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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

FORT WAINWRIGHT
FORT WAINWRIGHT, FAIRBANKS NORTH STAR BOROUGH, ALASKA


TABLES

Table 1. Primary Releases/Hazards of Concern at Fort Wainwright Source Areas

Table 1.

Primary Releases/Hazards of Concern at Fort Wainwright Source Areas
OU/Area Site/Source Contaminants, by Environmental Media
Groundwater Soil Surface Water Air
1 801 Drum Burial Site. Drums were reported to contain diesel/jet fuel, gasoline, solvents, pesticides, and lubricants. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Pesticides and arsenic (*)  
2 DRMO. A variety of materials were spilled on the yard surface, including diesel fuel. VOCs, primarily benzene. Arsenic and PAHs    
North Post Site. Petroleum, oil and lubricant spills. VOCs and metals Arsenic and PAHs (*)  
Bld. 1168 Leach Well. Disposal of engine and transmission oil, gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, solvents, hydraulic fluid, and engine coolants. VOCs and metals (arsenic and manganese) Not sampled    
3 Birch Hill Tank Farm Facility. Numerous leaks and spills of varied fuels. VOCs and lead Petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POLs)    
Railcar Off-Loading Facility. Fuels spills. VOCs, primarily benzene POLs (*)  
FEP Spill Sites. Petroleum releases. VOCs, primarily benzene POLs    
4 Fort Wainwright Sanitary Landfill. VOCs and metals Contaminants below ATSDR CVs    
Coal Storage Yard. Waste oil, solvents, and fuel sprayed on coal to increase the heat capacity of the coal. VOCs and arsenic Metals, POLs, and VOCs    
5 East and West QFS. Use and disposal of solvents in maintenance activities VOCs, primarily benzene Diesel and gasoline related constituents and lead (*)  
Other Areas/Hazards Coal-Fire Power Plant       Varied
Coal Ash used for road grit Metals Metals   Metals
SVE/AS.       VOCs
Various physical hazards. Exposed tar, UXO, abandoned structures.        
Buried radiological material.        
* These sites border and may contribute contamination to the Chena River.

Table 2.

Potential Sources of Contamination, Fort Wainwright, Fairbanks, Alaska
Potential Sources of Contamination (PSC) Recommendation by the Army in the Record of Decision
   
Building 1599, a former Facilities Engineer Maintenance Shop To be addressed under the Two-Party
Building 2077, an aircraft maintenance hangar/paint shop To be addressed under the TPA
801 Drum Burial Site Further action under CERCLA
Drum Site South of Landfill No Further Action (NFA)
Engineers Park Drum Site NFA
Building 1168 Leach Well Further action under CERCLA
Building 3477 NFA
Defense Reutilization Marketing Office (DRMO) yard Further action under CERCLA
Tar Sites NFA
North Post Site To be addressed under the TPA
Fairbanks-Eielson Pipeline Spills (Mile 2.7, 3.0, 15.75) Further action under CERCLA
Railcar Off-Loading Facility Further action under CERCLA
Tank Farm Facility Further action under CERCLA
Fire Training Pits NFA
Landfill Further action under CERCLA
Power Plant Coal Storage Yard Further action under CERCLA
Former Explosive Ordinance Range-Blair Lakes NFA
Motor Pool Buildings (1053, 1054, 1168, 3015, 3421, 3425, 3479, 3485, and 3487) NFA
Birch Hill Aboveground Storage Tanks, Remedial Area 1A Further action under CERCLA
East Quartermaster's Fueling System Further action under CERCLA
Open Burning/ Open Detonation (OB/OD) area NFA
West Quartermaster's Fueling System, Sub-areas 1, 2, and 3 Further action under CERCLA
West Quartermaster's Fueling System, Sub-area 4 To be addressed under the TPA
Alaska Railroad Storage Yard NFA
Beacon Tower Landfill NFA
Birch Hill Radioactive Waste Site NFA
Blair Lakes Drum Site NFA
Building 1128 Transformer Storage Yard NFA
Building 2250 (pesticide storage area) NFA
Building 3015 NFA
Building 1567 NFA
Burial Site M NFA
Chemical Agent Dump Site NFA
N-4 NFA
Runway Radioactive Waste Site NFA
Trainor Gate Railroad Spur NFA
Transformer Storage Yard East of Building 3019 NFA
Utilidor Expansion Drum Site NFA

Table 3.

Evaluation of Public Health Hazards Associated with Sources of Contamination
Fort Wainwright, Fairbanks, Alaska
Site Name and Location Site Description/Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/Environmental Monitoring Results Summary of Investigations and Corrective Activities ATSDR's Evaluation of Public Health Hazards

Operable Unit 1

The 801 Drum Burial Site:
This area is located near the western bank of the Chena River and just east of the 801 Military Housing Area. Birchwood Homes are located off of the post site, approximately one-tenth of a mile east of the source area and the Chena River is the eastern boundary of the source area.

 

The Drum Burial Site was used as a drum storage area from 1954 until 1974. Drums were reported to contain diesel fuel, gasoline, jet fuel, solvents, asphalt, pesticides, and lubricants.

Aerial photographs from the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s indicate that a pit was present in the southwest corner of the storage area. Photographs from 1974 show an open pit, while photographs from 1975 show the pit had been filled. Buried drums were identified during the summer of 1992, and were removed in between 1995 and 1997.

Surface Soil:
43 soil samples were collected as part of a Preliminary Source Evaluation 2 (PSE2) (1992-93) and a Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) (1994). Two pesticides, aldrin (1.9 ppm) and dieldrin (2.2 ppm), and one metal, arsenic (12 ppm), were detected above their comparison values (CVs).

Groundwater:
Groundwater samples were collected from 16 wells as part of the PSE2, RI/FS, and Groundwater Monitoring Plans. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected above their CVs include benzene (140 ppb), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (130 ppb), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (58 ppb), 1,1-dichloroethene (5.7 ppb), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) (390 ppb), and trichloroethene (TCE) (390 ppb).

Two pesticides, aldrin (0.24 ppb) and dieldrin (1.9 ppb) exceed their CVs. The metals, arsenic (82 ppb) and manganese (5,910 ppb), were detected above their CVs. Diesel range organics (DROs) (75,000 ppb) and gasoline range organics (GROs) (1,800 ppb) were also detected.

A PSE was conducted in 1991. A PSE2 was conducted in 1992-93, including installation of seven monitoring wells and three additional soil borings. The RI/FS was conducted from July to September 1995, including the installation of three new monitoring wells. The Operable Unit (OU) 1 record of decision (ROD) was signed in June 1997. Approximately 850 cubic yards (yds3) of soil were removed and placed in a test area for phytoremediation. Also, 226 drums were removed.

The remedial actions to be taken include natural attenuation, long-term biannual groundwater monitoring, and a contingency for soil vapor extraction and groundwater air sparging (SVE/AS) should monitoring show that contaminant levels are not being reduced by natural attenuation.

