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HEALTH CONSULTATION

Public Comment Release

EVALUATION OF SOIL, BLOOD & AIR DATA FROM ANNISTON, ALABAMA
CALHOUN COUNTY, ALABAMA


CONCLUSIONS

  1. PCBs in soil in some areas of Anniston present a public health hazard based on the potential for chronic cancerous and noncancerous health effects.

    Detections of PCBs occur frequently in residential areas and the levels are high enough toindicate that a hazard does exist even if analytical methods have resulted in overestimatesin some cases.

    Furthermore, residential soils in some areas of Anniston with higher levels of PCBsmay present a public health hazard for thyroid and neurodevelopmental effects forintermediate exposure durations (less than 1 year of exposure).

  2. Further characterization of areas reported to have elevated PCB levels is needed so that exposure point concentrations can be more accurately estimated and so the nature and extent of contamination can be better defined. Blood PCB data should be analyzed in conjunction with residential history information to aid in the identification of areas of potential soil PCB contamination.
  3. Persons with elevated blood PCB levels (greater than 20 µg/L) for whom there is evidence of current exposure to soil contamination should be a focus of particular attention in future environmental characterization and public health actions.
  4. Sampling and analytical methods are not adequately described for all of the data. This lack of information has caused us to make estimates of PCB exposure that may overestimate or underestimate health risk. For this reason, our estimates of exposure magnitude and our public health conclusions might change.
  5. The reports of elevated blood PCBs in young children support the conclusion that exposures to PCBs have not ceased. The magnitude of PCB levels in blood in older persons (i.e., 41 of the persons aged 38 years or older had levels greater than 100 g/L) suggests that PCB exposures may have been more severe in the past. The higher proportion of detections of PCBs in the blood of older persons suggests that PCB exposures were more widespread in the past.
  6. Exposures to PCBs in air present an indeterminate public health hazard. Uncertainty about the levels of PCBs in the air near Solutia over chronic exposure durations, combined with uncertainty regarding air levels to which persons would be exposed at their homes precludes a determination of whether PCBs in air presents a health hazard. Further characterization of the air pathway is needed so that exposure point concentrations can be estimated for persons living near the air monitors at which elevated PCB levels have been detected. Further characterization is also needed to define the limits of the area with elevated air levels for PCBs.
  7. ATSDR's evaluation of the health hazard potential, particularly with regard to the size of the exposed population and the levels and duration of exposure, is limited by data gaps. Further sampling and evaluation are needed.
  8. Exposures to the pesticides DDT and chlordane at levels of health concern are alsopossible; however, given the levels in the available samples, it does not appear thatexposures to pesticides are widespread. Too few samples were analyzed for pesticides toallow a more certain conclusion as to whether exposures to pesticides are occurring.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Following are ATSDR's recommendations, listed in order of priority.

  1. Sample soil to assess whether average exposure point concentrations exceed levels of health concern for persons living at residences likely to be contaminated. Define "likely" as proximity to Solutia or PCB detections in the Community Group 1 or Community Group 2 data sets. Use blood PCB levels in conjunction with residential history information to help define areas where exposure point concentrations exceed levels of health concern.
  2. Develop a site investigation plan (including records search and air and soil sampling) that addresses the potential for sources and local areas of PCB, dioxin/furan, and pesticide contamination.
  3. Analyze CAP survey results along with residential and occupational information collected by Community Group 1 to characterize persons who have elevated blood PCB levels. Use this analysis for soil sampling plans and identification of environmental sources and pathways. Also use these analyses to help determine the need for exposure investigations (in coordination with the development of any studies of health effects) and to describe the size and geographic spread of the population with elevated blood PCBs.
  4. Use future studies of health effects to be developed in consideration of community concerns. In addition, important data gaps could be filled through the study of PCB health effects in this highly exposed population. Primary consideration should be given to evaluation of specific health effects that have previously been associated with PCB exposure.
  5. Use physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to describe the range of soil or air PCB exposure point concentrations that could conceivably lead to the observed blood PCB levels. This will improve our understanding of the likelihood that known soil or air levels could have caused the observed blood PCB levels.
  6. Analyze spatial and temporal relationships between blood, soil, and air data in conjunction with additional data regarding residential, behavioral, and occupational history to determine the association, if any, between environmental contamination (in soil and air) and blood contamination.
  7. Determine health education needs relevant to PCB exposure for this community.

