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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

WILLIAMS AIR FORCE BASE
MESA, MARICOPA COUNTY, ARIZONA


Table 1.

Location and Population Data for Communities Located Near Williams Air Force Base
City
Direction Relative
to Williams AFB
Distance From Williams
AFB (miles)
Populationa
PhoenixNorthwest301,048,949
Apache JunctionNorth/Northeast1021,354
ChandlerWest10119,227
GilbertNorthwest551,074
MesaNorth/Northwest15313,649
Queen CreekSouth53,082
TempeNorthwest20144,289

a. Based on July 1, 1994, census data.

Source: Table adapted from IT, 1996c.


Table 2.

Population Data, Williams Air Force Base and Nearby Area
Williams AFB#Nearby Area#

Total
persons

2,49012,756
Total area,
square miles

5.95119.27
Persons per
square mile
419107

% Male
% Female
56.1
43.9
52.4
47.6

% White

79.877.9
% Black

10.10.9
% American
Indian, Eskimo,
or Aleut

1.01.3
% Asian or
Pacific Islander

4.50.6
% Other
races
4.519.3

% Hispanic
origin
6.127.4

% Under
age 10

26.219.4
% Age 65
and older
0.15.1

# Williams AFB is Census Tract 5228, The nearby area is Census Tract 5227.03.
Source: Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 1A (Arizona) [machine-readable data files]. Prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington, DC: The Bureau[producer and distributor], 1991.


Table 3.

Housing Data, Williams Air Force Base and Nearby Area
Williams AFB#Nearby Area#

Households*

6483,520
Persons per
household
3.363.49

% Households
owner-occupied

0.276.9
% Households
renter-occupied
99.823.1

% Households
mobile homes
0.020.7

% Persons in
group quarters
12.63.8

Median value,
owner-occupied
households, $

162,500126,600
Median rent paid,
renter-occupied
households, $
442343

# Williams AFB is Census Tract 5228, the nearby area is Census Tract 5227.03.

* A household is an occupied housing unit, but does not include group quarters such as militarybarracks, prisons, and college dormitories.

Source: Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 1A (Arizona) [machine-readable data files]. Prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington, DC: The Bureau [producerand distributor], 1991.


Table 4.

Exposure Pathways
Pathway
Name
Source of
Contamination
Environmental
Medium
Point of
Exposure
Route of
Exposure
Exposed
Population
Comment
Soil at theFormer SkeetRange Lead shot, fired at theFormer Skeet RangeSoilSoil in theyards of theSouthDesertVillageIngestion
Dermal
contact
Past: There areabout 350 houseslocated in theFormer SkeetRange. Residentsliving in thesehomes may havecontacted soil.
Current: Noresidents areexposed (thehouses arecurrently vacant).
Future: ASUgraduate studentswill occupy thehomes in theSouth DesertVillage in thefuture.
Past:
  • Past exposures to lead shot at the Former Skeet Range did not occur because the lead wasburied and covered by lawns, foundations, roadways, or sidewalks. Because there was noexposure, no health hazards occurred.
    Current:
  • Currently, no residents live in the South Desert Village. Non-residents could access unfencedportions of the site. Exposures to these areas do not pose a health hazard because the leadconcentrations are too low (less than 400 mg/kg). Exposure to areas with higher leadconcentrations are prevented by a fence.
    Future:
  • Future exposures to soil at the Former Skeet Range will not pose a health hazard becausecorrective activities will (1) reduce contaminant concentrations and (2) ensure that exposures toareas contaminated with lead above 400 mg/kg are prevented. To further ensure the safety offuture residents, ATSDR prepared an educational fact sheet that will inform residents of the area'sformer use and actions being taken to clean-up the area.


  • Figure 1
    Figure 1. Area Map

    Figure 2
    Figure 2. Site Map of 32 IRP Sites

    Figure 3
    Figure 3. Demographics Within 1-Mile Radius of Williams Air Force Base

    Figure 4
    Figure 4. ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process

    Figure 5
    Figure 5. Former Skeet Range (Site SS-19)


    Appendix A.