No public health hazards are expected. There are no drinking water wells in the area. Even though contact with contaminants in surface soil is possible, it would be incidental due to the heavy vegetation encountered during the summer and the snow cover in the winter.
Alaska Railroad Storage Yard:
This area is located about 100 yards southwest of Building 1130 towards the west central portion of the Fort Wainwright. It is a small area inside the Railroad Car Off-Loading Facility.
This area was used to store equipment and drums containing railroad maintenance parts. A visual inspection of drums labeled as containing waste paints and herbicides did not identify any liquid wastes, only drums of spikes, bolts, and other miscellaneous railroad maintenance parts.

No sampling was conducted because there were no indications of any past releases. However, this is a small area inside the Railroad Car Off-Loading Facility, and so monitoring of that area captures the impacts from this site.

There is no evidence of hazardous waste use or storage at this site. The Army, the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC), and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended this site for No Further Action (NFA). No public health hazard exists at this site because no evidence of chemical release was identified.
Alpha Impact Area (Former Explosive Ordnance Disposal Range-Blair Lakes):

(see Former Explosive Ordnance Disposal Range in OU5)

    In January 1994, this site was referred to OU5 and its name changed to Former Explosive Ordnance Range.  
Beacon Tower Landfill:
This area is located east of the Fort Wainwright north runway in the eastern edge of the reservation.
The site was reportedly used as a sanitary landfill to dispose material during the 1967 Chena River flood, while the main post landfill was flooded and inaccessible. Waste material was burned and then buried. A burn site could not be identified. The site is located in an area currently used for troop training exercises. Aerial photographs did not show any evidence of waste disposal or burning activities. A site visit failed to locate the landfill. No sampling was conducted. A PSE completed in 1992 found insufficient evidence to consider this site as a potential source of contamination and the site was recommended for NFA by the Army, ADEC, and EPA. No public health hazard exists; no evidence of the former landfill was found, nor was any evidence of contamination found in the vicinity of this site.
Birch Hill Radioactive Waste Site:
This area is located in a wooded area near the abandoned Birch Hill underground petroleum, oil, and lubricant (POL) tank farm, south of Birch Hill.
Low level radioactive materials (e.g., radium dials) were reportedly stored in a bunker at this site. The material and the bunker were removed in 1973. Geiger counter and scintillometer measurements revealed no radioactive readings above background during the 1992 PSE. No additional environmental sampling was conducted. A removal of low-level radioactive material reportedly took place in 1973. A represeantative from ADEC, and a Professional Geologist from the state of Alaska surveyed the source area in 1992. The site was recommended for NFA by the Army, ADEC, and EPA. No public health hazard exists at this site because suspected radioactive materials were removed and no additional radiation sources were found at levels of health concern.
Blair Lakes Drum Site:
This area is located in the Tanana Flats Training Area, approximately 35 miles southeast of the Fort Wainwright main cantonment area.
Large numbers of drums (empty and full) have been stored here since the 1940s. Two large fuel storage tanks were also disposed of at this site. The drums contained petroleum chemicals and pesticides. All drums have been removed from the site. Surface soil:
Ten surface soil samples were collected as part of a PSE (1993). Low levels of pesticides were detected below CVs.

Surface water and sediment:
Four surface water samples and four sediment samples were collected in 1986 and tested for VOCs, semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC), total cyanide, total phenols, and metals. No analytes were detected in the water samples. Cyanide and metals were detected in the sediment samples. During the PSE, DRO was detected in 4 of 5 sediment samples.

In 1987, 1,618 empty and 48 full 55-gallon drums and two underground storage tanks (USTs) were removed from the site. There is no evidence of a continuing source of contamination; a metal detector study concluded that no additional drums were present. The Army, ADEC, and EPA recommend this site for NFA. No public health hazard exists at this site. The site is remote with limited accessibility and the little contamination remains.
Building 1128 Transformer Storage Yard:
This is one of three warehouses near the Railcar Off-Loading Facility, located north of Gaffney Road.
This site has been used for storing transformers since the mid-1980s. There are no reported chemical releases. A visual site inspection confirmed no evidence of a release. The transformers are currently stored on a concrete pad with a 4-inch curb. No sampling was conducted. The nearest monitoring well is AP-5527, located 800 feet west (downgradient) of the building. No contaminants were detected in this well. AP-5527 is associated with the Alaska Railroad Storage Yard and Railcar Off-Loading Facility sites, and is tested regularly. Visual inspection by ADEC and personnel interviews from a 1992 PSE indicated that no contaminants (i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB]) were released at this site. This site was recommended for NFA by the Army, ADEC, and EPA. No public health hazard exists at this site because investigations indicate contaminants were not released here.
Building 1567:
This building was located near Marks and Gaffney Roads. This building was removed after it collapsed in 1991.
Building 1567 (built in 1947) was used as a Facilities Engineer Maintenance Shop, a motor vehicle storage area (1958), a pesticide storage and mixing area (former Pesticide Quonset Hut) (1979), and a hazardous waste and PCB storage area (1986). Surface soil:
Low levels of pesticides (silvex) and herbicides were detected in 21 surface soil samples collected in 1991. This soil appears to have been removed when Building 1567 was demolished. The materials were placed in the main Fort landfill. Aroclor-1260 was detected exceeding the CV in one sample, at a level of 0.799 ppm, after this demolition. This measurement was of a four-point soil composite of the contamination through "door A" of the demolished building.

Groundwater:
DRO was detected in the one monitoring well at this site.

Based on the low level of contamination detected, and the removal of the collapsed building, the site was recommended for NFA. No public health hazard exists at this site because no contaminants were detected at levels of health concern.
Building 1599:
This building is located about 0.14 miles south of the Chena River.
Building 1599 (built in 1942) originally was the Facilities Engineer Maintenance Shop. A fire training exercise destroyed the building in 1984. Past practices include automobile and heavy-equipment maintenance, and pesticide mixing and storage (prior to 1973). Surface Soil:
Thirty surface soil samples were collected. Three pesticides, 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE) (20 ppm), 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT) (86 ppm), and dieldrin (3.7 ppm) were detected above their CVs.

Groundwater:
Eight monitoring wells have been installed and monitored in the vicinity of the site. VOCs detected above CVs include benzene (2,100 ppb), toluene (1,900 ppb), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (280 ppb), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (970 ppb), and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) (110 ppb). Metals detected above their CVs include arsenic (35 ppb), chromium (120 ppb), and lead (80 ppb). Pesticides detected above their CVs include heptachlor epoxide (0.013 ppb), aldrin (0.011 ppb), and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4,4'-DDD) (0.110 ppb). Petroleum hydrocarbons (GROs and DROs) were also detected.

A remedial investigation (RI), conducted in 1995, identified contamination in surface soil. The petroleum in the soil exceeds Alaska's soil cleanup levels. The site is being addressed under the Two-Party Agreement (TPA) between the state of Alaska and the Army.

The Army intends to initiate institutional controls such as land- and groundwater use restrictions.

Groundwater contamination is being remediated as a part of the West Section, Quartermaster's Fueling System Area treatment system. See Operable Unit 5 for details.

There are no public health hazards associated with soil exposure. Although military housing and recreational facilities are located approximately 0.5 miles northeast of this site and access is unrestricted, it is in an industrialized area not commonly used by children or adults for recreation.

