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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

FORT WAINWRIGHT
FORT WAINWRIGHT, FAIRBANKS NORTH STAR BOROUGH, ALASKA


V. COMMUNITY HEALTH CONCERNS

Through the public health assessment process, ATSDR has gathered information about health concerns from community residents. Most of these concerns were identified during the ATSDR scoping visits in 1991 and 1998 (ATSDR 1991) and through community interviews conducted at Fort Wainwright by the Army and Ecology and Environment, Inc. between July 27 and July 30, 1992 (Ecology & Environment, Inc. 1993). The purpose of the community interviews was to identify community perceptions and concerns associated with the environmental studies being performed at Fort Wainwright (Ecology & Environment, Inc. 1993). A total of 25 interviews were conducted with Fort Wainwright residents, community members, community groups, and representatives of federal, state, and local governments. The following is a summary of the health concerns expressed by the community and ATSDR's responses to these concerns.

  • Concerns about the use of contaminated groundwater for lawn irrigation at Shannon Park Baptist Church.

ATSDR conducted a public health consultation (ATSDR 1999a) to address community concerns about contaminated groundwater being used for lawn irrigation at the Shannon Park Baptist Church. Drinking water for the church is already being provided by the Army, so no public health hazard exists from ingestion of groundwater near the church. However, water from the church well continues to be used for lawn irrigation. Community residents were concerned that VOCs in the water would volatilize and create a public health hazard from inhalation exposure.

For the public health consultation, ATSDR considered the three most likely ways people could be exposed to contaminants from groundwater (1) inhalation via 100% volatilization of the VOCs in irrigation water, (2) ingestion of soil or grass (based on no volatilization of VOCs), and (3) accidental ingestion of water (ATSDR 1999a).

For the inhalation pathway, ATSDR ran an air model, using conservative, worst-case-scenario assumptions, including 100% volatilization of VOCs from the entire lawn area. The resulting modeled air concentrations were below air CVs for each chemical. ATSDR concluded that no public health hazards were present because the ambient concentrations were 20 to 30 times lower than the CVs for all the compounds (ATSDR 1999a).

For the incidental ingestion of soil or grass, ATSDR applied an Equilibrium Criterion Model (EQC) to calculate deposition of contaminants to the surface. ATSDR created a conservative, worst-case-scenario by assuming deposition for 24 hours per day, 365 days per year, whereas lawn irrigation occurs for a several hours per week for 6 months of the year. On the basis of this conservative, health protective scenario, the calculated contaminant concentrations in soil were 100,000 times lower than the CVs for all compounds. Because contaminants would be at such low levels, ATSDR concluded that there was no public health hazard from incidental ingestion of soil or of grass (ATSDR 1999a).

For incidental ingestion of irrigation water, ATSDR compared contaminant levels detected in the groundwater to the EPA regulatory limits for drinking water (MCLs). Only one chemical, 1,2-DCA, exceeded the MCL. However, the MCL assumes daily exposure over a lifetime. Since the lawn watering is assumed to occur twice a week for 6 months, the actual exposure would be far less. For comparison, ATSDR assumed that a child drinks 1 liter of water during each watering event and estimated a site-specific CV, or acceptable concentration in the water. The resulting CV would be 1,094 ppm, a value 200,000 times greater than the maximum measured concentration of 1,2-DCA. Because exposure to groundwater through incidental ingestion is much less than the conservative estimates used for deriving regulatory limits, ATSDR concluded that no public health hazard existed from incidental ingestion of irrigation water (ATSDR 1999a).

  • Concern that children living at Fort Wainwright may be experiencing learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder (ADD) at a greater rate than children living in other areas.

ATSDR responded to this concern raised by the Fort Wainwright Restoration Advisory Board (RAB) by reviewing information on learning disabilities (LD) among children attending Arctic Light Elementary and Ladd Elementary Schools available from 1994 to 1997. Based on information provided by the Fairbanks North Star Borough School District, approximately 98% of students at Arctic Light and approximately 50% of students at Ladd are military dependents (ATSDR 1999b). Unfortunately, information specific to ADD is not collected by the schools, so ATSDR could not analyze that concern directly. However, data on ADD is partially captured in data on LD, because an estimated 30% to 50% of individuals with LD have ADD (ATSDR 1999b). Available information on LD had been collected under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, formerly known as the Education of the Handicapped Children Act of 1975). ATSDR reviewed the data and published a letter sent to the Fort Wainwright Directorate of Public Works in 1999 summarizing its findings. Copies of this letter were sent to U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, EPA, the Alaska Division of Public Health, ADEC, and the Restoration Advisory Board.