    Evaluation of Potential Health Hazards Associated With the 32 Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Sites at Williams AFB
    Williams
    AFB Sites
    Site Description/Waste
    Disposal History
    Investigation Results/
    Environmental MonitoringResults
    Corrective Activities and Current StatusATSDR's Evaluation of Public HealthHazards
    Operable Unit 1
    Landfill
    (LF-04)
    Between 1941 and 1976,wastes were disposed ofin the landfill. Wastesincluded domestic trashand garbage, wood,metal, constructiondebris, brush, and driedsludge from the sewagetreatment plant. Solventsand chemicals may havebeen disposed of as well.Soil: SVOCs, pesticides, and metalswere detected in surface soil. Withthe exception of dieldrin (0.25mg/kg), beryllium (3.8 mg/kg), andlead (117 mg/kg), all contaminantswere detected below acceptablehealth guidelines1 or backgroundconcentrations.
    Groundwater: VOCs, SVOCs,TPH, metals, and three radioactiveconstituents were detected. Severalof the contaminants were aboveATSDR's drinking watercomparison values.
    Corrective Activities:
  • The landfill was leveled, contoured, capped with 2 feet of soil, and covered with river rock.
  • An interceptor trench was constructed around the landfill perimeter.
  • A fence and warning signs were erected in 1992.
  • A 30-year post-closure maintenance program is ongoing and includes the following:
    -- landfill cap maintenance (conducted weekly),
    -- annual soil monitoring, and
    -- semiannual groundwater monitoring (more monitoring wells will be installed in the future).
  • A 5-year review will be written in 2000.
  • Deed restrictions will be drafted to (1) prevent future installation of production wells and future residential land use and (2) to ensure that the cap remains intact.
    Current Status:
  • Sampling activities and maintenance are ongoing.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Before 1992, on-baseresidents and base employees could accessthe landfill, however, the Commanderrestricted access. No exposures to workersor trespassers occurred frequently enoughto pose a health hazard. Current exposuresare prevented by a barbed-wire fence and alandfill cap. Future exposures are highlyunlikely because deed restrictions willensure that the landfill cap remains intactand will prevent future residential land use.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.No drinking water production wells arelocated in this area; therefore, there were(past scenario) and are (current scenario)no exposures to groundwater. Deedrestrictions will prevent future exposuresby preventing the installation of newdrinking water production wells.
    Fire ProtectionArea No. 1
    (FT-03)
    Between the early 1940sand 1958, this area wasused as a fire protectiontraining area. Fuel, wasteoils, solvents, paintstrippers, and otherflammables were burned.Soil: VOCs, SVOCs, TPH, andmetals were detected. With theexception of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP) (750 mg/kg insubsurface soil) and beryllium (1.7mg/kg in surface soil), allcontaminants were detected belowacceptable health guidelines1 orbackground concentrations.
    Groundwater: Four VOCs andthree metals were detected, but atconcentrations below acceptablehealth guidelines1 or backgroundconcentrations.
    Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Contaminantconcentrations are too low to pose a publichealth hazard to residential populations,employees, or construction workers.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.No production wells are located in thisarea; therefore, there were (past scenario)and are (current scenario) no exposures togroundwater. The installation of a new wellis highly unlikely. Even if a well isinstalled in the future, contaminantconcentrations are too low to pose a publichealth hazard.
    RadioactiveInstrumentation Burial Area (RW-11)Concrete cylinders wereburied in this area. Thecylinders may havecontained dials paintedwith radium-luminouspaint and electron tubescontaining radium-bearing parts. Soil:
  • Surface radioactivity count (1984):
    -- No radioactivity detected.
  • Samples collected before 1992:
    -- Radium-226 and gross alpha and beta were detected slightly above background.
  • Samples collected in 1992:
    -- Radium and radionuclide activity was consistent with background levels.
  • Corrective Activities:
  • Concrete cylinders were removed in 1992.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Before 1992, accesswas restricted by a barbed wire fence. Pastexposures to the general public, therefore,were highly unlikely. Current and futureexposures will not pose a public healthhazard because remedial activities havereduced the radioactivity to levels that donot exceed background concentrations.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.No evidence suggests that subsurfacecontaminants migrated to the underlyinggroundwater. (Soil contaminants wererelatively shallow, and the groundwaterunderlying Operable Unit (OU) -1 is deep[first encountered at 150-250 feet].Additionally, the net precipitation in thearea is negative, indicating that infiltrationis an unlikely transport mechanism togroundwater.)
    NorthwestDrainageSystem
    (SD-10)
    SD-10, constructed in the1950s, received drainagefrom the flight line. Aircraft washingsolutions and shopwastes may have enteredthe drainage system.Soil: VOCs, SVOCs, TPH, andmetals were detected. All VOCsand SVOCs were detected belowacceptable health guidelines1. Somemetals were detected aboveATSDR's soil comparison valuesand background concentrations.TPH (200 mg/kg) was detectedabove Arizona's UST regulatoryguidelines. Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Contaminantconcentrations are too low to pose a publichealth hazard to residential populations oremployees.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.No evidence suggests that subsurfacecontaminants migrated to the underlyinggroundwater. (Soil contaminants wererelatively shallow, and the groundwaterunderlying OU-1 is deep [first encounteredat 150-250 feet]. Additionally, the netprecipitation in the area is negative,indicating that infiltration is an unlikelytransport mechanism to groundwater.)
    PesticideBurial Area
    (DP-13)
    Between 1968 and 1972,drums with unused oroutdated pesticides wereburied in this area. Soil: VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, andmetals were detected. With theexception of BEHP (65 mg/kg),dieldrin (0.52 mg/kg), and antimony(52 mg/kg), all contaminants weredetected below acceptable healthguidelines1 or backgroundconcentrations.Corrective Activities:
  • Drums were removed in 1991.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Contaminantconcentrations are too low to pose a publichealth hazard to residential populations oremployees. Additionally, currentexposures are prevented by a fence.
    Groundwater: No evidence suggests thatsubsurface contaminants migrated to theunderlying groundwater. (Soilcontaminants were relatively shallow, andthe groundwater underlying OU-1 is deep[first encountered at 150-250 feet].Additionally, the net precipitation in thearea is negative, indicating that infiltrationis an unlikely transport mechanism togroundwater.)