There are no public health hazards associated with groundwater beneath this site because there are no drinking water wells in this area. The closest drinking water well (standby well 71) is located 4,300 feet to the south-southwest (approximately cross-gradient).

Building 2250 (pesticide storage area):
This building was located approximately 1,200 feet southeast of the golf course clubhouse in the eastern part of the reservation. The building has been removed.
This site was used for storing and mixing pesticides and herbicides. The building originated with the construction of the golf course in the 1960s and was removed in the spring of 1991. The building was buried in the landfill. This building was a former hazardous waste accumulation point. The irrigation well for the golf course is located adjacent to this site. The drinking water well WS-109 is located 1,200 feet northwest of this site. The site contained a 500-gallon gasoline UST. Twenty surface soil samples, and one soil boring was drilled to collect three subsurface soil samples during the PSE 2 (1993). One monitoring well was installed and sampled as part of the PSE 2. No pesticides or herbicides were detected in soil or groundwater. Petroleum products were detected in soil and groundwater. The UST was located approximately 70 feet from Building 2250. The one UST at this site was removed in 1994. Petroleum- contaminated soil and groundwater are being remediated by SVE/AS under the TPA between the state of Alaska and the Army. This site was recommended for NFA for other contaminants. No public health hazard exists at this site because no contaminants were detected above CVs.

The irrigation well located at this site does not supply drinking water for the golf course. A separate supply well located near the golf course clubhouse (1,200 feet to the northwest) supplies drinking water. This well is approximately cross gradient, although seasonal flow variations may cause it to occasionally be downgradient. The water is sampled yearly for nitrate and benzene, and meets drinking water standards.

Building 3015:
This building is located southwest of the Fort Wainwright runways, on Montgomery Road between Whidden and Meridian.
Building 3015 is a heavy-equipment maintenance, repair, and storage facility. It was built in 1954. From 1954 to 1976, floor drains were connected to 8 seepage pits used for separation and collection of oil waste from water. (A seepage pit is a pit where wastewater is dumped and can seep into the soil.) Two 5,000-gallon USTs were removed in 1989. One UST contained gasoline, and one contained diesel. This site was also used to store drums for a short time. Several POL spills had been reported to ADEC, the largest being 75 gallons of diesel fuel in 1989. It has been used by the base Directorate of Public Works (DPW) since 1994. Surface Soil:
Twenty-four soil samples, from the surface to a depth of 15 feet, (including 10 adjacent to the eight former seepage pits) were analyzed for GRO, DRO, VOCs, PCBs, SVOCs, metals, and pesticides during the PSE 2 (1993). No contaminants were detected above their CVs.

Groundwater:
Five groundwater samples were collected during the PSE 2. No contaminants were detected above CVs.

Two leaking, 5,000-gallon USTs and POL-contaminated soils were removed in 1989. Based on the results of the 1993 PSE 2, this site was recommended for NFA. No public health hazard exists at this site because no contaminants were detected above CVs.
Building 2077:
This site is located immediately south of the south runway, approximately 0.4 mile southwest of the Chena River. The site is located in the active aircraft operations area.
The building was used for aircraft maintenance since it was built in 1958. The source area includes the asphalt along Building 2077 and the apron to the airstrip, but does not include the building itself. Past practices may have included dumping and/or burning waste paint chips. Fifty-five-gallon drums containing spent solvents, used oil, and contaminated fuels were stored on the ground. Surface Soil:
Ten surface soil samples were collected in during the PSE 2 (1993). SVOCs detected above their CVs include benzo(a) pyrene (6 ppm) and benzo (b) fluoranthene (9 ppm). Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in surface soil and subsurface to 10 feet, but not above CVs. Arsenic (18 ppm) was detected above its CV.

Groundwater:
Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in groundwater. One VOC, benzene (940 ppb), was detected above its CV in 1995. One metal, arsenic (46 ppb), was detected above its CV. As a result of SVE/AS, benzene concentrations have been reduced to a maximum of 597 ppb in 1999.

The drums stored outside the building were tested, identified, and removed. A PSE and an RI conducted in 1995 identified contamination at this site. The site is being addressed under the TPA between the state of Alaska and the Army. The soil and groundwater contamination are being remediated by an SVE/AS system.

The site is still being remediated.

There is no public health hazard for soil because this area is located along the south runway and not used for recreation.

There are no public health hazards associated with groundwater beneath the site because there are no drinking water wells in this area. The nearest drinking water wells are located more than 1.5 miles west-southwest of the site.

Burial Site M:
This area is located along the eastern reservation boundary and to the south of the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) Yard.
This site was suspected to be a source of petroleum and pesticide contamination found in soil samples collected along the west boundary of the DRMO Yard. This site formerly consisted of a construction camp with three temporary structures. Interviews, historical information, and aerial photographs provide no evidence that any contaminants were released or that there would be a reason for a contaminant release at this site. No environmental samples were collected from this area. A 1992 PSE concluded that there were no known disposal of hazardous wastes in the area, and that contaminated samples were attributed to this site in error. Since there was no evidence of a potential source of contamination at this site, it was recommended for NFA. No public health hazard exists at this site, historical information reviewed does not indicate a chemical release occurred here.
Chemical Agent Dump Site (formerly known as Chemical Warfare Disposal Area):
This site is a 50' X 150' area located at the base of Birch Hill, north of the main cantonment area of Fort Wainwright, and east of the Fairbanks Fuel Terminal.
Twenty to 30 cylinders of mustard agent were buried in a trench in this area in 1946 or 1947. In 1966, seven cylinders and an unknown number of crates were removed and the trench was refilled. Ground penetrating Radar surveys were conducted in 1987 and 1992, but the results were not conclusive. The Army fenced and posted the area signs stating "Potentially Contaminated Area." In 1995, the Army conducted an interim remedial action to remove any remaining chemical agents. A site excavation found no cylinders, crates, or other evidence of chemical agents. No suspected chemical agents were detected in the air or soil. Surface Soil:
One metal, arsenic (132 ppm), was detected above its CV. No other contaminants were detected above their CVs. Arsenic levels are consistent with site-wide values and are likely naturally occurring. Neither mustard gas nor mustard byproducts were detected in the surface or subsurface soil.

Groundwater:
No contaminants were detected above their CVs.

Air:
No suspected chemical agents were detected in the air.

An interim remedial action, including soil excavation and soil and groundwater sampling, verified that chemical warfare materials and their breakdown products are not present. Because no chemical warfare material was found, nor was any chemical agent detected in either the air or the soil, the site was recommended for NFA. While access to this part of the base is unrestricted, the historic dump site is fenced to prevent public access. Environmental sampling results suggest that the groundwater and air at this site are not impacted by chemical agents. Due to the restricted access there is no public health hazard for this site.
Drum Site South of the Landfill:
This area is located just south of the active Fort Wainwright Landfill, and just north of the Chena River.
In 1992, there were 573 drums, of which 9 contained POLs and degreasing solvents. The remaining 474 drums were empty. A records search and personnel interviews identified no information regarding when drum disposal took place, although aerial photographs from 1983 show drums already in place. Surface Soil:
In 1992, levels of VOCs, SVOCs, PCBs, pesticides, and metals in 11 surface soil samples collected after the drums were removed were below their CVs. In 1993, another 11 surface soil samples were collected, as well as subsurface soil samples from 2 borings at depths of 5, 10, and 15 feet. All contaminants were below their CVs.