PUBLIC HEALTH RESPONSE PLAN

A Public Health Response Plan is being developed to address the recommendations made in thisconsultation [38]. The Public Health Response Plan has been shared with EPA, AlabamaDepartment of Environmental Management, and ADPH so that all agencies can coordinate theiractivities to better define the extent of environmental contamination and human exposures. Follow-up actions will be considered in coordination with the local community.

Prepared by:

Richard A. Canady, PhD, DABT
Senior Toxicologist
Exposure Investigations and Consultations Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Review by:

Susan Moore
Section Chief
Exposure Investigations and Consultations Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

John E. Abraham, PhD
Branch Chief
Exposure Investigations and Consultations Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


Appendix A - Previous ATSDR activities and site description

Previous Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR ) and AlabamaDepartment of Public Health (ADPH) activities in the West Anniston area

In 1995 and 1996, ADPH (under a cooperative agreement with ATSDR) assessed the potentialfor health effects caused by PCB contamination at this site. A health consultation was preparedin 1995 concerning PCB contamination discovered in soil and sediment at the West End Landfill(WEL) and in the Eastern Drainage Ditch (EDD) [39]. ADPH concluded that exposure to soiland sediment in WEL, EDD, Snow Creek, and Choccolocco Creek presented a public healthhazard. ADPH recommended additional soil sampling to delineate areas where contaminantconcentrations are high and an exposure investigation (EI) to determine the impact of offsitecontamination on area residents.

In early 1996, ADPH and ATSDR conducted an EI for one West Anniston neighborhood near theSolutia facility [40]. The exposure investigation examined blood PCB levels for 103 persons inthe Cobbtown/Sweet Valley Community (CT/SVC). Soil and indoor dust samples were alsocollected and examined for the EI. CT/SVC was described in the EI as an "old neighborhood thatis comprised of approximately 35 houses, 2 churches, and 8 businesses" (Figure 7). Most of thehouses considered in the 1996 EI have been purchased and demolished by Solutia. The EI foundthat PCB levels were elevated compared to background levels and levels of health concern insoil, sediment, indoor dust, and surface water. The EI also observed that a weak correlationexisted between PCB levels in the soil and blood levels. The EI concluded that PCBs in soil,sediment, indoor dust, and surface water in CT/SVC was a public health hazard. The EIrecommended sampling of residential yards in the area of CT/SVC.

ADPH prepared a public health assessment that considered soil PCB sampling (of drainageditches and flood plain near the Solutia facility) conducted by Solutia prior to 1996 [41]. Thedata sets provided by EPA addressed in this consultation consisted of soil and air sampling datagenerated since 1996. The blood PCB data were also generated since 1996. The consultationpresents conclusions regarding the potential for human health effects primarily for PCBcontamination and exposure; however, a small number of soil samples describing pesticidecontamination and a small number of blood dioxin analyses were also considered.

Site description

Brief description of the Solutia manufacturing facility. One presumed source for PCBsdescribed in soil and air in at least some of the samples reviewed is the Solutia manufacturingfacility in West Anniston (Figure 1). Other sources for PCB contamination may exist, but havenot been clearly demonstrated to date. Other potential sources for contamination should beconsidered in an additional health assessment for the site and when a potential remediation isplanned. However, the conclusions of this consultation do not rely on a definitive catalog ofsources, so only a brief description of the one demonstrated source (Solutia) is provided.

The Solutia manufacturing facility is located one mile west of downtown Anniston on StateHighway 202 in Calhoun County, Alabama. The facility is situated on approximately 70 acresand is bordered on the south by Highway 202, on the east by the Clydesdale Avenue extension,on the west by First Avenue, and on the north by the Norfolk Southern and Erie Railroads. Thearea north of Solutia contains residential, commercial, and industrial properties. Residentialproperties are also located east and west of the site (Figure 1) [42,43,44].

