposure, and therefore no health hazard, exists.

    [Sources: ATSDR, 1991, 1997; Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc., 1996; Geraghty & Miller, Inc., 1991, 1997a-c; Rothrock, 1997, 1998.]


    Table 2.

    POPULATION DATA

    Total persons

    4,371
    Total area, square miles

    3.95
    Persons per square mile

    1,107

    % Male59.9
    % Female40.1

    % White

    77.1
    % Black

    13.5
    % American Indian,
    Eskimo, or Aleut

    0.7
    % Asian or
    Pacific Islander

    4.7
    % Other races

    4.0
    % Hispanic origin9.4

    % Under age 10

    27.1
    % Age 65 and older0.2

    Source: Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 1A (Arizona) [machine-readable data files]. Prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington, DC: The Bureau [producerand distributor], 1991.


    Table 3.

    HOUSING DATA
    Households*

    983
    Persons per household

    3.45

    % Households
    owner-occupied

    0.4
    % Households
    renter-occupied

    99.6

    % Households
    mobile homes

    0.0

    % Persons in
    group quarters

    22.4

    Median value,
    owner-occupied
    households, $

    80,000
    Median rent paid,
    renter-occupied
    households, $

    403

    * A household is an occupied housing unit, but does not include group quarters such as militarybarracks, prisons, and college dormitories.

    Source: Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 1A (Arizona) [machine-readable data files]. Prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington, DC: The Bureau [producerand distributor], 1991.


    Table 4.

    Potential Exposure Pathways
    Pathway Name Source of Contamination Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Time of Exposure Exposed Population Comments
    Soil Light industrial activities at Luke AFB Soil Various IRP sites Ingestion
    Dermal
    Past/Current/Future:
  • Contaminants exist sporadically and at low levels at some sites.
  • Residents and employees of Luke AFB; trespassers. Contaminants have not been detected at levels that are likely to pose a health hazard.
    Drinking water (Base production wells) Light industrial activities at Luke AFB Groundwater Drinking water wells Ingestion
    Inhalation
    Dermal
    Past/Current/Future:
  • No contaminants have been detected at concentrations above MCLs in drinking water wells.
  • Users of the Luke AFB water supply. Contaminants have not been detected at levels that are likely to pose a health hazard.
    Drinking Water (Off-base private wells) Light industrial activities at Luke AFB Groundwater Drinking water wells Ingestion
    Inhalation
    Dermal
    Past/Current/Future:
  • No contaminants have been detected in an isolated private drinking water well.
  • Users of private wells in the Luke AFB area. No contaminants have been detected in private wells at concentrations above drinking water standards; therefore, no health hazards are expected.
    Surface water Light industrial activities at Luke AFB Surface water IRP Sites SD-20; SD-21; SD-26; and OT-41 Dermal Past/Current/Future:
  • Contaminants exist sporadically and at low levels at some sites.
  • Residents and employees of Luke AFB; trespassers. Contaminants have not been detected at levels that are likely to pose a health hazard. In addition, the sources that were discharging contamination into surface water areas on base have been removed.
    Air Light industrial activities at Luke AFB Air Various IRP sites Inhalation Past/Current/Future:
  • Contaminants exist sporadically and at low levels at very few sites.
  • Residents and employees of Luke AFB; residents who live in the vicinity of Luke AFB; trespassers. Contaminants have not been detected at levels that are likely to pose a health hazard.



    FIGURES


    Figure 1. Regional Location of Luke Air Force Base


    Figure 2. Luke Air Force Base Installation Restoration Program Sites


    Figure 3. Location of On-Base Monitoring and Drinking Water Wells



    APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY

    Background Level
    A typical or average level of a chemical in the environment. Background often refers tonaturally occurring or uncontaminated levels.

    CERCLA
    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, also known as Superfund. This is the legislation that created ATSDR.

    Comparison Values
    Estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adversehealth effects, given a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. Comparisonvalues are calculated using the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.