ATSDR found that there was no apparent increase in incidences of LD in students at either Arctic Light Elementary or Ladd Elementary Schools when compared to state and national averages. The percentage of students, ages 5 to 11 years old, with LD at these two schools ranged from 3.0% to 6.6 %. For the State of Alaska, the percentage of students, ages 6 to 11 years old, with LD ranged from 1.35% to 7.38%, although 1.35% reported for 1994 appears to be an anomaly because the other years reported ranges from 6.6% to 7.39%. Nationally, the percentage of children, ages 0 to 21 (no national averages available for ages 6 to 11), with LD for the same years ranged from 5.54% to 5.81% (ATSDR 1999b). While ATDSR's evaluation cannot provide answers to why some children experience ADD, it provides evidence that living at Fort Wainwright does not pose an added risk for LD.


VI. CHILDREN'S HEALTH CONSIDERATIONS

ATSDR recognizes that the unique vulnerabilities of infants and children demand special emphasis in communities faced with contamination of their water, soil, air, or food. Children are at greater risk than adults from certain kinds of exposures to hazardous substances emitted from waste sites and emergency events involving hazardous chemicals. In general, children are more likely to be exposed because they play outdoors and often bring food into contaminated areas. They are shorter than adults, which means they breathe dust, soil, and heavy vapors that are close to the ground. Children are also smaller, so they receive higher doses of chemical exposure proportional to their body weight. The developing body systems of children can sustain permanent damage if toxic exposures occur during critical growth stages. Most importantly, children depend completely on adults for risk identification and management decisions, housing decisions, and access to medical care.

ATSDR has attempted to identify populations of children at Fort Wainwright. There are five schools at Fort Wainwright. These schools serve both civilian and military students that live on or near Fort Wainwright. The installation has a child development center which offers regular child care services during the week.

Following a careful evaluation of possible exposure situations for children at Fort Wainwright IRP sites, ATSDR determined that there is limited potential for harmful exposures or risk of physical hazards. Although contaminants have been detected at Fort Wainwright, children do not frequently visit the IRP sites or other potential areas of concern. ATSDR determined that harmful exposures are not expected to occur, because children do not access these areas or locations of contamination at the post; the majority of the contaminated sites are located within industrial areas not used for recreation.

Similar to other people living at or in the vicinity of Fort Wainwright, children may contact contaminants in non-IRP areas or be at risk from physical hazards. As discussed in the "Evaluation of Exposure Pathways" section of this public health assessment, possible exposures to children include past use of groundwater as a drinking water supply at a church, ingestion of lead-based paint hazards, possible access to unlocked utilidors near residential/playground areas, and consumption of fish from the Chena River. ATSDR evaluated these situations and, when necessary, estimated the potential doses for children. ATSDR's findings are summarized below.

  • Ingestion of contaminants in Shannon Park Baptist Church and the Steese Chapel Hall drinking water in the past. In 1991, the VOC 1,2-DCA from the post was detected in the church wells at levels above ATSDR CVs. ATSDR evaluated exposure to the highest concentration detected in church well water for the time period that Shannon Park Baptist Church well was in use. On the basis of the results of its evaluation, ATSDR found no evidence that children would develop adverse health effects from drinking the well water in the past. Since 1991, no exposure has occurred because the well is no longer used for drinking. The Army supplies the churches with bottled water. The Army continues to treat areas of contaminated groundwater and monitor contaminant movement at the post to protect against further off-site impacts.

  • Incidental ingestion of lead-based paint. Lead-based paint was used in post residences. Certain children living in post housing might be at greater risk of experiencing lead-related health effects, depending on factors that influence exposure (e.g., age of children at exposure, play habits, presence and condition of lead-based paint in homes, and concurrent lead exposures). Fort Wainwright has programs in place to both identify and remediate lead hazards from residential units, and test children who live in, or frequent buildings constructed prior to 1960 for lead exposure. ATSDR recommends, as a precautionary measure, that these programs be reviewed to identify if on-post housing was built between 1960 and 1978, and identify if those buildings have been considered in the program.