Chemical manufacturing has occurred at this site for more than 80 years. Monsanto producedhundreds of millions of pounds of PCBs in the U.S.[45] and the Anniston facility was one of 2Monsanto PCB production facilities in the U.S. Millions of pounds of PCB-containing wastefrom that production may have been disposed of onsite.

In 1917, Southern Manganese Corporation began manufacturing ferro-manganese, ferro-silicon,ferro-phosphorus compounds, and phosphoric acid at the site. In the late 1920s, production ofbiphenyls was initiated. In 1930, Southern Manganese Corporation became Swann ChemicalCompany. Monsanto purchased Swann Chemical Company in 1935, and began manufacturingPCBs, parathion, phosphorous pentasulfide, para-nitrophenol, and polyphenyl compounds.Monsanto ceased production of PCBs in the early 1970s and ceased production of parathion andphosphorous pentasulfide in the mid-1980s. The Anniston facility now operates as Solutia,Incorporated. Para-nitrophenol and polyphenyl compounds are now manufactured at the site [46,47].

Landfills. Hazardous and nonhazardous wastes were disposed of at two landfills located adjacentto the Solutia manufacturing plant; the West End Landfill and the South Landfill (Figure 7).

The West End Landfill was a six-acre plot located on the southwest side of the manufacturingfacility, north of Highway 202. The unlined landfill was used for disposal of all refuse from thefacility from the mid 1930s to 1961. In November 1961, the West End Landfill and an adjacentproperty were exchanged to the Alabama Power Company. With the closure of the West EndLandfill, Solutia began disposing of wastes at the South Landfill.

The South Landfill was located southeast of the manufacturing facility, south of Highway 202. Itsits on the lower northeast slope of Coldwater Mountain. The South Landfill was divided into10 individual cells, each intended to hold a specific type of waste. Due to disposal practices,there are two categories which can describe the cells, hazardous and non-hazardous. Operationsat the South Landfill ended in 1988.

Some of the waste was from PCB manufacture and there is reference to millions of pounds of"still bottoms" and a manufacturing byproduct called "Montars" being deposited in open,uncovered piles until approximately 1970. Montars have been described as high-chlorinedistillation residue from the PCB manufacturing process used by Monsanto prior to 1970 [48].Surface stabilization measures constructed around the Solutia facility in 1971 are likely to havereduced the potential for offsite transport of PCBs [49].

Key surface water features. Snow Creek flows through Anniston north of the Solutia facility. Atributary of the creek begins northwest of the Solutia facility, and flows northeast until it reachesBoynton Street. It then flows south through residential and business areas. Snow Creek emptiesinto Choccolocco Creek south of Interstate I-20.

East Drainage Ditch (EDD) begins in the area of the South Landfill just southeast of the Solutiafacility. It flows northward through the Clydesdale community (between Clydesdale Avenue andZinn Parkway) east of the Solutia facility and is joined south of Seventh St. by Solutia's wastewater discharge ditch (which originates from an old limestone neutralization bed). The EDDcontinues along east of Montrose Avenue and Boynton Street, crosses under 10th Street and the the Norfolk, Southern, and Erie railroad tracks at 11th Street, and empties into Snow Creek.

Northern Drainage Ditch (NDD) consists of a series of ditches that run along the northernboundary of the Solutia facility. The NDD crosses north under railroad tracks to the southernends of Bancroft and Duncan Streets, and then follows the railroad tracks northeast to join theEDD and Snow Creek. Most of the EDD consists of silt and clay, but some parts are concrete andextend below ground. The western end of the NDD appears to have some westerly flow, but theremaining portion of the NDD flows toward Snow Creek. Western Drainage Ditch (WDD),located west of the West End Landfill at the southwest corner of the Solutia facility. It runs northalong the facility boundary east of 1st Avenue until it meets up with the NDD.