    Concentration
    The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. Forexample, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than does fresh water.

    Contaminant
    Any substance or material that enters a system where it is not normally found, or that is foundin greater concentrations than background levels.

    Environmental Contamination
    The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective,environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and qualityof life of people living and working near the contamination.

    Exposure
    Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as throughthe skin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).

    Hazard
    A source of risk that does not necessarily imply potential for occurrence. A hazard producesrisk only if an exposure pathway exists and if exposures create the possibility of adverse consequences.

    Media
    Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.

    Minimal Risk Level (MRL)
    An MRL is defined as an estimate of daily human exposure to a substance that is likely to bewithout an appreciable risk of adverse effects (noncancer) over a specified duration ofexposure. MRLs are derived when reliable and sufficient data exist to identify the targetorgan(s) of effect or the most sensitive health effect(s) for a specific duration via a given routeof exposure. MRLs are based on noncancer health effects only. MRLs can be derived foracute, intermediate and chronic duration exposures by inhalation and oral routes.

    National Priorities List (NPL)
    EPA's listing of sites that have undergone preliminary assessment and site inspection todetermine which locations pose an immediate threat to persons living or working near the release. These sites are most in need of cleanup.

    No Apparent Public Health Hazard
    The designation given to sites where human exposure to contaminated media is occurring orhas occurred in the past, but where the exposure is below a level of health hazard.

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
    Very stable, non-flammable liquids used as heat insulation fluids in transformers. Several typesof PCB mixtures exist; some commercial PCB mixtures are known by their industrial tradename, Aroclor. Because PCBs are very stable chemicals, they tend to persist in the environment.

    Potentially Exposed
    The condition where valid information, usually analytical environmental data, indicates thepresence of contaminant(s) of public health concern in one or more environmental mediacontacting humans (e.g., air, drinking water, soil, food chain, surface water), and where thereis evidence that some of those persons may have an identified route(s) of exposure (e.g.,drinking contaminated water, breathing contaminated air, having contact with contaminated soil, or eating contaminated food).

    Public Health Assessment
    The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into theenvironment in order to assess any current or future impact on public health, develop healthadvisories or other recommendations, and identify studies or actions needed to evaluate andmitigate or prevent human health effects; also, the document resulting from that evaluation.

    Route of Exposure
    The path through which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking(ingestion) and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminantsthat may be found in water.

    Semivolatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs)
    Compounds amenable to analysis by extraction of the sample with an organic solvent.Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene, andchrysene, comprise one category of SVOCs. The term SVOCs is used synonymously with base/neutral and acid extractable compounds (BNAs).

    Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE)
    A remediation technology used to treat contaminated soil in situ (in place). This treatmenttechnology uses the contaminant's volatility to separate the contaminant from the soil. SVEis used to treat VOCs and some fuels; the technology will not remove heavy oils, metals, PCBs, or dioxins from soils.

    Volatile Organic Compound (VOC)
    Substance containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen,oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easily become vaporsor gases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (e.g., paint thinners, lacquer thinners, degreasers, dry cleaning fluids).

    APPENDIX B: COMPARISON VALUES

    Comparison values represent media-specific contaminant concentrations that are used to selectcontaminants for further evaluation to determine the possibility of adverse public health effects. Theconclusion that a contaminant exceeds the comparison value does not mean that it will cause adversehealth effects.

    The following comparison values were used in the preparation of this PHA:

    Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs)
    Estimated contaminant concentrations that would be expected to cause no more than oneexcess cancer in a million (10-6) persons exposed over a 70-year life span. ATSDR's CREGsare calculated from EPA's cancer potency factors.

    Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)
    The MCL is the drinking water standard established by EPA. It is the maximum permissiblelevel of a contaminant in water that is delivered to the free-flowing outlet. MCLs areconsidered protective of human health over a lifetime (70 years) for individuals consuming 2 liters of water per day.