  • Safety hazards with access to unlocked utilidors. Anecdotal stories suggest children might have explored and played inside utilidors; putting the children at risk of exposures to asbestos and physical hazards. The post's Department of Public Works intends to replace the existing, unlocked, utilidor lids, including those near residential and playground areas, with new lids that prevent children from entering utilidors. Once this is done, children's access to the utilidors and their potential hazards will be eliminated.

  • Consumption of Chena River fish. Certain children may consume local fish from Chena River. Surface water and sediment sampling data for this section of the Chena River suggest VOC or SVOC contaminants are not likely to cause health concerns for local fish consumers. The Army is scheduled to re-evaluate the sampling needs for the Chena River in 2005; the need for additional arsenic sampling will be considered at that time (Deardorff 2003). ATSDR concurs with this scheduled evaluation and supports additional sampling for arsenic and other metals in the Chena River in order to identify if the one arsenic sampling event was representative of chronic contamination or just a random occurrence.

VII. CONCLUSIONS

Having thoroughly evaluated available environmental information, ATSDR has made the following conclusions:

  • Past Exposures

    • After reviewing the available environmental sampling data and background information, ATSDR concluded that individuals could have been exposed to low concentrations of contaminants in drinking water from the church well. This exposure, however, would have involved contaminant levels that would not cause adverse health effects. Therefore, ATSDR determined that this exposure posed no apparent public health hazard.

    • ATSDR reviewed the available background information describing the physical and chemical characteristics of coal ash and the use of coal ash as road grit on the post. The agency found no evidence of exposure to contaminants from the coal ash in the soil, groundwater, or air at levels known to be associated with adverse health effects. Therefore this exposure posed no apparent public health hazard.

    • ATSDR reviewed the available background information describing the post operational history of the on-post coal-fired power plant. The agency concluded that power plant emissions could have periodically reached concentrations, in the ambient air at the nearby school and residential area, that exceed the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Specifically, concentrations might have exceeded the standards when the plant burned coal sprayed with waste oil or when the plant was operating without properly functioning pollution control equipment and the wind was blowing first over the plant stacks and then over the school or residential area. Measurements are not available to estimate if significant exposures were likely to have resulted under these conditions; therefore, these exposures have been identified as an indeterminate public health hazard.

  • ATSDR has identified several possible current exposure situations:

    • Contaminants in on-post or off-post drinking water supplies. Contaminants from former post activities have leached into the groundwater beneath Fort Wainwright. No exposure to these contaminants has occurred via the post's drinking water supply or the city of Fairbanks' municipal water supply, because the contaminant plumes have not intersected the areas of the drinking water wells. Currently, the Fort Wainwright Department of Public Works and the city of Fairbanks' water supplier routinely test their water to ensure that it meets state and federal safe drinking water standards. Therefore, no public health hazard isassociated with contaminants in groundwater for people receiving their drinking water from the post water supply or the city of Fairbanks water supply.
    • Contaminants have migrated beyond Fort Wainwright site boundaries to the area immediately west of the post. Contaminants were detected in the private wells at two churches near the western boundary of the post, but at levels that would not cause illness. The Army is supplying bottled drinking water to the churches. The Army is also investigating the source of the off-site contaminants and conducting groundwater remediation measures to prevent migration off post. ATSDR found no evidence of harmful exposures to people who may still use church well water for irrigation; therefore this was categorized as no apparent public health hazard.

    • Contaminated media, such as on-post surface soil, and Chena River surface water or sediment. The Army's efforts to remove the contaminated media has been completed at many areas and are under way at most of the others. Potential contact with contaminated soil, and Chena River water and sediment is limited by weather conditions; including snow and ice cover. ATSDR expects that people would not contact contaminants in on-post surface soil, tar sites, or Chena River water or sediment often enough, or at high enough levels, to pose a threat to public health. Therefore ATSDR categorized this as no apparent public health hazard.

    • Lead-based paint in on-post housing. Lead can be particularly harmful to young children prone to hand-to-mouth activities who might eat lead paint chips or lead-contaminated dust. Homes built prior to 1978 may contain lead-based paint. Post residents are informed about the potential health hazards of lead when they first move into on-post housing. The Army has programs in place to both assess and remediate lead-based paint hazards in on-post residential buildings, and test children living in, or frequenting, on-post buildings constructed prior to 1978 for lead exposure. Because Fort Wainwright has a program established to identify and mitigate exposure to lead-based paint and a blood lead testing program for children, ATSDR categorized this as a no apparent public health hazard.