A site visit of the EDD and Snow Creek was performed by ATSDR and ADPH. Severalimportant features were noted. Access was not restricted and human activity was evident inmany areas. The upstream portion of Snow Creek flows through a concrete liner while thedownstream portion remains unlined. The EDD averages roughly 2-3 feet deep and 3-5 feet wide,except in the Spring Street area where the ditch is 5-6 feet deep and approximately 5 feet wide. Also, the ditches have been known to flood during rain events. During meetings in Anniston onSeptember 15 and November 9, 1999, community members told ATSDR that oily residue had(i.e., 20 years ago) frequently been observed on water flowing from the Solutia facility in the.drainage ditches, an observation also made by others [50].

Other potential sources for the contamination observed in environmental samples. Statementsmade by community members during public meetings in Anniston, and in letters and documentsprovided by Solutia suggested that other sources for PCBs are possible in addition to the Solutiafacility. It has not been established that offsite PCB contamination is solely the result of air orsurface water transport from PCB wastes generated by Solutia. ATSDR is not aware of additionalinvestigations that identify other sources of PCB contamination. The additional sourcessuggested for PCB contamination in Anniston include foundry sand from metal casting operations and transformers and capacitors at an electric power substation.


Appendix B. - Dioxin Comparison Levels

Comparison values for dioxin-like compounds in blood serum are listed in Table 7. To derivethese values, ATSDR pooled data from five studies that measured dioxin levels in residents ofthe United States who had no known exposure to dioxins, other than typical background levels. The studies contained a total population of approximately 360 persons from five states. Theblood samples were collected during the time period, 1995 to 1998. The National Center forEnvironmental Health of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia,conducted the laboratory analyses using gas chromatography/isotope dilution-high resolutionmass spectroscopy.

In some samples, the concentrations of one or more congeners were reported as not detected. Forthe statistical summary of total TEQs across the eight studies, the concentration of a non-detectedcongener was assumed to be one-half of the analytical detection limit. In some of the studies,analytical data (including detection limits) for one or more congeners were missing in someindividuals because of analytical difficulties. For these persons, the TEQ concentration of thenon-reported congener was assumed to be equal to the average TEQ for that congener for allother persons in their study. Two congeners (123478D and 123678D) were not reported for anypersons for several of the studies. For the studies where these congeners were missing, thereplacement value used was the average of the TEQ concentration for the congeners from studieswhere the congeners were reported.

The comparison levels in this report were based on a preliminary analysis of the available data. ATSDR will submit a more detailed report of these analyses and findings to a peer-reviewed, scientific journal for publication.


Appendix C. - Health concerns expressed by the community

During a November 9, 1999, public meeting in Anniston, approximately 75 community members expressed concerns regarding health effects (summarized in Table 11). [51]

Table 11. Self-Reported Health Concerns from Public
Availability Session in Anniston, Alabama

Table 11.

Self-Reported Health Concerns from Public
Availability Session in Anniston, Alabama
Self-Reported Health Concerns Number of Reports
Cancer 50
Cardiovascular Problems 46
Respiratory Problems 43
GI Problems 24
Skin Problems 22
Endocrine Problems 18
Musculoskeletal Problems 17
Birth Defects/Learning Disabilities 14
Immune Problems 12
Neuro Problems 11
Headaches 9
Blood Problems 7
Eye Problems 6
Kidney Problems 6
Infections 5
Reproductive Problems 4
Fatigue 4
Prostate Problems 1
Total 299

Community members also expressed complaints of odors which they attributed to the Solutiafacility. The odors were described by some as resembling "rotten eggs" or "rotten cabbage" or"diesel fuel." Others described yellow dust settling on clothes and smoke or haze coming from orbeing seen in the area of the Solutia facility. Some stated that smells and dust were moreprevalent in the 1960s. In addition, many persons expressed a desire to have their blood tested for PCBs [52].


REFERENCES

  1. Alabama Department of Environmental Management. Consent Order No. 96-054-CHW:In the matter of: Monsanto Company, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama. March 8,1996.