    HazardousMaterialsStorage Area
    (SS-01)
    Paints, caustics, solvents,and other materials werestored in this areabetween 1959 and 1983. Soil: VOCs, SVOCs, TPH, andmetals were detected. With theexception of TPH (400 mg/kg),beryllium (2.1 mg/kg), and copper(380 mg/kg), all of the contaminantswere detected below acceptablehealth guidelines1 or backgroundconcentrations.Current Status
  • No remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Contaminantconcentrations are too low to pose a publichealth hazard to residential populations oremployees.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.No evidence suggests that subsurfacecontaminants migrated to the underlyinggroundwater. (Soil contaminants wererelatively shallow, and the groundwaterunderlying OU-1 is deep [first encounteredat 150-250 feet]. Additionally, the netprecipitation in the area is negative,indicating that infiltration is an unlikelytransport mechanism to groundwater.)
    UST atBuilding 789
    (ST-05)
    Five carbon-steel USTswere located in this area:four 12,000-gallongasoline and diesel tanksand one 1,000-gallonwaste oil tank. Thesetanks were installed in1941 and abandoned inthe 1950s.Soil: High boiling fuelhydrocarbons (1,660 mg/kg) weredetected. Three VOCs weredetected, but at concentrationsbelow ATSDR's soil comparisonvalues.Corrective Activities:
  • Five tanks were removed in 1990.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Because thecontaminated soil is isolated to thesubsurface, no exposures have occurred(past scenario) or are occurring (currentscenario). Even if the subsurface soil isbrought to the surface in the future, thecontaminant concentrations are too low tocause a public health hazard.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.No evidence suggests that subsurfacecontaminants migrated to the underlyinggroundwater. (Soil contaminants wererelatively shallow, and the groundwaterunderlying OU-1 is deep [first encounteredat 150-250 feet]. Additionally, the netprecipitation in the area is negative,indicating that infiltration is an unlikelytransport mechanism to groundwater.)
    USTs atBuilding 725
    (ST-06)
    Two carbon-steel USTswere located in this area:one 12,000-gallongasoline tank and one1,000-gallon waste oiltank. Both tanks wereinstalled before 1938 andabandoned around 1954.Soil: Two VOCs were detected, butbelow ATSDR's soil comparisonguidelines. Corrective Activities:
  • Two tanks were removed in 1990.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Because thecontaminated soil is isolated to thesubsurface, no exposures have occurred(past scenario) or are occurring (currentscenario). Even if the subsurface soil isbrought to the surface in the future, thecontaminant concentrations are too low tocause a public health hazard.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.No evidence suggests that subsurfacecontaminants migrated to the underlyinggroundwater. (Soil contaminants wererelatively shallow, and the groundwaterunderlying OU-1 is deep [first encounteredat 150-250 feet]. Additionally, the netprecipitation in the area is negative,indicating that infiltration is an unlikelytransport mechanism to groundwater.)
    USTs atBuilding 1086
    (ST-07)
    Two concrete 5,000-gallon USTs werelocated in this area. Theycontained wastes fromthe paint stripping shop.In 1987, the tanks weredocumented as leaky. Soil: TPH (1,130 mg/kg) wasdetected above Arizona's USTregulatory guidelines. Methylenechloride was detected, but atconcentrations below ATSDR's soilcomparison guidelines.Corrective Activities:
  • Two tanks were removed in 1987.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Because thecontaminated soil is isolated to thesubsurface, no exposures have occurred(past scenario) or are occurring (currentscenario). Even if the subsurface soil isbrought to the surface in the future, thecontaminant concentrations are too low tocause a public health hazard.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.No evidence suggests that subsurfacecontaminants migrated to the underlyinggroundwater. (Soil contaminants wererelatively shallow, and the groundwaterunderlying OU-1 is deep [first encounteredat 150-250 feet]. Additionally, the netprecipitation in the area is negative,indicating that infiltration is an unlikelytransport mechanism to groundwater.)
    USTs Building1085
    (ST-08)
    Three USTs were locatedin this area: one 280-gallon carbon-steel tankcontained cutting oil andsolvents, and two 600-gallon concrete tankscontained wastes fromthe metal plating shop. Soil: VOCs, SVOCs, TPH, andmetals were detected. With theexception of TPH (5,800 mg/kg),benzo(a)pyrene (0.37 mg/kg),benzo(a)anthracene (0.68 mg/kg),and antimony (31 mg/kg), allcontaminants were detected belowacceptable health guidelines1 andbackground concentrations. Corrective Activities:
  • Three tanks removed in 1990.
  • Deed restrictions will be drafted to prevent future installation of production wells and future residential land use.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. As an isolated arealocated near the flight line, it is highlyunlikely that this area was (past scenario)or is (current scenario) accessed by anyoneother than employees. In the future, use ofthis area will be restricted to industrialpurposes and access will be limited toemployees. Future exposures will not posea health hazard because contaminantconcentrations are too low.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.No evidence suggests that subsurfacecontaminants migrated to the underlyinggroundwater. (Soil contaminants wererelatively shallow, and the groundwaterunderlying OU-1 is deep [first encounteredat 150-250 feet]. Additionally, the netprecipitation in the area is negative,indicating that infiltration is an unlikelytransport mechanism to groundwater.)
    Operable Unit 2
    Liquid FuelsStorage Area(ST-12)Beginning in 1942, fuels(e.g., AVGAS and Jetpetroleum grade 4 [ JP-4]) were stored in variousUSTs and abovegroundstorage tanks (ASTs)within the Liquid FuelsStorage Area. Themajority of the storagearea was closed inAugust 1988.Surface Soil: VOCs, SVOCs, TPH,and metals were detected. With theexception of beryllium (3.5 mg/kg),all contaminants were detectedwithin acceptable health guidelines1 or background concentrations.
    Subsurface Soil: VOCs, SVOCs,TPH, and metals were detected.Several organics (e.g., benzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and toluene);TPH; and two metals (lead andantimony) were detected abovehealth guidelines1.
    Groundwater: About 0.65-1.4million gallons of free product wereon top of the aquifer. VOCs,SVOCs, TPH, and metals weredetected. TPH (800,000micrograms [µg]/ liter [L]); severalorganics (e.g., benzene,naphthalene, and toluene); andmetals (antimony and beryllium)were detected above healthguidelines1.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Fourteen USTs, associated distribution lines, and five tanks were removed in 1990 and 1991.