Groundwater:
Two soil borings were completed as monitoring wells and sampled during the PSE 2. One SVOC, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (46 ppb), was detected above its CV. Sampling after removal did not reveal any contaminants exceeding CVs.

In 1992, all identified drums were removed from this site. A PSE conducted in 1992 showed that levels of contaminants were below CVs. No stained soil was found during the removal action. A ground penetrating radar showed no more drums at this site. Groundwater samples showed no contamination above RBCs. This site was recommended for NFA. No public health hazard is present at this site because no contaminants were detected above CVs in surface soil. The source of the contamination (the drums) has been removed. The site is also heavily wooded and access is limited. One SVOC was detected above its CV in groundwater. The nearest drinking water wells are over 4,000 feet away, to the north and to the east. The groundwater flow direction is generally towards the west, away from the nearest wells.
Engineers Park Drum Site:
This site is located on the northeast side of Engineers Park, on the south bank of the Chena River, northeast of Building 1002.
POLs, PCBs, and degreasing solvents were identified in 10 percent of the 680 drums that were found at the site. Drum disposal began at this site in 1967, although no record was found of when the practice was halted. It is not known whether the 1967 flood had any effect on any additional drums at this site. Surface Soil:
Sampling during the drum removal, in August and September 1992, did not identify contaminants above their CVs in 10 surface soil samples. A metal detector survey indicated no buried drums remained. No stained soil was found. During a PSE 2 in 1993, 10 surface soil samples were collected, and 2 borings were drilled and sampled at depths of 5, 10, and 15 feet during the PSE 2. Again, sampling did not identify contaminants above their CVs.

Groundwater was not sampled here.

A total of 680 drums were removed in 1992. Because the maximum detected concentrations of contaminants were below EPA's acceptable risk levels, the site was recommended for NFA by the Army, ADEC, and EPA. No public health hazard exists at this site because the contaminant source has been remove and no soil contaminants were present above CVs. There are no groundwater wells in the vicinity.
N-4:
This area is located just west of the DRMO salvage yard in the southeast corner of Fort Wainwright, on the west bank of the flood control channel. The channel divides the N-4 site from the DRMO.
Site N-4 covers an area approximately 650 feet by 700 feet. This site was a motorpool prior to 1961. It was then used as a solid waste landfill until the early 1970s. Surface Soil:
VOCs, pesticides, and dioxins were detected in surface soil below their CVs.

Groundwater:
Monitoring well sampling conducted in 1994 detected lead (74 ppb) above EPA's guideline of 15 ppb in four wells. Site documents do not identify any later monitoring at these wells.

Soil and groundwater samples were collected during a PSE and a 1995 RI. Based on these investigations the Army, ADEC, and EPA recommended the site for NFA. Access to this area is not restricted, however, no public health hazard is present at this site because no contaminants were detected above CVs in surface soil. Currently, the site is used for military training and is heavily vegetated in the summer. The nearest drinking water well is located at DRMO, however the general groundwater flow direction is west- northwest, away from this well. The nearest drinking water well in the direction of groundwater flow is a stand-by well located approximately 1.5 miles to the west-northwest.
Runway Radioactive Waste Site:
This area is reportedly located under the Fort Wainwright south runway.
Low-level radioactive materials, such as radio tubes, airplane instruments, and watch dials, were reportedly disposed of at this suspected source area. Historical aerial photographs show no evidence of excavation. Interviews and historical documents fail to provide a consistent identification of the location of the vault. A PSE did not identify the potential sources of contamination. No radioactivity above background was measured in the vicinity. This site was recommended for NFA. There is no public health hazard associated with this site because even if these materials are buried under the runway, they would not be able to expose people on the surface.
Trainor Gate Railroad Spur:
This area is located between the Chena River railroad bridge and Gaffney Road, just east of the Alaska Railroad Storage Yard, southwest of the Chena River.
Solvents used for typewriter cleaning and repair were reportedly disposed of off the loading dock at the north end of one building during 1954 and 1955. No sampling was conducted. Personnel interviews conducted in 1992 identified that very small quantities of solvents were disposed of off a loading dock in 1954 and 1955. However, any solvent that did not volatilize would probably have been dispersed by floods from the Chena River. This site was recommended for NFA. Based on the available information no public health hazard exists at this site.
Transformer Storage Yard East of Building 3019:
This area is located south of the Chena River and just west of Meridian Road.
Beginning in the 1950s, this site was used to store transformers, some of which were filled with PCBs or PCB-containing oils. Approximately 40 transformers were removed in the early 1980s. Site documents did not identify any other transformers. Soil monitoring in 1993 revealed no evidence of contaminant leaks. Thirty-six surface soil samples were field screened for PCBs (one sample contained PCBs above the 1 ppm detection limit). Twelve samples (including the sample that had PCBs detected) were laboratory analyzed for PCBs. PCBs were not detected in any of the 12 samples. A 1993 PSE did not detect any PCBs in the soil and concluded that there were no releases of PCBs in this area. The site was recommended for NFA. Based on available information no public health hazard is present at this site.
Utilidor Expansion Drum Site:
This area is a strip that runs on the west wide of buildings 3490, 3494, and 3492. Two ballfields are located just west of the site, and a motor pool shop is located to the west of the southern end of the site.
In 1987, during construction of a utilidor, several buried drums were found in an area of approximately 500,000 square feet. Other material unearthed included old machinery, aircraft parts, and metal debris. No evidence of soil contamination was present; however, no soil samples were collected for confirmation. Interviews and a source area visit found that scrap metal and empty, rusted drums were disposed of at this site. The drums were found empty; no evidence was found to identify if the drums were buried empty. Rust stained soil adhered to some of the drums. Because of the mix of metal debris found in the trench, site documents suggest that this area was a scrap metal disposal site and not a drum storage area. In 1987, buried drums and scrape metal were discovered and removed from site. Interviews did not identify any evidence that hazardous waste was disposed here. Based on that lack of evidence of a chemical release, a 1992 PSE concluded that no release of contaminants occurred at the site and it was recommended for NFA. No public health hazard is present at this site.

The area appears to have been used for disposal of empty drums and scrap metal, with no evidence of releases to surface.

OPERABLE UNIT 2

Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) Yard:
This area is located along Badger Road, northwest of the intersection of Badger Road and the Richardson Highway. It began as a vehicle storage area and maintenance shop in the late-1940s. In 1961, when Ladd Air Force Base became Fort Wainwright, the site was converted into the DRMO salvage yard.
This is a fenced silt and gravel surface storage area covering approximately 25 acres and located about 200 feet from a National Priorities List (NPL) site, the Arctic Surplus site (a former landfill and privately owned salvage yard with lead, PCBs, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), TCE, pesticides, arsenic, and manganese contamination). Eight former USTs were removed from DRMO between 1990 and 1993, including three diesel tanks, two gasoline tanks, and three heating oil tanks. Historical documents indicate a variety of materials were spilled on the surface of the yard. During the early 1980s, an estimated 3,000 to 8,000 gallons of diesel fuel were spilled near Building 5001 within DRMO2.