  2. ADPH. Public Health Assessment. Solutia, Incorporated/Monsanto Company, Anniston,Calhoun County, Alabama. CERCLIS No. ALD004019048. Prepared by AlabamaDepartment of Public Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for ToxicSubstances and Disease Registry. December 6, 1999.

  3. Golder Associates, Incorporated. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)Facility Investigation and Confirmatory Sampling (RFI/CS) Workplan for the MonsantoCompany's Anniston, Alabama Facility, 1997.

  4. Golder Associates, Incorporated. Data File: Summary of Sampling Locations,Descriptions and Results, Off-Site Areas for the Monsanto Company, Anniston, CalhounCounty, Alabama.

  5. Letter from Donald W. Stewart of Stewart and Smith, P.C. to David Baker of CommunityAgainst Pollution. Re: Monsanto PCB contamination. February 18, 1999.

  6. Blood sample analysis was performed by one of the major commercial clinicallaboratories that provides healthcare services in the United States (LabCorp). TheCompany's facilities perform diagnostic procedures on specimens from more than240,000 patients each day. The laboratory offers more than 2,000 different clinical testsranging from simple blood analyses to more sophisticated molecular diagnostictechniques.

    Test results are routinely monitored for reliability, precision, and accuracy by bothinternal and external quality control programs, including the College of AmericanPathologists. Continued acceptable performance on these surveys is a prerequisite forcontinued licensure and certification of the laboratory. The laboratory voluntarilyparticipates in more than 20 external quality control programs and is inspected by state,federal, and private accrediting agencies. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) includerepeat of assays when controls are out of established ranges or where the coefficient ofvariation for the assay is too high. It is also the policy of the laboratory to repeatindividual samples that are significantly abnormal clinically or where duplicate testresults disagree. The laboratory is accredited under the Clinical Laboratory ImprovementAct (CLIA).

    PCB analysis was performed using high resolution gas chromatography/electron capturedetector [HRGC/ECD] technique. The serum samples were analyzed for total PCB levelsincluding aroclors 1254 and 1260. Results were as total PCB in units of g/L; no lipid-adjustments were done. No congener specific analyses were performed. The detectionlimit for this assay is reported to be 5 g/L. For PCB analysis, the laboratory usedAlltech standards and NIST controls. Each assay "run" included two levels of controls aswell as standards. Since a typical assay "run" includes less than 20 samples per run, thetypical QC to sample ratio is very high.

  7. Letter, From: Robert G. Kaley, II, Director, Environmental Affairs, Solutia, Inc. To: WmGerald Hardy, Chief, Hazardous Waste Branch, Land Division, Alabama Department ofEnvironmental Management. Date: October 1, 1999.

  8. Letter from Charles Cunningham to Katharine Hastie of EPA/SESD Region 4 on June 9,1999, identified LabCorp of Burlington, North Carolina as the laboratory that analyzedthe blood samples.

  9. Kreiss, K. 1985. Studies on populations exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. EnvironHealth Perspect 60:193-199.

  10. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile forpolchlorinated biphenyls. Draft for Public Comment. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Healthand Human Services, Public Health Service, December1999.

  11. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile forpolychlorinated biphenyls. Draft for Public Comment. Atlanta: U.S. Department ofHealth and Human Services, Public Health Service, December 1999.

  12. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile forpolychlorinated biphenyls. Draft for Public Comment. Atlanta: U.S. Department ofHealth and Human Services, Public Health Service, December 1999.

  13. Kreiss, K. 1985. Studies on populations exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. EnvironHealth Perspect 60:193-199.

  14. Taylor PR, Reilly AA, et al. Estimating serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels in highlyexposed workers: an empirical model. J Toxicology and Environmental Health 34:413-422. Brown JF. Determination of PCb metabolic, excretion, and accumulation rates for use asindicators of biological response and relative risk. Environ Sci Technol 28:2295-2305 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile forpolychlorinated biphenyls. Draft for Public Comment. Atlanta: U.S. Department ofHealth and Human Services, Public Health Service, December 1999.