  • 30,000 gallons of free product were removed by a pump and treat groundwater treatment system.
  • The first 25 feet of soil were remediated via soil vapor extraction (SVE). Confirmation samples have been collected, and the area has been deemed clean. A final report was issued in December 1996.
  • Deep soil is currently being remediated via SVE. An average of 500-600 gallons of volatiles are removed per day.
  • A record of decision (ROD) amendment will be issued in December 1997. The amendment will change the remedial activities specified for deep soil and groundwater from pump and treat to SVE plus natural attenuation.
  • A 5-year review will be issued in 2002.
  • Deed restrictions will be drafted to prevent future installation of production wells and future residential land use.
    Current Status:
    Soil (0-25 feet): No further remedial action is required.
    Subsurface Soil (25 feet to the groundwater table):
  • A ROD amendment will address the cleanup of soil extending from 25 feet deep to the groundwater table.
    Groundwater:
  • Groundwater will be addressed by intrinsic remediation.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. This area has alwaysbeen surrounded by a fence. Access was(past scenario) and is (current scenario)highly restricted. Past and currentexposures to the general public, therefore,are highly unlikely. Exposures to surfacesoil and the first 10 feet of subsurface soilcould occur in the future. However,contaminant concentrations are too low forsuch exposures to be associated with apublic health hazard.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.No production wells have been impactedby the contaminants in the ST-12 plume;therefore, there were (past scenario) andare (current scenario) no exposures togroundwater. Because corrective activitieswill (1) prevent future exposures (byinstalling restrictions to prevent futureproduction well installations) and (2)prevent future migration of subsurfacecontamination to the groundwater table (byremediating subsurface soil), this plumewill not pose a public health hazard in thefuture.
    Operable Unit 3
    Fire ProtectionTraining AreaNo. 2 (FT-02)From 1958 to 1991, thisarea was used as a fireprotection training area. Waste solvents,hydraulic fluids, oils, andaircraft fuel wastes wereburned. Protein foam,chloromethane, aqueousfilm-forming foam,halon, and dry chemicalswere used asextinguishers.Soil: VOCs, SVOCs, and metalswere detected. Some organics (e.g.,benzene, chloroform, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene) were detectedabove health guidelines1. With theexception of lead, all metals weredetected within backgroundconcentrations or below ATSDR'ssoil comparison values.Contamination is generally isolatedto the subsurface, but slightcontamination is detected in surfacesoil.
    Groundwater: Three VOCs(acetone, carbon disulfide, andmethylene chloride) and two metals(lead and zinc) were detected.Methylene chloride and zinc weredetected above ATSDR's drinkingwater comparison values
    Corrective Activities:
  • 5,000 gallons of fluid from the oil/water separator, sump, and associated piping were removed in 1994.
  • All surface structures (two concrete fire pits, one sump, one fuel/water separator, pump house and slab, and piping) were removed in 1994.
  • Two steel ASTs containing JP-4 were removed in 1994.
  • The area was backfilled with clean fill in 1994.
  • Subsurface soil will be remediated with an SVE system.
  • A fence is currently erected around the area.
  • Deed restrictions will be drafted to prevent the future installation of production wells and future resident land use.
    Current Status:
  • Corrective activities ongoing.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Contaminantconcentrations are too low to pose a publichealth hazard to residential populations oremployees.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.No production wells have been impactedby contaminants associated with FT-02;therefore, there were (past scenario) andare (current scenario) no exposures togroundwater. Deed restrictions will preventfuture exposures by preventing theinstallation of new production wells.
    SouthwestDrainageSystem
    (SD-09)
    SD-09 was connected tothe storm sewer andreceived (1) plating shoprinse water waste(containing chromium,cadmium, and copper);(2) aircraft washingwastes (containing MEK,toluene, polyurethane,paint thinners, andsludges); (3) spills frommiscellaneous aircraftand vehicle maintenanceoperations; (4) fuels,lubricants, and hydraulicfluids; and (5) possiblydrainage from SS-01.Soil (Before corrective activities):
  • Methyl ethyl ketone, phenol, and metals were detected. All contaminant were detected below health guidelines1 except cadmium (44-90 mg/kg), chromium (470 mg/kg) and lead (1,500 mg/kg).
    Soil (after corrective activities):
  • VOCs and SVOCs were detected, but below health guidelines1. Some metals were detected above ATSDR soil comparison values.
  • Corrective Activities:
  • Soil along the upper 350 feet of the drainage ditch was cemented and covered with a 4-inch concrete cap in 1988.
  • Storm line, the 350 feet of cement, four oil/water separators (OWS), associated piping, and soil were excavated and removed in 1993 and 1994.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard isassociated with soil at this site. Given theproximity of this area to base housing, on-base residents could have accessed thisarea in the past. Analysis of surface soildata collected before corrective activitiesindicates that some metals were detectedabove health guidelines. Becauseexposures to the soil would have beeninfrequent and of short duration, ATSDRbelieves that, these contaminants do notpose a past public health hazard. (This areawas not used for recreational purposes.) The contaminant concentrations are toolow for current and future exposures to beassociated with a public health hazard.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.No evidence suggests that subsurfacecontaminants migrated to the underlyinggroundwater. (Soil contaminants wererelatively shallow, and the groundwaterunderlying OU-1 is deep [first encounteredat 150-250 feet]. Additionally, the netprecipitation in the area is negative,indicating that infiltration is an unlikelytransport mechanism to groundwater.)
    Operable Unit 4
    Electroplating/
    ChemicalCleaning(Facility 1085,Site SS-16)
    The electroplatingfacility has been in usesince 1961. The floor ofthe facility has extensivestaining.Soil: VOCs and metals weredetected under the cement floor.With the exception of arsenic (5.8mg/kg) and tetrachloroethylene(PCE) (49 mg/kg), all contaminantswere detected below acceptablehealth guidelines1 or backgroundconcentrations.
    Air: Employee exposures to PCE,TCE, and methylene chloride arewell below Occupational Safety andHealth Administration's (OSHA)permissible exposure limit (PEL)and American Conference ofGovernmental Industrial Hygienists'(ACGIH) threshold limit value(TLV).
    Corrective Activities:
  • Three USTs associated with the facility were removed (see Site ST-08).
  • OWS was removed in 1993.