The DRMO yard is divided into six sub-areas: DRMO1- DRMO5 for subsurface soil, and DRMO 6 for all surface soil.

This site remains an active transfer point for hazardous materials. Obsolete, surplus, and unserviceable equipment (appliances, vehicles, tires, wire, etc.) is stored here until it is transferred to another post, sold at auction, or destroyed.

The DRMO2, DRMO3, and DRMO5 sub-areas contain DRO and GRO in the soil and groundwater. No contaminants were detected above their CVs in the surface soils (DRMO6 subarea). VOCs and fuel related contamination were detected at the DRMO1 and DRMO4 sub-areas.

Surface Soil:
One metal, arsenic (4 ppm), and one pesticide, chlordane (0.1 ppm), were detected above their CVs.

Groundwater:
During the 1992 PSE 2, four monitoring wells were installed and sampled. Four VOCs, TCE (9.1 ppb), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) (190 ppb), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (140 ppb), and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (290 ppb), were detected above their CVs. Four metals, arsenic (37 ppb), iron (62,900 ppb), lead (54 ppb), and manganese (8,500 ppb), were detected above their Cvs.

The RI for this area was completed in October 1995 and the FS was completed in April 1996. A SVE/AS system was installed in 1996 to remediate the groundwater and soil contamination.

The underground diesel storage tanks are being remediated under the TPA between the state of Alaska and the Army. Two additional units were added in 2000.

Further groundwater sampling is planned for March 2003, for a full suite of chemicals, consisting of 14 wells located on the site and downgradient from the Chena River.

No public health hazard is associated with this site.

Access to this site is restricted by fencing, so children or recreational users are not expected to come into contact with contaminated soil.

No public health hazard associated with groundwater exists at this site. Groundwater flows to the northwest in this area. PCE has migrated in that direction and extends beyond the DRMO yard toward Channel B, a canal that drains into the Chena River. Three adjacent subdivisions use the same aquifer. However, their wells are not in the direction that groundwater flows from this site. One well is located 1,400 feet north, the second is about 1,000 feet northeast, and the third is about 400 feet southeast of the DRMO Yard.

A public drinking water well and fire suppression system constructed within DRMO yard is upgradientup gradient of the contamination source. Limitations on refilling the fire suppression tank from the well are in place until the groundwater meets safe drinking water standards. The pumping rate is limited to 60 gallons per minute to prevent movement of the site plumes. The 1993 Remedial Investigation shows the plume wholly contained within the site, and not crossing outside the Fort Wainwright site boundary. The drinking water well is tested quarterly for VOCs and SVOCs to ensure that the water meets state and federal safe drinking water standards for those site-related constituents and is safe to drink.

Building 1168 Leach Well:
This area is located near the western boundary of Fort Wainwright, adjacent to Trainer Gate Road.
Building 1168 was constructed as a lube oil and vehicle storage facility in 1949 and was converted into a petroleum test laboratory in 1962.

The building contained a 10,000-gallon lube oil aboveground storage tank (AST) (removed in 1958), a 250-gallon UST, and a 2,000-gallon heating oil tank.

Contaminants such as engine and transmission oil, gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, solvents, hydraulic fluid, and engine coolants are suspected to have entered the leach well (floor drains connected to a oil-water separator, sending petroleum products to the UST and water to the leach well). The floor drains, UST, and leach well were removed from service in 1995.

Groundwater:
VOCs detected above their CVs, during the 1993 RI include 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (350 ppb), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (150 ppb), benzene (5.1 ppb), toluene (770 ppb), and TCE (23 ppb).

Metals detected above their CVs during the RI include arsenic (27 ppb) and manganese (4,400 ppb).

The RI was completed in October 1995 and the FS was completed in April 1996. Remedial activities implemented include installation of an SVE/AS system. The UST at this site is being addressed under the TPA between the state of Alaska and Army. Sampling (Sept 2000) showed benzene below ADEC's action level. The concentrations detected in semi-annual groundwater monitoring have been declining since the remediation program and no VOCs appear to be moving off site as no contaminants have been detected in downgradient wells during annual sampling conducted through 2000. There is no public health hazard associated with groundwater because there are no production wells in this area and all on- and off-site residences receive drinking water that meets state and federal safe drinking water standards. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant concentrations, limiting migration off site.

On-post military housing area is located directly south of Building 1168 and Trainer Gate Road. Two off-site civilian resident subdivisions adjacent to the western boundary of Fort Wainwright are located southwest of the Building 1168 leach well. There may be private wells, but most private residences are connected to a municipal water system. Tanana Jr. High School and Ladd Elementary School are approximately 300 and 5,000 feet, respectively, northwest of Building 1168, but both use municipal drinking water.

Building 3477:
This area is located on Chippewa Avenue in the southern portion of Fort Wainwright, approximately 0.25 mile northeast of the South Gate Road Gate House.
This building was constructed in 1955 for vehicle and equipment maintenance. It was used for servicing and storing batteries until 1990 and it is still used as a vehicle maintenance shop. Four boreholes were drilled (two in the former battery storage area, two by the POL storage tank) and two were completed as monitoring wells. Four soil samples were collected in each hole (at the surface and every five feet). Sample analysis indicated no contaminants above their CVs in the soil or groundwater. Site investigations were conducted in 1992. Interviews and site visits provided no evidence of hazardous releases. Sampling showed that there was no contamination at levels of concern. The site was recommended for NFA. Based on available information no public health hazard is present at this site.
Tar Sites:
These sites are located in four different areas:

(1) The Southgate Road Tar Site - located west of the South Post soccer field, on Southgate Road;

(2) The Glass Park Tar Site (Building 4040) - located near the western boundary of the main cantonment area, south of the Chena River;

(3) The Chena River Tar Site (Golf Course Site) - located northwest of the Post Golf Course on the north bank of the Chena River; and

(4) The Power Plant Tar Site (Railroad Tracks) - located west of the Post Power Plantcooling pond next to the railroad tracks.

Roofing tar was buried in four old gravel pits. Samples were collected at each of the four tar sites. The laboratory subjected the samples to a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). They analyzed the resulting extracts for SVOCs, VOCs, pesticides, eight RCRA metals, and PCBs.

The sample collected from the Southgate Road Tar Site showed trace amounts of the VOCs ethylbenzene, toluene, and total xylenes. SVOCs, pesticides, metals, and PCBs were not detected.

All samples subjected to TCLP from the Glass Park Tar Site, the Chena River Tar Site, and the Power Plant Tar Site did not contain SVOCs, VOCs, pesticides, and PCBs. Barium was detected at levels below the CV in all three sites. Selenium was detected at trace levels (0.074 ppm) above its CV at the Power Plant Tar Site.