    • Hazards in on-post housing, or administrative, and industrial buildings. Certain buildings at Fort Wainwright contain asbestos. Post residents are informed about the potential health hazards of asbestos when they first move into post housing. The Army has programs in place to assess and remediate asbestos hazards in on-post buildings. Because Fort Wainwright has a program in place to identify and remediate asbestos hazards, ATSDR categorized this as no apparent public health hazard.

    • Physical hazards at the post. Physical hazards at the post include the exposed tar sites, unlocked utildors, UXO at the 40mm high explosives range, and various hazards at the Nike Missile Sites (no longer active) and maneuver/impact locations. The Army has undertaken measures to remove or reduce hazards in these areas. Also, each of these areas is posted with warning signs advising unauthorized people to keep out. People can best protect themselves against potential hazards in these areas by abiding by these warning signs and follow the post's regulations for site conduct.

    • Safety hazards with access to unlocked utilidors. The post's Department of Public Works intends to replace the existing, unlocked, utilidor lids, including those near residential and playground areas, with new lids that prevent children from entering utilidors. Once this is done, children's access to the utilidors and their potential hazards will be eliminated.

    • Radiation associated with buried radiological material. The Runway Radioactive Waste Site and the Birch Hill Radioactive Waste Site were identified in historical or anecdotal information as possibly containing radiological material. However, there is no evidence of radiation release to the ground surface from either source. The potential for radionuclides to affect drinking water supplies is considered to be low, because radionuclides are not likely to migrate far and drinking water wells are not close enough to this source to be affected. Therefore, no public health hazard is associated with these locations.

    • Contaminants via consumption of Chena River fish. People fish along the Chena River and, for many Alaskans, fish is an important source of nutrition. A variety of contaminated sites are located near the Chena River on Fort Wainwright. Contaminants from the majority of these sites are believed to be controlled so that they do not affect the water quality of the river. Surface water and sediment sampling data for this section of the Chena River suggest that fish are not exposed to high levels of VOC or SVOC contaminants likely to cause health concerns for local fish consumers. Insufficient sampling data is available to identify if metals, especially arsenic concentrations exist in the Chena River at levels that could indicate a public health hazard for fish consumers. Because of the uncertainties in the measured concentrations of the metals, especially arsenic, ATSDR categorized the potential exposure from fish consumption as an indeterminate public health hazard. The Army is scheduled to re-evaluate the sampling needs for the Chena River in 2005; the need for additional arsenic sampling will be considered at that time. ATSDR concurs with this scheduled evaluation and supports additional sampling for the Chena River in order to identify if the one arsenic sampling event was representative of chronic contamination or just a random occurrence.

VIII. RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. The Army is scheduled to re-evaluate the sampling needs for the Chena River in 2005; the need for additional arsenic sampling will be considered at that time. ATSDR recommends that additional arsenic sampling be conducted for the Chena River in order to identify if the one arsenic sampling event was representative of chronic contamination or just a random occurrence.

IX. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

The public health action plan (PHAP) for Fort Wainwright contains a description of actions taken and future actions to be taken by the Army, ATSDR, EPA, and ADEC on the post and in the vicinity of the post subsequent to the completion of this public health assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies potential and on-going public health hazards, but that it also provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and/or prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. The public health actions that are completed, ongoing/planned, and recommended are as follows:

Completed Actions

  1. The Army has removed contaminated soil and/or buried drums from the 801 Drum Burial Site, Blair Lakes Drum Site, Building 3015, Chemical Agent Dump Site, the Drum Site South of the Landfill, the Engineers' Park Drum Site, Utilidor Expansion Drum Site, the North Post Area, Fairbanks-Eielson Pipeline Mileposts 2.7 and 15.75, the Fire Training Pits, Motor Pool Building 3425, and the East and West Sections of the QFS.

  2. The Army has capped the inactive portion of the Fort Wainwright Sanitary Landfill to prevent exposure and to reduce contaminants leaching into groundwater.