  • Deed restrictions will be drafted to prevent the installation of future production wells and future residential land use.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action anticipated.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Contaminated soilassociated with the operational practices ofthis site are located under the concretefoundation. Access to these soils,therefore, has always been restricted, andexposures have not occurred. In the future,the area will be used by the WilliamsGateway Airport, and access to the generalpublic will continue to be highly restricted. If the slab is removed during futuredevelopment, soil could be exposed, butthe PCE and arsenic concentrations are toolow to pose a health hazard to futureemployees or construction workers.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-4 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    Oil/WaterSeparator-Petroleum,Oil, andLubricant(POL)(Facility 550,
    Site SD-18)
    This site was used torefuel aircraft and towash refueling tanks. Wash streams includedwater, oil, grease, anddetergents. A 200-gallonPOL OWS was locatednear the wash area.Soil: VOCs and SVOCs weredetected. All contaminants weredetected below acceptable healthguidelines1.Corrective Activities:
  • OWS was removed in 1993.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Contaminantconcentrations are too low to pose a healthhazard.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-4 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    AbovegroundStorage Tanks(AST) 556 and557
    (Site ST-22)
    AST 556 (capacity420,000 gallons) andAST 557 (capacity840,000) formerlycontained JP-4. They arenow empty and out ofservice.Soil: JP-4, VOCs, and SVOCs weredetected. All contaminants weredetected below acceptable healthguidelines1.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Contaminantconcentrations are too low to pose a healthhazard.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-4 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    Former SkeetRange
    (Site SS-19)
    Before the 1950s, thisarea was used as a skeetrange. The South DesertVillage (on-basehousing) was built on topof this area in the 1950s.Soil: Total lead concentrationsranged from 360-70,000 mg/kg inthe top 5 inches of soil. Leadconcentrations are above EPARegion IX PRGs (400 mg/kg) andArizona HBGL (400 mg/kg) inmany locations.Corrective Activities:
  • A fence was erected around the entire South Desert Village when the problem was first discovered. When the area of contamination was better delineated, the fence was reduced to include only those areas with soil concentrations exceeding 400 mg/kg.
  • As agreed in an April 22, 1997, consensus statement, the following activities will be conducted for portions of SS-19 with lead contamination above 400 mg/kg:
    -- The top 6 inches of accessible soil (soil that is not covered by foundations, roadways, or sidewalks) will be removed and replaced with clean fill.
    -- Inaccessible areas (soil covered by foundations, roadways, or sidewalks) will be considered capped. A VEMUR will be issued to restrict future residential land use of these capped areas.
    -- Provisions will be made to ensure that the "cap" remains intact.
    -- A plan will be drafted to identify necessary clean-up measures if the cap is disturbed in the future.
  • ATSDR prepared an educational fact sheet that will inform future residents about the area's former use and actions being taken to clean up the area.
    Current Status:
  • Corrective activities are ongoing.
  • Soil: Because the lead was buried andcovered by lawns, foundations, roadways,or sidewalks, past exposures to lead shot atthe Former Skeet Range were not likely. The South Desert Village has no currentresidents. Non-residents could accessunfenced portions of the site, but the leadconcentrations are too low (400 mg/kg andless) for exposures to these areas to pose ahealth hazard. Exposure to areas withhigher lead concentrations are prevented bya fence.
    Because corrective activities will (1)reduce contaminant concentrations and (2)ensure that exposures to areascontaminated with lead above 400 mg/kgare prevented, future exposures to soil atthe Former Skeet Range will not pose ahealth hazard. To provide furtherinsurance of the safety of future residents,ATSDR prepared an educational fact sheetthat will inform residents of the area'sformer use and actions being taken to cleanup the area.
    Groundwater: Based on the nature andconcentration of contaminants at OU-4sites, there is no reason to suspect impactsto groundwater.
    FiringRange/SkeetRange(Facility 927,
    Site SS-20)
    This area was used as atarget practice area forsmall arms.Soil: Lead (5,930 mg/kg) wasdetected above EPA Region IXPRGs (400 mg/kg) and ArizonaHBGL (400 mg/kg).Corrective Activities:
  • A removal action is scheduled to begin in January 1998. All soil at the backstop containing lead bullets will be removed.
  • Five to seven borings (depths up to 15 feet) will be drilled to ensure that leaching has not occurred.
    Current Status:
  • Corrective activities are ongoing.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Past, current, andfuture exposures were highly restricted. Although this area is not fenced, exposuresto non-base personnel were highly unlikelyin the past. Trespassers would have beenseverely reprimanded and could easily bespotted from the watch tower. Althoughbase employees used the area on a dailybasis, they were unlikely to come intocontact with the contaminated area near thebackstop. Base employees and remedialworkers who currently have access to thesite take necessary precautions to avoiddirect contact. Trespassing still remainshighly unlikely because trespassers wouldneed to cross active runways to access thesite. Corrective activities will remediatethe area to levels protective of humanhealth. The area will most likely betransferred to the City of Gilbert and bereused as a firing range.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-4 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    Facilities 1020and 1051
    (Site SS-21)
    Facility 1020 (the Firing-in-Buttress) and Facility1051 (the Bore SightingBunker) previouslycontained hazardousmaterials.Soil: SVOCs and lead weredetected. With the exception ofbenzo(a)pyrene, all contaminantswere detected below acceptablehealth guidelines1.Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Contaminated soilassociated with the operational practices ofthis site are located under the concretefoundation. Access to this soil, therefore,has always been restricted, and exposureshave not occurred. In the future, the areawill be used by the Williams GatewayAirport and access to the general publicwill continue to be highly restricted. If theslab is removed during future development,soil could be exposed, but thebenzo(a)pyrene concentrations are too lowto pose a health hazard to future employeesor construction workers.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-4 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    Building 1069(Site SS-23)Four ASTs were locatedin this area: two 550-gallon unleaded gastanks, one 650-gallondiesel tank, and one1,000-gallon diesel tank. In 1991, the contents ofthe 1,000-gallon tankspilled.Soil: BEHP, di-n-octylphthalate,phenanthrene, and toluene weredetected. All contaminants weredetected below acceptable healthguidelines1. Corrective Activities:
  • 1,000-gallon UST was removed.
  • 550-gallon UST was removed.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Contaminantconcentrations are too low to pose a healthhazard.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-4 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    Building 1010(Site SS-24)Building 1010 (thePesticide Shop)contained varioushazardous materials,including nonfriableasbestos material,polychlorinatedbiphenyls (PCBs), andpesticides. Soil: One VOC, two SVOCs, andseveral pesticides were detected,some at concentrations aboveacceptable health guidelines1. Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. The past, current, andfuture use of this area will be industrial.Contaminants are too low to pose a healthhazard to employees, construction workers,or school-age trespassers (the site islocated near a high school).
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-4 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    ConcreteHardfill Area(Site LF-26)This area was designatedfor concrete disposal. Other materials, such asvinyl asbestos, tileasbestos, concrete pipe,several drums, emptypaint cans, roofing tarbuckets, and constructiondebris, were disposed inthis area as well. Soil:
  • SVOCs and pesticides were detected, some of them , above health guidelines1.
  • Asbestos-containing materials were analyzed and deemed nonfriable.
  • Corrective Activities:
  • The area was surveyed. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), tires, PCB transformers, wood, and all inerts have been removed from this area. Contaminated soil was also removed. Inerts that cannot be removed will be identified and brought to the attention of future owners.
  • A 55-gallon drum and associated soil was removed during a removal action.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Although this area isnot fenced, exposures to non-basepersonnel were highly unlikely in the past. Trespassers would have been severelyreprimanded and spotted by securitypersonnel. Current and future exposuresdo not cause a health hazard becausecorrective activities have removed themajority of potentially hazardousmaterials. Hazardous materials that cannot be removed will be brought to theattention of future owners so that they donot inadvertently expose themselves.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-4 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    Facility 1004(Site SS-33)Facility 1004 consistedof a storage igloo thatwas used to storeoutdated pesticides. Theigloo was located on aconcrete pad. Surface contamination(pulverized concrete): SeveralSVOCs, PCBs, and pesticides weredetected, some at concentrationsexceeding acceptable healthguidelines1.Corrective Activities:
  • The igloo and concrete pad were removed.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required
  • Surface Area (pulverized concrete): Nopublic health hazard is associated withexposure to the concrete surfaces in thisarea. In the past, base employees accessedthis area and could have been exposed tocontaminants spilled on the concrete pad. The contaminant concentrations detected,however, were too low to pose a publichealth hazard. Because the pad has beenremoved, there are no current exposuresand no anticipation of future exposures.
    Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Because the concretepad did not have a drain, no contaminantscould escape to the soil.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-4 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    Operable Unit 5
    Airfield USTs(ST-25)Reports suggest thatUSTs were located nearTaxiway No. 6. No USTswere identified duringgeophysical searches, butone buried drum (filledwith soil) wasdiscovered. Soil (Before corrective activities):
  • No visual evidence of soil contamination appeared, within the drum.
  • No samples were collected.
    Soil (after corrective activities):
  • One VOC (methylene chloride) was detected, but at concentrations below acceptable health guidelines1.
  • Corrective Activities:
  • Drum removed.
  • Soil surrounding drum was excavated.
  • Excavation was backfilled with clean soil.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial activity required.
  • Soil: Access to this area was (pastscenario), is (current scenario), and willcontinue to be (future scenario) highlyrestricted. Additionally, soil potentiallycontaminated by USTs is isolated to thesubsurface. Even if the soil is brought tothe surface in the future, contaminantconcentrations are too low to cause aproblem.
    Groundwater: Based on the nature andconcentration of contaminants at OU-5sites, there is no reason to suspect impactsto groundwater.
    Paint ShopLeach Field(WP-27)Wastes from the paintshop (primarily latexpaint) were drainedthrough a PVC pipe anddisposed in this leachfield. Soil (after first excavation):
    One SVOC (di-n-butyl-phthalate)and TPH (135 mg/kg) weredetected. Seven metals weredetected above backgroundconcentrations.
    Soil (after second excavation):Some metals were detected aboveATSDR's soil comparison values.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Two excavations were conducted:
    -- First excavation: Rock leach bed was removed.
    -- Second excavation: contaminated soil, gravel, drain pipe, and plastic sheeting were removed.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Past exposures to thegeneral public are unlikely because thearea was highly restricted. Contaminantconcentrations in residual soil are too lowto pose a hazard.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-5 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    SewageSludgeTrenches
    (DP-28)
    Between 1973 and 1979,undigested sludge wasdisposed in threetrenches.Soil: SVOCs; pesticides (e.g.,dieldrin); and metals were detected.Some contaminants were detectedabove acceptable health guidelines1. Corrective Activities:
  • Trenches were capped as part of LF-04's remedial activities.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Before 1992, on-baseresidents and base employees could accessthe landfill. Neither exposures to workersnor trespassers occurred frequently enoughto pose a health hazard. Current exposuresare prevented by a barbed-wire fence and alandfill cap. Future exposures are highlyunlikely because deed restrictions willensure that the landfill cap remains intactand will prevent future residential use.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-5 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    Prime BeefYard (SS-29)This area was listed asthe storage facility in theBase's ResourceConservation andRecovery Act (RCRA)Part A Permit but hasnever been used for thispurpose. Instead, thisarea was used to storeconstruction materials.Building 766 (located ontop of a monolithicconcrete pad) was usedto store PCB-contaminatedtransformers. Soil (prior to correctiveactivities): One PCB (Aroclor1260); pesticides (dieldrin, 4,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene [DDE], 4,4-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane[DDT], beta-hexachlorocyclohexane); and TPH(46,000 mg/kg) were detected.