The leachability test results indicate that there was little potential for groundwater to become contaminated by tar. The areas were recommended for NFA. There is no public health hazard associated with these sites. See Appendix D for complete review of ATSDR's public health evaluation.
North Post Site:
This area is located north of the main cantonment area on an oxbow of the southern bank of the Chena River. The area covers approximately 45 acres.
This site is a relatively flat floodplain for which the Chena River forms the east, north, and west boundaries. The source of contamination at this site appears to be a POL pipeline, constructed during the 1940s. There have been two documented pipeline spills, one in the southwest portion of the North Post Area and the other on the Birch Hill side of the Chena River. Historical photographs also indicate that 55-gallon drums were disposed of at this site. These drums were located and removed in 1986. A burn pit was also located at this site. POLs have been detected in soil. Fuels, solvents, pesticides, and metals have been detected in isolated areas of the site.

Surface and subsurface soil:
PAHs detected above their CVs include benzo (a) anthracene (32.2 ppm), benzo (a) pyrene (31.6 ppm), benzo (b) fluoranthene (33.8 ppm), benzo (k) fluoranthene (20.6 ppm), dibenzo (a,h) anthracene (8.5 ppm), and ideno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene (18.6 ppm). All of these samples were collected in the vicinity of the former burn pit. Sampling around the burn pit perimeter confirmed that the contamination was limited to the burn pit area. Metals detected above their CVs include arsenic (12.4 ppm), barium (4,570 ppm), and mercury (0.2 ppm).

Groundwater:
VOCs detected above CVs include benzene (47 ppb) and 1,4-dichlorobenzene (300 ppb). Metals detected above their CVs include arsenic (42 ppb), and manganese (3,200 ppb).

The area was discovered in a 1985 geotechnical investigation for the construction of a proposed housing project. Contaminated soil was removed in 1993 and in 1996. A groundwater treatment plan including air injection and soil vapor extraction is ongoing under the TPA between the state of Alaska and the Army. No additional remedial action is expected for this area. Because contaminated soil has been removed and the contaminated groundwater is being remediated, this site has been recommended for NFA. There are no public health hazards associated with this site.

This site is located northwest of, and adjacent to, two on-post military housing areas. The area is used for recreational all-terrain vehicle use. There could be incidental contact to surface soil, but not at levels that would present a public health hazard.

The North Post Housing area was constructed near the North Post site, but on land away from and free of hazardous material.

There is no exposure to groundwater beneath this site. There is no exposure to toxic vapors from groundwater because groundwater flows away from the existing housing areas There are no plans to build on contaminated areas.

Operable Unit 3

Tank Farm:
This area is located northwest of the main cantonment area.

Soil contamination (primarily lead-based paint) is being investigated within OU 5 under Remedial Area 1A.

The Tank Farm site has been divided into seven sub-areas. Each is addressed separately below.

The tank farm and associated Truck Fill Stand (TFS) are part of the Fairbanks Fuel Terminal, which was constructed in 1943. The tanks were used to store fuel for Fort Wainwright and Eielson Air Force Base. The tank farm was used until 1993, when the tanks were emptied and cleaned. The site is permanently closed.

(see sub-areas)

(see sub-areas)

The presence of permafrost influences groundwater movement north of the Chena River. However, there is a permafrost-free zone that runs East to West that may provide a conduit for groundwater flow to move contaminants off site. Groundwater contamination may flow towards private wells at two churches at the western ends of this thaw channel. The Army provides bottled water to these groups. ATSDR previously conducted a public health consultation considering the public health effects of using this ground water for irrigation at the Shannon Baptist Church.
Tank Farm -- Birch Hill AST Sub-Area:
This sub-area includes 16 ASTs on Birch Hill and the associated valves and piping.
Fourteen of the ASTs were installed in 1943. The two other tanks were added in 1956. Twelve tanks stored JP-4; two tanks stored unleaded gasoline; and two tanks stored arctic grade diesel fuel. The tanks were emptied and cleaned between 1989 and 1993. They remain empty.

Numerous leaks and spills have been reported. The largest spill was 75,000 gallons of diesel fuel spilled in October 1981 (96% recovered). In most cases, dikes and berms around the ASTs contain spills and allow clean-up crews to recover most of the product. Prior to 1990, reports of spills were kept for one year and then destroyed. Information about spills prior to 1990 comes from records kept by state agencies and military departments, and from personnel interviews.

Surface Soil:
(1993) POLs were detected in 16 of 49 samples, including GRO, DRO, Jet A, and Bunker C (Fuel Oil No. 6). Lead was detected in surface soil above its CV by the valves at each AST. One out of three TCLP lead samples (5.4 ppm) exceeded RCRA maximum (5.0 ppm). No VOCs were detected above CVs.

Groundwater:
(1993) Four samples tested. GRO and Bunker C were detected. Benzene (150 ppb) was detected above its CV. The monitoring wells are located to the west and south of the tanks, in the direction of residential areas.

Extent of groundwater contamination was not identified.

The tanks and related pipelines were emptied, cleaned, and decommissioned in August 1993. The surface soil in this area will be remediated when the tanks are removed, but there is currently no plan to remove the tanks. The Army has operated a product recovery system since 2000, and a thaw channel air sparge treatment system at the tank farm also became operational in 2001. The system operates year-round to reduce groundwater contamination before it reaches post boundaries. About 8 gallons of product are currently removed each day and then stored in drums at the Tank Farm prior to collection by the Army's

The Army is continuing negotiations with the Shannon Park Baptist Church to continue groundwater monitoring operations on their land. Seven wells were expected to be installed nearby in the summer of 2001. These will help determine if the treatment system is effective in keeping contaminants from migrating off post.

There are no apparent public health hazards associated with this site. The Army is providing bottled water to the Shannon Baptist Church and the Steese Chapel Hall.

The empty ASTs remain in place. The site is fenced and locked. Personnel associated with the groundwater remediation visit this site to maintain and monitor the remediation system. There is no health hazard for remediation workers because any contact to lead in soil would be incidental and short in duration and they should be following OSHA regulations. There is no public health hazard for soil exposure to children because the site is fenced, locked, and not in the vicinity of housing areas.

There is no public health hazard for groundwater because there are no drinking water wells on site. (See Tank Farm overview, above.)

Tank Farm -- Building 1173 Sub-Area:
This area consists of the former gasoline UST site located adjacent to Building 1173 and the drum rack located on the south side of the parking lot at Building 1173.
An unknown number of minor spills and leaks at the former gasoline UST and the drum rack adjacent to Building 1173 contributed petroleum contamination at this site.

In 1990, 25 gallons of lubricant was spilled outside of Building 1173.

Surface Soil:
(1993) DRO and jet A were detected in surface samples. 

Groundwater:
(1993) Jet A and GRO detected in one sample. Benzene (130 ppb) was detected above its CV in one sample.

Extent of groundwater contamination was not identified.

A SVE/AS system was installed in 1996 to remediate the soil and the groundwater and operates between the months of April and October, when the ground is not frozen. There is no public health hazard associated with this sub-area because the site is located within the locked Tank Farm Facility, and there are no production wells located in this area.

(See Tank Farm overview, above.)