  3. The Defense Fuels Agency has certified that the tanks at Fort Wainwright are empty.

  4. The Army installed to ambient air monitors; one approximately 50 feet northeast of the power plant and the other approximately 1500 feet southwest of the power plant, both are about 15 feet above the ground. They've been in operation since February 2003 and are monitored daily for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and particulate matter (PM10).

Ongoing and Planned Actions

  1. The Army is installing a full-stream baghouse on each of the six boilers to reduce particulate emissions from the coal-fired power plant.

  2. Army contractors are operating SVE/AS remediation systems to reduce contaminant levels in groundwater and subsurface soil to protect the beneficial use of the groundwater beneath the post.

  3. The Army reports that all utilidors on the post will be refitted with exterior lids to prevent unauthorized access.

  4. The Army began removing unauthorized hunting and trapping cabins in 2000.

  5. To help protect hunters, fishers, trappers and other civilians who are accessing Army training lands to gather foods or pursue recreational activities; the Army has programs to educate hunters, fishers, and trappers during the sign-in procedures, fence training areas that are continuously off-limits (as appropriate), and maintain adequate signs on the boundaries of training areas where fencing is not appropriate.

  6. The Army plans to remove the buildings associated with the former Nike Missile Sites.

  7. The Army is inspecting and remediating on-post housing units for lead and asbestos hazards. In addition, the Army provides information to new residents about the potential for exposure to lead and asbestos in the housing units, about measures they can use to protect themselves from lead exposure, and about how to report damaged building materials. ATSDR recommends that Fort Wainwright's lead-based paint programs be reviewed to identify if on-post housing was built between 1960 and 1978, and identify if those buildings have been considered in the program.

  8. Fort Wainwright has procedures in place that require all project managers and personnel planning any intrusive actions to notify the base Environmental Office of any planned on-base building or digging project. The Environmental Office will help the manager identify if the operational history or environmental data surrounding the proposed location indicates the potential for hazardous materials or environmental contamination. All project managers are also required to report to the Environmental Office any evidence of hazardous materials or environmental contamination.

  9. The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation has requested that it's Solid Waste/Pollution Prevent Program office be notified of all future actions involving the tar sites.

  10. During the site visits ATSDR was concerned that children could enter the ulitidors. The post's Department of Public Works intends to replace the existing, unlocked, utilidor lids, with new lids will prevent children from entering utilidors and maintain worker safety.

X. PREPARERS OF REPORT

Susan Neurath, Ph.D.
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Diane Jackson
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Gary Campbell, Ph.D.
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


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Harding Lawson. 1996a. USACE-AK. Operable Unit 2, Final Remedial Investigation Report, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Volume I of III. Anchorage, AK: Harding Lawson Associates, Inc.

Harding Lawson. 1996b. USACE-AK. Operable Unit 5, Remedial Investigation Report, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Volume I of IV. Anchorage, AK: Harding Lawson Associates, Inc.

Harding Lawson. 1997. USACE-AK. Postwide Risk Assessment, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Volume I. Anchorage, AK: Harding Lawson Associates, Inc.

HartCrowser Earth and Environmental Technologies (HartCrowser). 1997a. USACE-AK. Quarterly Monitoring Report MP 15.75 FEP Design Verification Study Operable Unit 3, Fort Wainwright. Anchorage, AK: HartCrowser.

HartCrowser. 1997b. Asbestos survey and lead-based paint risk assessment family housing, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. October 30, 1997. Anchorage, AK. : HartCrowser.

HartCrowser. 1997c. USACE-AK. Underground Pipeline Records Search, Design Verification Study, Operable Unit 3, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. June 13, 1997. Anchorage, AK: HartCrowser.

HartCrowser. 1998a. USACE-AK. Quarterly Monitoring Report, Milepost 15.75 Fairbanks-Eielson Pipeline, Operable Unit 3, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Anchorage, AK: HartCrowser.

HartCrowser. 1998b. USACE-AK. Birch Hill Tank Farm Groundwater Investigation Operable Unit 3 Fort Wainwright, Alaska. July 22, 1998. Anchorage, AK: HartCrowser.

HartCrowser. 1999a. USACE-AK. Picket Well Sampling Report, April 1999 Sampling Event, Defense Reutilization Marketing Office Yard, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Anchorage, AK: HartCrowser.

HartCrowser. 1999c. USACE-AK. 1998 Monitoring Report Design Verification Study Operable Unit 3 Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Anchorage, AK: HartCrowser.