    Soil (after corrective activities):Methylene chloride was detected,but at concentrations belowATSDR's soil comparisonguidelines. Some metals weredetected above background.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Soil northwest of Building 766 was excavated.
  • Soil surrounding the concrete pad was excavated.
  • Excavated areas were backfilled with clean soil.
    Current Status:
  • The site was formally closed under the RCRA closure plan. (RCRA closure report issued May 1996).
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Past exposures to thegeneral public are unlikely because thearea was highly restricted. Contaminantconcentrations in residual soil are too lowto pose a hazard. Additionally, currentexposures are prevented by a fence.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-5 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    SewageSludgeStockpile Area(SS-30)Between 1979 and 1992,sludge from the wastewater treatment plantwas stockpiled in thisarea. Soil (pre-removal): SVOCs,pesticides/PCBs, and metals weredetected, but all contaminants weredetected below acceptable healthguidelines1 or backgroundconcentrations.
    Soil (post-removal): No sampleswere collected.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Piles were graded and leveled in 1993.
  • Piles were excavated in January 1996.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard isassociated with soil at this site.Contaminant concentrations were (pastscenario) and are (current and futurescenarios) too low to pose a health hazard.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-5 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    Golf CourseMaintenanceArea (SS-31)This area is used to park,maintain, and refuelmowers, tractors, andother golf coursevehicles. Two USTs(one containing dieselfuel and the otherunleaded gasoline) arelocated on a concretepad. An area thatpreviously housed anAST has been identified. An area of stained soilwas identified near thepad.Soil (Before corrective activities):SVOCs and TPH (260 mg/kg) weredetected. All SVOCs were detectedbelow acceptable health guidelines1.
    Soil (after corrective activities):No contaminants were detected.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Contaminated soil was excavated.
  • Excavated area was backfilled with clean soil.
    Current Status:
  • No further remedial action required.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Contaminantconcentrations were (past scenario) and are(current and future scenarios) too low topose a health hazard.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site. Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-5 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    Building 1070(SS-32)This area consists ofoffices and a storageyard. Equipment andvehicles are stored in thisarea. Stains were notedin the gravel parkingarea.
  • When remedial workers revisited the site to excavate the stained area, the stain had disappeared.
  • Investigators concluded that the apparent "stain" resulted from a rainfall event and disappeared when the rain evaporated.
  • In July 1995, a technical working group inspected the area and determined that there was no evidence of contamination.
  • Current Status:
  • No remedial action required.
  • No apparent health hazard is associatedwith this site. There is no evidence that thesite ever contained hazardous constituents.
    MunitionsIncinerator(Facility 1119,SS-34)The MunitionsIncinerator beganoperating in 1979 but itis no longer in use. Darkstained soil is locatedimmediately to the southand east of theincinerator. A 2-inchdiameter fuel line leadsto the incinerator butdisappears into theground. A small bermedarea with a protrudingpipe is located in thisarea. Soil (Before corrective activities):One SVOC (phenanthrene) wasdetected, but below contract-required detection limit. Fourmetals (lead, cadmium, copper, andzinc) were detected abovebackground.
    Soil (after corrective activities):Two metals (arsenic and beryllium)were detected above backgroundconcentrations.
    Corrective Activities:
  • The bermed area was excavated to ensure that a UST was not present.
  • Dark stained soil was excavated.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Past exposures to thegeneral public are unlikely because thearea was highly restricted. Becausecontaminant concentrations in residual soilare too low to pose a hazard, current andfuture exposures are not associated with ahealth hazard. Additionally, currentexposures are prevented by a fence.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site.Based on the nature and concentration ofcontaminants at OU-5 sites, there is noreason to suspect impacts to groundwater.
    OPERABLE UNIT 6
    OldPesticide/PaintShop (Facility742, Site
    SS-17)
    Pesticides were mixedand stored in Facility742. Paints were alsostored in this facility. Between 1965 and 1975,pesticides werereportedly disposed of onthe ground outside thebuilding. The buildinghas been removed, andlandscape gravel coversthe area.Soil: Pesticides and metals weredetected. Many contaminants weredetected above ATSDR's soilcomparison values.
    Groundwater: Dieldrin (0.076 µg/L) was detected above healthguidelines in one grab sample.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Additional soil and groundwater sampling is planned. Once the site is fully characterized, AFBCA will decide whether remedial activities are required. (Soil excavation and/or groundwater treatment will be conducted if contaminants are above health guidelines.)
  • Deed restrictions will be drafted to prevent the installation of future production wells. If soil contaminants are above residential health-based guidelines, future residential use will also be prohibited.
    Current Status:
  • Corrective activities ongoing.
  • Soil: No public health hazard is associatedwith soil at this site. Access was (pastscenario) and is (current scenario) highlyrestricted by a fence. Past and currentexposures to the general public, therefore,are highly unlikely. In the future, the areawill be used for industrial purposes andaccess to the general public, therefore, willcontinue to be highly restricted. Becausethe AFBCA plans to excavate any areasidentified with contaminants above healthguidelines, future health hazards toemployees are highly unlikely.
    Groundwater: No public health hazard isassociated with groundwater at this site. In the past, an active drinking water wellwas located near SS-17. Because (1)contamination was detected in the perchedaquifer rather than in the deeper aquiferwhere the well is drilled, and (2) theproduction well was monitored on aregular basis, there is no evidence that thiswell was ever impacted by groundwatercontaminants from this site. Theproduction well has been abandoned, anddeed restrictions will prevent installationof new wells.