Tank Farm -- Truck Fill Stand (TFS) Sub-Area:
The TFS Sub-Area consists of the TFS facility located south of Building 1173.
Two ASTs were installed in 1956, one for gasoline and one for diesel. In 1984, 211 gallons of an unknown fuel were spilled at this site due to a valve failure. In 1985, more than 4,500 gallons of gasoline were spilled during a fuel transfer at one of the ASTs. More than 4,200 gallons were recovered. Numerous other minor spills have occurred during fueling and fuel transfers. A tanker truck reportedly ignited and burned at this site. No information on the date of this incident or whether any contaminants were released is available. Surface Soil:
(1993) Hydrocarbons, including Bunker C (heating oil), were detected in this area.

Groundwater:
(1993) Jet A and bunker C (heating oil) were detected in two of six wells. Benzene (11 ppb) was detected above its CV during the RI.

A SVE/AS system associated with Building 1173 remediates the soil and the groundwater in the vicinity of the TFS and operates between the months of April and October, when the ground is not frozen. There is no public health hazard for soil because contaminants were not detected at levels of health concern.

There is no public health hazard for groundwater because there are no drinking water wells in this area.

(See Tank Farm overview, above.)

Tank Farm -- Lazelle Road Sub-Area:
This sub-area consists of the Lazelle Road corridor that extends from the western base of the Birch Hill AST Sub-Area to the Steese Expressway.
This sub-area includes Lazelle Road and the underlying permafrost thaw channel, from the base of Birch Hill, west to the Steese Highway. There are no reports of fuel spills or waste disposal in this area. The thaw channel is a non-frozen channel in which contaminants may flow, bounded by the bedrock of Birch Hill to the north and shallow permafrost to the south. Surface Soil:
(1993) Four surface soil samples indicated field screening petroleum hydrocarbons (FSPH), with a maximum of 109 ppm. No samples were sent for further analysis.

Groundwater:
GRO (1993 and 1994) and DRO (1994) were detected in one well. No VOCs were detected.

A SVE/AS system was installed in 1996 to remediate soil and groundwater and operates between the months of April and October, when the ground is not frozen. There is no public health hazard at this site because this site is not located near any residential or recreational areas.

There is limited public access to soil contamination and there are no drinking water wells in this area.

(See Tank Farm overview, above.)

Tank Farm -- Valve Pit A Sub-Area:
This sub-area contains Valve Pit A and associated underground petroleum pipelines.
This sub-area includes the valve pit located on the northwest side of the Chena River. These valves are used in case of damage to the bridge that carries the pipeline over the river. In 1990, 20 gallons of lubricant oil spilled at Valve Pit A. Surface Soil:
(1993) Three of four samples contained FSPH. No samples were sent for further analysis.

Groundwater:
(1993) GRO was detected in samples from two wells. Six VOCs, including 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (1,400 ppb), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,700 ppb), benzene (1,700 ppb), ethylbenzene (1,600 ppb), toluene (12,000 ppb), and m+p-xylene (6,400 ppb) were detected above CVs.

The extent of the plume has not been defined.

A SVE/AS system was installed in June 1996 to remediate soil and groundwater contamination. There is no public health hazard for soil because this area is not a residential or recreational area. There is no public health hazard for groundwater because there are no production wells in this area.

(See Tank Farm overview, above.)

Tank Farm -- CANOL Service Road Sub-Area:
This sub-area consists of the underground pipeline corridor and associated service road between the Birch Hill AST Sub-Area and the Valve Pit A Sub-Area.
There are no reported releases in this sub-area. Surface Soil:
FSPH was detected in 5 of 14 samples. No further analyses were completed.

Groundwater:
GRO was detected in 1 of 9 samples during the 1993 RI. That well was resampled in 1994 and GRO was not detected. No VOCs were detected. Lead (88 ppb) was detected above the EPA Guidance Level of 15 ppb.

The RI was completed in 1993. No remediation is planned for this area because no contaminant releases were identified that affected this area. (No source was found.) There is no hazard for soil because there is limited public access to the site. There is no public health hazard for groundwater because there are no drinking water wells in this area.

(See Tank Farm overview, above.)

Tank Farm -- Shannon Park Sub-Area:
This sub-area includes the housing subdivision located west of the Fort Wainwright post boundary.
This is an off-site residential housing area that is part of the city of Fairbanks. There are no reported spills associated with Fort Wainwright in this area. Contaminated groundwater may migrate beneath this site from the on-site tank farm facility. Surface Soil:
Samples were collected from localized areas of contamination in the Shannon Park Subdivision. One sample was collected and Bunker C (fuel oil #6, heating oil) was detected at low levels.

Groundwater:
Bunker C was detected in one monitoring well at 1,000 ppb. No other VOCs were detected. Lead (150 ppb) was detected above the EPA Guidance Level.

Groundwater (five monitoring wells) and surface soil were sampled in this sub-area during the 1993 RI. There are no public health hazards associated with this area.
Railcar Off-Loading Facility (ROLF):
This site is located directly south of the Chena River, approximately 1 mile southwest of the Fort Wainwright landfill, and on the south bank of the Chena River just north of the bike path.
The ROLF was built in 1939 to receive fuel from railcars. Pipes connect the ROLF and the Tank Farm. There are also five valve pits, which can be used to shut off the flow of fuel in case the Chena River bridge is destroyed. The facility is no longer in use.

Petroleum leaks and spills have occurred at valve pits on either side of the Chena River and at the ROLF. All the pipelines are still in place.

Surface Soil:
POLs were detected in surface soil and subsurface soil in the center of the site and surrounding Valve Pits B and C along Front Street.

Groundwater:
VOCs detected above their CVs include benzene (5,800 ppb), toluene (4,700 ppb), and 1,2-DCA (6 ppb). A contaminant plume originating from Valve Pit B extends toward the Chena River. A contaminant plume in the center of the site extends to the west in the subsurface soil and groundwater, but its extent has not been determined. A third contaminant plume in the Front Street area, originating near Building 1599, just north of the West Section Quartermaster Fuel Station (WQFS), extends less than 1000 ft to the west.

A SVE/AS system was installed at Valve Pit B in July 1996 and at Valve Pit C in June 1996. Contaminant levels are decreasing as a results of the groundwater treatment. There are no public health hazards associated with this site. There is limited public access to soil contaminants and there are no drinking water wells affected by the groundwater contamination.
Fairbanks-Eielson Pipeline Milepost 2.7:
The Fairbanks-Eielson Pipeline (FEP) originates at the tank farm on Ft Wainwright and ends at Eielson Air Force Base. This stretch of pipeline is located 2.7 miles east of the tank farm on the southern boundary of the Birch Hill USTs site, which is located in the northeast corner of the post.
In the late 1970s, the Fairbanks-Eielson pipeline ruptured near milepost 2.7. The site contains areas that were contaminated by the pipeline break, including two truck-fill stands, water separator pits, valve pits, and some pipelines associated with the Birch Hill UST facility. Surface Soil:
POLs were found in surface soil, subsurface soil, and areas south of Birch Hill Road.