HartCrowser. 1999b. USACE-AK. Remedial Action Report Building 1168 Site, Operable Unit 2, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Anchorage, AK: HartCrowser.

Irwin, M. 2001. Personal communication to Brian Adams, U.S. Army, Directorate of Public Works (DPW) from Marci Irwin, ADEC. July 13, 2001.

Jack, R. 2003. Investigation of Background Inorganic and Organic Arsenic in Four Washington Lakes. Washington State Department of Ecology. Publication Number 03-03-024. May, 2003. Available at: http://www.ecy.wa.gov/biblio/0303024.html. Accessed on July 8, 2003.

Jacobs, DE, RP Clickner, JY Zhou, SM Viet, DA Marker, JW Rogers, DC Zeldin, P Broene, and W Friedman. 2002. The Prevalence of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in U.S. Housing. Environmental Health Perspectives. Volume 110, Number 10. October, 2002.

Kalyoncu, RS. 2001. Coal Combustion Products. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.

Katoh, N. 2002. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Combustion Gas Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Tetsu to Hagane - Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan.

Lawson, DE, et al. 1998. Geological and Geophysical Investigations of the Hydrogeology of Fort Wainwright, Alaska, Part II: North-Central Cantonment Area; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service. (CRREL Report 98-6.)

Management Services, Fort Wainwright. Correspondence from Kathy McBroom, Management Services, Fort Wainwright. November 30, 1999.

McCauley, C. 2000. Fuel Penetration Rates in Frozen and Unfrozen Soils, Alaska. Master of Science thesis. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Fairbanks.

Meyer, DF, GL Solin, ML Apgar, DL Hess and WA Swenson, 2002. Water Resources Data Alaska Water Year 2001. Water-Data Report AK-01-1. US Dept of the Interior, US Geological Service, and the State of Alaska.

Nakata Planning Group Inc. (Nakata Planning Group). 1987. Fort Wainwright, Alaska Installation Master Plan. Colorado Springs, CO: Nakata Planning Group, Inc.

National Library of Medicine. 2003. HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank search results for 'asphalt'. Accessed on January 29, 2003, at http://csi.micromedex.com/DATA/HS/HS5075B.htm.

NIOSH. 2000. Hazard Review: Health Effects of Occupational Exposure to Asphalt. Washington: U.S. Department of Health and Human Service. (Rept. #2001-110) (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pdfs/01-110.pdf)

Norin, H, M Vahter, A Christakopoulos and M Sundstrom. 1985. Concentration of Inorganic and Total Arsenic in Fish from Industrial Polluted Water. Chemosphere. Volume 14, Issues 3-4, pages 325-334. 1985.

OHM Remediation Services Corp. 1997. USACE-AK. Final Remedial Action Report, North Post Source Removal Action, Fairbanks, Alaska. Anchorage, AK: OHM Remediation Services Corp.

Putnam, CE. 1989. Memorandum to AFVR-DL-FW-LW from Chris E. Putnam, DOL, Petroleum Division, DFSP Fairbanks Terminal Foreman, regarding Initial Petroleum Pipeline Spill Incident (FBX-EIE). August 27, 1989.

Randem, BG, et al. 2003a. Cancer Incidence Among Male Norwegian Asphalt Workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 43(N1):88-95.

Randem, BG, et al. Mortality from Non-malignant Diseases Among Male Norwegian Asphalt Workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 43(N1):96-103.

Rockwell Environmental Services. 1997. Site Assessment Report, Remove Soil at Burn Pits, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Anchorage, AK: Rockwell Environmental Services.

Siftar, Kate. 2003a. Memo: Ft Wainwright Pre-decisional draft for data validation Public Health Assessment. From: Kate Siftar (D DPW FWA ENV CHIEF). To: Sue Neurath (ATSDR/DHAC/FFAB). July 7, 2003.

Siftar, Kate. 2003b. Memo: Comments on Public Health Assessment for Fort Wainwright. From: Kate Siftar (D DPW FWA ENV CHIEF). To: Sue Neurath (ATSDR/DHAC/FFAB). September 15, 2003.

Simpson, ZR and Lusk, JD. 1999. Environmental Contaminants in Aquatic Plants, Invertebrates, and Fishes of the San Juan River Mainstem, 1990-1996. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. October 26, 1999.