  15. Alabama Department of Public Health. Cobbtown/Sweet Valley Community PCBExposure Investigation for the Monsanto Company Site, Anniston, Calhoun County,Alabama, 1996. 

  16. M. Van den Berg, L. Birnbaum, A. Bosveld, et al.; Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) forPCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife; Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (12) 775-792 (1998).

  17. M. Van den Berg, L. Birnbaum, A. Bosveld, et al.; Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) forPCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife; Environmental Health Perspectives 106(12) 775-792 (1998).

  18. Slagle, T. Air and Water Enforcement Section, Science and Ecosystem Support Division,EPA Region 4. 1999. Memorandum to Wes Hardegree, Project Manager,Monsanto/Solutia, Anniston, Alabama Project, EPA Region 4. Laboratory results of PCBair study, Anniston Alabama, June 28 to July 1, 1999.

  19. EPA. Environmental Investigation Standard Operation Procedures and Quality assurancemanual (EISOPQAM). Science and Ecosystem Support Division, Region 4, EPA. May 1996.

  20. EPA. Compendium of methods for the determination of toxic compounds in ambient air. Method TO-4, gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

  21. Letter, From: Robert G. Kaley, II, Director, Environmental Affairs, Solutia, Inc. To: WmGerald Hardy, Chief, Hazardous Waste Branch, Land Division, Alabama Department ofEnvironmental Management. Date: October 1, 1999.

  22. Letter, From: Robert G. Kaley, II, Director, Environmental Affairs, Solutia, Inc. To: WmGerald Hardy, Chief, Hazardous Waste Branch, Land Division, Alabama Department ofEnvironmental Management. Date: October 1, 1999.

  23. Alabama Department of Public Health. Health consultation for the Monsanto CompanySite, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama, 1996.

  24. Alabama Department of Public Health. Cobbtown/Sweet Valley Community PCBExposure Investigation for the Monsanto Company Site, Anniston, Calhoun County,Alabama, 1996.

  25. ADPH. Public Health Assessment. Solutia, Incorporated/Monsanto Company, Anniston,Calhoun County, Alabama. CERCLIS No. ALD004019048 Prepared by AlabamaDepartment of Public Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for ToxicSubstances and Disease Registry. December 6, 1999

  26. Regarding health effects reported see Baker et al 1980; Chase et al 1982; Emmett et al1988b; Fischbein et al 1979; Fischbein 1985; Fischbein et al 1985; Lawton et al 1985a;Lawton et al 1986; Maroni et al 1981a and 1981b; Ouw et al 1976; Smith et al 1982;Warshaw et al 1979; Wolff and Schecter 1991 as cited and discussed in ATSDR'sToxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Draft for public comment. Atlanta:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. 1999. Regarding blood PCB levels in occupational settings see Kreiss K. Studies on populationsexposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. Environ Health Perspect 60:193-199. 1985. Or seeTable 5-14 in ATSDR's Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Draft forpublic comment. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public HealthService. 1999.

  27. Byrne JJ, Carbone JP, Hanson EA. 1987. Hypothyroidism and abnormalities in thekinetics of thyroid hormone metabolism in rats treated chronically with polychlorinatedbiphenyl and polybrominated biphenyl. Endocrinology 121:520-527.

  28. Van Birgelen A PJM, Smit EA, Kampen IM, et al. 1995. Subchronic effects of 2,3,7,8-TCDD or PCBs on thyroid hormone metabolism: use in risk assessment. EuropeanJournal of Pharmacology: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Sections;5(1):77-85.

  29. Rice DC. 1997. Effect of postnatal exposure to a PCB mixture in monkeys on multiplefixed interval-fixed ratio performance. Neurotoxicol Teratol 19(6):429-434.

  30. Rice DC, Hayward S. 1997. Effects of postnatal exposure to a PCB mixture in monkeyson a nonspatial discrimination reversal and delayed alternation performance. Neurotoxicology 18(2):479-494.

  31. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile forpolychlorinated biphenyls. Draft for public comment. Atlanta: U.S. Department ofHealth and Human Services, Public Health Service. 1999.