    Reference: AFBCA, 1994, 1997a, 1997b, 1997c, 1997d; ATSDR 1996, 1997a, 1997b, 1997c, 1997d; EPA, 1992; IT 1996a, 1996b, 1996c, 1996d

    1Contaminants are considered within "acceptable guidelines" if they are detected below the following:

  • ATSDR'S comparison values, or
  • EPA Region IX's PRGs/calculated PRGs (in cases where ATSDR comparison values are not available), or
  • Arizona's underground storage tank (UST) regulatory guidelines (in the case of TPH).


    Appendix B: Glossary

    Background Level
    A typical or average level of a chemical in the environment. Background often refers to naturally occurring or uncontaminated levels.
    CERCLA
    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, also known as Superfund. This is the legislation that created ATSDR.
    Comparison Values
    Estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adverse health effects, given a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. The comparison values are calculated from the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.
    Concentration
    The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.
    Contaminant
    Any substance or material that enters a system (the environment, human body, food, etc.) where it is not normally found.
    Dermal
    Referring to the skin. Dermal absorption means absorption through the skin.
    Environmental contamination
    The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective, environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of life of people living and working near the contamination.
    Exposure
    Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).
    Hazard
    A source of risk that does not necessarily imply potential for occurrence. A hazard produces risk only if an exposure pathway exists, and if exposures create the possibility of adverse consequences.
    Ingestion
    Swallowing (such as eating or drinking). Chemicals can get in or on food, drink, utensils, cigarettes, or hands where they can be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout the body.
    Inhalation
    Breathing. Exposure may occur from inhaling contaminants because they can be deposited in the lungs, taken into the blood, or both.
    Media
    Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.
    Minimal Risk Level (MRL)
    An MRL is defined as an estimate of daily human exposure to a substance that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of adverse effects (noncancer) over a specified duration of exposure. MRLs are derived when reliable and sufficient data exist to identify the target organ(s) of effect or the most sensitive health effect(s) for a specific duration via a given route of exposure. MRLs are based on noncancer health effects only. MRLs can be derived for acute, intermediate, and chronic duration exposures by the inhalation and oral routes.
    National Priorities List (NPL)
    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) listing of sites that have undergone preliminary assessment and site inspection to determine which locations pose immediate threat to persons living or working near the release. These sites are most in need of cleanup.
    No Apparent Public Health Hazard
    Sites where human exposure to contaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, but the exposure is below a level of health hazard.
    Plume
    An area of chemicals in a particular medium, such as air or groundwater, moving away from its source in a long band or column. A plume can be a column of smoke from a chimney or chemicals moving with groundwater.
    Potentially Exposed
    The condition where valid information, usually analytical environmental data, indicates the presence of contaminant(s) of a public health concern in one or more environmental media contacting humans (that is, air, drinking water, soil, food chain, surface water), and there is evidence that some of those persons have an identified route(s) of exposure (that is, drinking contaminated water, breathing contaminated air, having contact with contaminated soil, or eating contaminated food).
    Public Health Assessment
    The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environment in order to assess any current or future impact on public health, develop health advisories or other recommendations, and identify studies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects; also, the document resulting from that evaluation.
    Public Health Hazard
    Sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.
    Risk
    In risk assessment, the probability that something will cause injury, combined with the potential severity of that injury.
    Route of Exposure
    The way in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.
    Superfund
    Another name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), which created ATSDR.
    Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)
    The 1986 legislation that broadened ATSDR's responsibilities in the areas of public health assessments, establishment and maintenance of toxicologic databases, information dissemination, and medical education.
    Voluntary Environmental Mitigation Use Restriction (VEMUR)
    A VEMUR is a written document that indicates that remediation to less than residential standards has been completed, and that the property will not be used for residential purposes in the future.
    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    Substances containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such ashydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easilybecome vapors or gases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paint thinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids).

    Appendix C: Public Comments On the Williams Air Force Base Public Health Assessment

    The Williams Air Force Base Public Health Assessment was released for public comment onSeptember 30, 1997. The comment period ended on November 10, 1997. Comments werereceived from the Air Force Base Conversion Agency (AFBCA).

    1. Comment: According to Arizona health-based guidance levels, areas containing less than and inluding 400 mg/kg of lead do not cause excessive health hazards and are acceptable for future residential use.

      Response: The text was changed throughout the document.

    2. Comment: p.6, paragraph 4, bullet 1, lines 2 & 3: Soil below a depth of six (6) inches will still contain lead pellets and lead concentrations above 400 mg/kg. Soil lead concentrations below the cap (clean fill) will not be reduced.

      Response: The text was changed to specify the top six inches.

    3. Comment: The entire 400 mg/kg area will be considered capped at the conclusion of the remedial action. Please make reference to only one (1) cap throughout the document.

      Response: The text was changed accordingly.

    4. Comment: p. 7, bullet 1, lines 4 through 6: It may be useful to use the language from Consensus Statement #97-02, April 22, 1997.

      Response: A portion of the language was used for clarification.

    5. Comment: p.11, Item 1, bullet 2: Future use of the entire capped area will be restricted to non-residential use.

      Response: The text was changed accordingly.

    6. Comment: p.11, The Other 31 IRP Sites Section: Delete the Concrete Hardfill Area (LF-26) from the list. The removal action in the hardfill is complete, and the Air Force considers this a No Further Action (NFA) area.

      Response: The site was deleted and the text in Appendix A was changed accordingly.

    7. Comment: p. A-8, Corrective Action & Current Status, bullet 3- "A Final Report will be issued in Oct. 1997." Should read- A Final Report was issued in December 1996.

      Response: The text was changed accordingly.

    8. Comment: p. A-8, Corrective Action & Current Status, bullet 6: A 5 year review will be issued in 2002.

      Response: The text was changed accordingly.

    9. Comment: p. A-9, CA & Current Status, bullet 1: "5,000 gallons of fluid from the fire pits and associated piping were removed in 1994." The fluid was removed from the oil/water separator, sump, and associated piping and not from the fire pits.

      Response: The text was changed accordingly.

    10. Comment: p. A-9, CA & Current Status, bullet 6: The fence currently erected on-site is to protect the SVE system and will be removed once the SVE operations are complete.

      Response: The text was changed accordingly.

    11. Comment: p. A-10, CA & Current Status, bullet 2: During the 1993 storm line removal action, the 350 feet of cement was also removed.

      Response: The text was changed accordingly.

    12. Comment: p.A-13, CA & Current Status: "Soil near the fire range backstop will be removed up to a depth of 5 feet." All soil at the backstop containing lead will be removed.

      Response: The text was changed accordingly.



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