Stucker, I, et al. 2003. Cohort Mortality Study Among French Asphalt Workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 43(N):58-68.

Suhendrayatna, A Ohki, T Nakajima,S Maeda. 2001. Metabolism and Organ Distribution of Arsenic in the Freshwater Fish Tilapia Mossambica. Applied Organometallic Chemistry. Volume 15, Number 6, pages 566-571. June 2001.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Alaska (USACE-AK). 1992a. Memorandum to CENPA-EN-EE-AI from D. Thomas, Chief, Geotechnical Branch, concerning Chemical Analysis Results, Tar Pit, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. October 7.

USACE. 1992b. Memorandum to CENPA-EN-EE-AI from D. Thomas, Chief, Geotechnical Branch, concerning Chemical Analysis Results, Tar Pit II, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. October 15.

U.S. Army Fort Wainwright. 1991. Groundwater Monitoring Well Location Map. Fairbanks, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Fort Wainwright. No date. APVR-WPW-H. Memorandum for Housing Customers. Disclosure of Information on Lead-based Paint and/or Lead-based Paint Hazards. Fairbanks, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Fort Wainwright. 1992. APVR-FW-DE-ENV. Memorandum for Record. Use of Coal Ash on Fort Wainwright Roads. Fairbanks, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Fort Wainwright. 1999a. Fort Wainwright Lead-Based Paint (LBP) Management Plan. Fairbanks, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Fort Wainwright. 1999b. Fort Wainwright Asbestos Management Plan. Fairbanks, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Fort Wainwright. 2000. Blood Lead Screening in Children, MEDDAC Regulation Number 40-2-1. Fairbanks, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Fort Wainwright. 2001. E-mail correspondence from Therese Deardorf, Fort Wainwright, concerning demographics data for Fort Wainwright. Fairbanks, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Fort Wainwright. 2003. E-mail correspondence from Therese Deardorf, Fort Wainwright, concerning public comments for Fort Wainwright PHA. Fairbanks, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Fort Wainwright DPW. Memorandum to Charlie Ruerup, DPW Environmental from Pat Driscoll, Chief of Fort Wainwright Department of Public Works (DPW) Utilities.

U.S. Army Alaska. 1995a. Fort Wainwright Proposed Plan for Remedial Action at Operable Unit 4. Fort Wainwright, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Alaska. 1995b. Record of Decision, Interim Remedial Action, Chemical Agent Dump Site, Operable Unit 1, Ft. Wainwright, Fairbanks, Alaska. Fort Wainwright, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Alaska. 1996a. Fort Wainwright Proposed Plan for Remedial Action at Operable Unit 2. April 1996. Fort Wainwright, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Alaska. 1996b. Record of Decision for Operable Unit 3, Fort Wainwright, Fairbanks, Alaska. January 1996. Fort Wainwright, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Alaska. 1996c. Record of Decision for Operable Unit 4, Fort Wainwright, Fairbanks, Alaska. August 1996. Fort Wainwright, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Alaska. 1997a. Record of Decision for Operable Unit 1, Fort Wainwright, Fairbanks, Alaska. June 1997. Fort Wainwright, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Alaska. 1997b. Record of Decision for Operable Unit 2, Fort Wainwright, Fairbanks, Alaska. January 1997. Fort Wainwright, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Alaska. 1998a. Environmental Restoration News. Volume 6, Number 1, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. June 1998. Fort Wainwright, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Alaska. 1998b. Memorandum to Pastor Gregory L. Clark, Shannon Park Baptist Church, from Mark C. Nelson, Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, Director of Public Works, concerning bottled drinking water agreement with Shannon Park Baptist Church. August 4, 1998.

U.S. Army Alaska. 1999. Record of Decision for Operable Unit 5, Fort Wainwright, Fairbanks, Alaska. Fort Wainwright, AK: U.S. Army.

U.S. Army Alaska. 2000a. Trespass Cabins, Fort Wainwright and Fort Greely. Fort Wainwright, AK: U.S. Army.

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USACE-AK. 1995. USACE-AK, Materials and Instrumentation Division, Geotechnical Branch. Groundwater Monitoring Supply Wells, Fort Wainwright, Alaska, Summer 1995. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Alaska.

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USACE-AK. 2000a. Revised Wellhead Protection Plan, Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Alaska.

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