  32. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile forpolychlorinated biphenyls. Draft for public comment. Atlanta: U.S. Department ofHealth and Human Services, Public Health Service. 1999.

  33. Calabrese EJ, Sorenson AJ. The health effects of PCBs with particular emphasis onhuman high risk groups. Rev Environ Health 2:285-304. 1977. Lester R, Schmid R. Bilirubin metabolism. New Engl J Med 270:779. 1964.

  34. Stanek EJ and Calabrese EJ. Daily estimates of soil ingestion in children. EnvironmentalHealth Perspectives 103:276-285. 1994.

  35. Cogliano VJ. Assessing the Cancer Risk from Environmental PCBs. EnvironmentalHealth Perspectives Volume 106, Number 6, June 1998.EPA 1996. PCBs: Cancer Dose-Response Assessment and Application to EnvironmentalMixtures. National Center for Environmental Assessment Office of Research andDevelopment U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC. EPA/600/P-96/001F . September 1996.

  36. Jacobson JL and Jacobson SW. Intellectual impairment in children exposed topolychlorinated biphenyls in utero. N Engl J Med 335(11)783-789. 1996.
    Jacobson JL and Jacobson SW. Evidence for PCBs as neurodevelopmental toxicants inhumans. Neurotoxicology 18(2):415-424. 1997.
    Longnecker MP. Rogan WJ. Lucier G. The human health effects of DDT(dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and PCBS (polychlorinated biphenyls) and an overviewof organochlorines in public health. Annual Review of Public Health. 18:211-44, 1997
    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile forpolychlorinated biphenyls. Draft for public comment. Atlanta: U.S. Department ofHealth and Human Services, Public Health Service. 1999.

  37. Winneke G. Bucholski A. Heinzow B. Kramer U. Schmidt E. Walkowiak J. Wiener JA.Steingruber HJ. Developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS):cognitive and psychomotor functions in 7-month old children. Toxicology Letters.102-103:423-8, 1998.
    Patandin S. Lanting CI. Mulder PG. Boersma ER. Sauer PJ. Weisglas-Kuperus N.Effectsof environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on cognitive abilitiesin Dutch children at 42 months of age. Journal of Pediatrics. 134(1):33-41, 1999
    Longnecker MP. Rogan WJ. Lucier G. The human health effects of DDT(dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and PCBS (polychlorinated biphenyls) and an overviewof organochlorines in public health. Annual Review of Public Health. 18:211-44, 1997.

  38. Monsanto Company, Anniston Alabama Public Health Response Plan. Working draft.Prepared by: The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the AlabamaDepartment of Public Health. December 14, 1999

  39. Alabama Department of Public Health. Health consultation for the Monsanto CompanySite, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama, 1996.

  40. Alabama Department of Public Health. Cobbtown/Sweet Valley Community PCBExposure Investigation for the Monsanto Company Site, Anniston, Calhoun County,Alabama, 1996.

  41. ADPH. Public Health Assessment. Solutia, Incorporated/monsanto Company. Anniston,Calhoun County, Alabama. CERCLIS No. ALD004019048. Prepared by: AlabamaDepartment of Public Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for ToxicSubstances and Disease Registry. December, 1999.

  42. Alabama Department of Public Health. Health consultation for the Monsanto CompanySite, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama, 1996.

  43. Golder Associates, Incorporated. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)Facility Investigation and Confirmatory Sampling (RFI/CS) Workplan for the MonsantoCompany's Anniston, Alabama Facility, 1997.

  44. Golder Associates, Incorporated. Data File: Summary of Sampling Locations,Descriptions and Results, Off-Site Areas for the Monsanto Company, Anniston, CalhounCounty, Alabama.

  45. Durfee RL. Production and usage of PCBs in the United States. In: Proceedings of theNational Conference on Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Chicago, 1975. EPA-560/6-75-004.Washington DC: Environmental Protection Agency, 103-107.

  46. Alabama Department of Public Health. Health consultation for the Monsanto CompanySite, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama, 1996.