    APPENDIX C: PUBLIC COMMENTS ON THE LUKE AIR FORCE BASE PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

    The Luke Air Force Base Public Health Assessment was released for public comment on April 29, 1998. The comment period ended on June 7, 1998.

    Comment: Page 3. Public Comment Release Section (Last Sentence). The sentence references afinal Remedial Investigation (RI) report and Baseline Risk Assessment (B[R]A) report wascompleted in October 1997. The report should specify that these reports were submitted to theADEQ and also provided any major results from the assessment. Additionally, ADEQ's reviewresults should be added here.

    Response: The text was changed to indicate that the reports were submitted to ADEQ. ADEQshould be contacted directly to obtain the results of their review. The basewide risk assessmentincluded an evaluation of risks associated with exposure to soils at each of the OU-1 and OU-2IRP sites, and a basewide evaluation of risks associated with exposure to constituents detected insoil, groundwater, surface water, sediment, and air. Both human health and ecological risks wereevaluated.

    The overall objective of the Remedial Investigation of Luke AFB was to determine whichsites should be included in the Feasibility Study. These recommendations were based on threemain factors: the results of the site characterizations, the evaluation of the potential for migrationof detected contaminants, and the assessment of the risks to human health and the environmentfrom exposure to the contaminants in the absence of remediation.

    Based on the results of the RI, eight IRP sites were recommended for inclusion in theFeasibility Study (RW-02, LF-03, FT-07, DP-13, LF-14, LF-25, SD-38, and SS-42). All of theother OU-1 and OU-2 IRP sites have been determined to be acceptable for unrestricted land use,including residential occupation.

    Comment: Page 4. Quality Assurance and Quality Control Section (2nd Para; 3rd and 4thSentences). Sentences make reference to resampling conducted to replace "questionable"laboratory analytical results. The 4th sentence states that this new data was "evaluated" byATSDR. Need to add language on whether the re-sampled data was acceptable to ADEQ and thepublic. Also, need to detail results of ATSDR's evaluation of the new data. Was it acceptableand reliable?

    Response: ADEQ was involved in the investigation of the unacceptable data that requiredresampling. ADHS, ADEQ, USACE, USAF, and EPA conducted an investigation of the originaldata throughout 1994 and 1995, and they declared that the VOC and SVOC data was notacceptable because it could not meet all of the data quality requirements. ADEQ is also listed as akey participant in RAB and project team meetings.

    A 25-member RAB was created in March 1994 (formerly the Technical ReviewCommittee). These members meet quarterly with the NPL Project Management Team to discussissues like data integration and management, quality assurance/quality control, background levels of contaminants in environmental media, data gap review, land use, and cleanup standardsand risk assessment protocols. Therefore, the public has been involved in the data quality issuesand resampling through the RAB. In addition, RAB members seemed to be in favor of allremedial activities during the RAB meeting on our site visit.

    ATSDR reviewed the data and found it acceptable for pathways analysis.

    Comment: Page 5. Past, Current, and Potential Future Exposures (Soil Exposure Pathway)(Last Sentence). Sentence specifies that deed restrictions have been recommended at some IRPsites to limit exposure. It needs to be noted that there is currently legal review within the AirForce on actually placing deed restrictions on active installations. There should be no need asthere is no public access as long as the facility remains active and it is only for closing/transferringbases that deed restrictions should be required.

    Response: Text was changed accordingly.

    Comment: Page 12. Ongoing Actions (5th bullet). Bullet talks about the operation of the SoilVapor Extraction (SVE) system being operated at site SS-42. Need to add language onwhen/how would system be shut down. It will not be operated long term and the criteria for shutdown needs to be explained.

    Response: Text was changed accordingly.

    Comment: Page 12. Planned Actions. (2nd bullet). Note that deed restrictions are under legalreview by the Air Force at active installations. Recommend changing the term to "land userestrictions".

    Response: Text was changed accordingly.



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