  47. Alabama Department of Public Health. Cobbtown/Sweet Valley Community PCBExposure Investigation for the Monsanto Company Site, Anniston, Calhoun County,Alabama, 1996.

  48. Bell, JT. Permit Application for Manufacturing or Processing Operation (Form APC 102-4). April 4, 1972.
    Memorandum from MB Mullaly chairman of Monsanto task force on plant dump, Anniston Alabama to JL Corder. March 31, 1970. Recommendations of task force on plant dump.
    Potential hazardous waste site identification and preliminary assessment. Site name "Anniston plant landfill." EPA Region 4. Form T2070-2(10-79). Report preparer Darrell A. Baker. December 8, 1979.

    Memorandum from Monsanto Chemical Company at Anniston, Alabama to Mr. R.S.Wobus, St. Louis. Toxicity of Montars. September 30, 1957.

  49. Letter, From: Robert G. Kaley, II, Director, Environmental Affairs, Solutia, Inc. To: WmGerald Hardy, Chief, Hazardous Waste Branch, Land Division, Alabama Department ofEnvironmental Management. Date: October 1, 1999.

  50. Memorandum from PB Hodges to WA Kuhn of Monsanto. May 12 1969. Aroclorsclean-up from plant effluents.

  51. ATSDR. Summary of Community Health Concerns Related to PCB Contamination inAnniston, Alabama. ATSDR-Sponsored Public Availability Session, November 9, 1999.Barbara A. Slade, M.D. Senior Medical Officer, Health Investigations Branch, Divisionof Health Studies, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dec. 3, 1999

  52. ATSDR. Summary of Community Health Concerns Related to PCB Contamination inAnniston, Alabama. ATSDR-Sponsored Public Availability Session, November 9, 1999.Barbara A. Slade, M.D. Senior Medical Officer, Health Investigations Branch, Divisionof Health Studies, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dec. 3, 1999

a Results for four persons were listed as <3.0; however, text on the first page of the list states that detection limits are 5.0 µg/L. For the purpose of deriving descriptive statistics for this consultation, we will assume a detection limit of 5.0 µg/L unless the list reported "<3.0" for an individual. In addition, results for five persons either were not stated or were indecipherable.

b Blood analysis results were reported as micrograms of Aroclor 1254 or 1260 per liter of blood serum.

c The 95th percentile is the value (in this case the blood PCB value) below which 95 percent of all other values fall. The term "typical" is used in the sense that those above "typical" are likely to have been exposed to PCBs in a way that is not "typical" for the U.S. population in general. PCBs are man-made, so there is no "naturally occurring" level in blood.

d The 2-year-old child with 17.2 µg/L PCBs had lived near the Solutia facility since birth. PCBs were not detected in the blood of the child's mother.

e The term geophagia refers to eating clay as a cultural or folk-medicine practice.

f The term "sources" in this context refers to places where people came into contact with the PCBs that are now found in their blood. We are not referring to the original maker of the PCBs, nor are we specifically referring to release points from the Solutia facility.

g The average of the EPA and Solutia observations over a 3 day period, as shown in Table 8.

h Several samples are available for each of about 10 of the 600 residences sampled. An appropriate averaging area for exposure point concentration over long term residential soil-ingestion exposure pathway is the "yard" of a house including significant play or gardening areas near a house. However, ATSDR has not received descriptions of the sampling locations near particular houses for this site. Therefore, ATSDR can not determine which statistical summary of available samples for a house would be more representative of the long term exposure point concentration for houses with several samples. For this reason, the maxima for a residence is used as a conservatively protective measure of averaged exposure point concentration for the residential soil-ingestion exposure pathway.

i An exposure point concentration is the concentration of the contaminant in the soil that an individual contacts. To estimate the dose that someone gets of a contaminant, we need an estimate of the average exposure point concentration of all the soil that a person has contacted. A PCB level taken from an area of someone's yard that is not visited very often may either underestimate or overestimate the average exposure point concentration for the individual.

j The "internal dose" of a given PCB congener to affected organs is related to the blood level of that congener, even if the environmental source of the PCBs has long since disappeared.



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