Groundwater:
VOCs detected above their CVs during the 1993 RI include benzene (471 ppb), ethylbenzene (1,450 ppb), and toluene (964 ppb). Five wells have been installed downgradient to the southwest and southeast of milepost 2.7. The downgradient edge of the plume has not been located, but the contamination appears to migrate to the southeast along a thaw channel beneath Birch Hill Road. The source of the contamination could be run-off or subsurface migration from the Birch Hill UST facility as well as the pipeline break. The 5 ppb contour of benzene in groundwater extends 1,000 feet along Birch Hill Road, from the northwest to the southeast, and it does not appear to go close to the site boundary.

In August and September 1998, 1,500 yds3 of soil were excavated from this site and taken to an ex situ treatment site near the Truck Fill Stand. Soil samples collected after the soil removal verified that concentrations were below clean-up levels. The Army is using SVE/AS systems at Milepost 2.7 and 3.0 to treat hot spot areas where petroleum contamination exists. Once soil cleanup goals are met, they will install new wells to monitor groundwater quality to ensure that the full extent of contamination has been defined and addressed. There are no public health hazards associated with this site.

There are no drinking water wells in the vicinity of this site. The nearest drinking water well is located at the Birch Hill Ski Area, located 1 mile to the west. The nearest residential housing is more than 1 mile away.

This area is within a military training area. Training soldiers or recreational vehicle users might have limited contact with contaminated soil, but it would be incidental and brief.

Fairbanks-Eielson Pipeline Milepost 3.0:
The source area is located near milepost 3.0 of the Fairbanks-Eielson Pipeline. It is within a military training area approximately 1 mile northeast of the Chena River, at the base of Birch Hill.
It is suspected that contamination at Milepost 3.0 may be the result of a leak in the Fairbanks-Eielson pipeline at this location. However, there have been no documented ruptures in the pipeline at the Milepost 3.0 area. The source of contamination could be migration from the Milepost 2.7 leak or migration or run-off from the Birch Hill UST facility. Groundwater:
There are nine monitoring wells in the vicinity of Milepost 3.0, mostly located along Birch Hill Road, both upgradient and downgradient of Milepost 3.0. Contamination has been found in the shallow groundwater, above the permafrost and in the permafrost thaw channel. The highest levels of VOCs detected above their CVs in discrete"hot spots" close to the pipeline include benzene (7,200 ppb), ethylbenzene (1,100 ppb), and toluene (2,300 ppb). Benzene was detected at much lower concentrations (28 ppb) within 100 feet from the hot spots.
The source of contamination for Milepost 3.0 has not been confirmed. Sources that could contribute include POL run-off from the road, groundwater migration from Milepost 2.7, or the Birch Hill USTs, and an unidentified pipeline leak near Milepost 3.0. The Army is using SVE/AS systems at Milepost 2.7 and 3.0 to treat hot spot areas where petroleum contamination was found. Once soil cleanup goals are met, they will install new wells to monitor groundwater quality to ensure that the full extent of contamination has been defined in addressed. No public health hazard is present at this site.

The Milepost 3.0 Source Area is approximately 1 mile from any residential development. The nearest drinking water well is located at the Birch Hill Ski Area, more than 1 mile to the west. In addition, the ski area well is drilled in a different aquifer.

Fairbanks-Eielson Pipeline Mile 15.75:
This stretch of the pipeline is located at the intersection of Laurance Road and Robyn Drive in a residential area approximately 1 mile south of the town of North Pole, along a residential road.
The pipeline at Milepost 15.75 was ruptured on August 26, 1989. About 4,200 gallons of fuel are estimated to have spilled. About 2,400 gallons of fuel were recovered within 2 hours of the spill. Soil:
POLs in soil extend 50 to 100 feet downgradient to the northwest of the spill location.

Groundwater:
Petroleum compounds were detected in the shallow alluvial aquifer. VOCs detected above their CVs include 1,2-DCA (8 ppb) and benzene (34 ppb).

Approximately 2,400 gallons of fuel were recovered within 2 hours of the original spill.

A SVE/AS was installed in November 1996 and was operated until May 1997. Quarterly sampling indicates that the contaminant plume is not migrating downgradient. Five monitoring wells are located within 50 feet of the spill area, including three between the spill area and downgradient drinking water wells.

There is no apparent health hazard at this site.

This site is located in a residential area and not restricted. Exposure to POL contamination in soil after the pipeline break is possible. However only limited contact is likely because the break was located adjacent to the road where recreational activity would be unlikely. In addition the area would frequently be covered by either snow or vegetation.

The remediation system has prevented migration of contaminants to the residential wells which are approximately 200 ft from the source area.

Operable Unit 4

Coal Storage Yard:
This area is located just south of Fort Wainwright's coal-fired cogeneration power plant which is the sole source of electricity for Fort Wainwright.
The Coal Storage Yard contains an active coal pile, that supplies coal to the plant, and an auxiliary coal pile, used when the active coal pile is exhausted.

Prior to 1993, coal piles were sprayed with waste oils, solvents, and fuel to increase the heat capacity of the coal. The soil underlying the coal piles was contaminated with these products.

The Army will conduct a Cleanup Operations Systems Site Exit Strategy to determine whether there are any data gaps, if there is a need for more monitoring wells, or if the sampling the existing wells can be sampled less often at this particular site.

Soil:
Metals, POLs, and VOCs detected in surface soils are limited to the coal pile area.

Groundwater:
VOCs and organic compounds detected above their CVs in 1994 groundwater monitoring include TCE (11 ppb), benzene (3 ppb), chloroform (10 ppb), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (13 ppb), dieldrin (0.03 ppb), and heptachlor (0.008 ppb). Site files do not identify the extent of the plume. The only metal detected above its CV was arsenic (8.4 ppb).

A ROD was signed September 1996.

SVE/AS began in August 1997 and groundwater monitoring began in the fall of 1997. The groundwater monitoring is ongoing. Two sets of deep and shallow GW monitoring wells were installed between here and the post's drinking water supply wells. No contaminants exceeding CVs has been detected in the downgradient monitoring wells. The drinking water wells screen at approximately 190 feet below ground surface; the monitoring wells screen at 10 feet below ground surface.

There is no public health hazard associated with this site.

Two supply wells that supply drinking water to most of Fort Wainwright are located approximately 900 feet downgradient and in the same aquifer found underneath the Coal Storage Yard. These wells are screened approximately 190 feet below ground surface (bgs). They are sampled annually for petroleum hydrocarbons, VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, PCBs, herbicides, metals, dioxins, furans, and radioactive elements, and have not been affected by contaminants from the coal storage yard.

The coal pile is active and the contaminated soil remains covered. Exposure to soil does not present a public health hazard.

Landfill:
This area covers approximately 20 acres and is located adjacent to Fort Wainwright's active landfill in the north central portion of Fort Wainwright.
Landfill activities began in the early 1950s and, during the late 1950s, the landfill began receiving most wastes generated at Fort Wainwright. The inactive portion of the landfill has been capped. Past practices included burning waste in 8- to 10-foot deep trenches and then covering the trenches with soil when they filled with burned debris. During the 1960s, that practice changed to the current method of spreading the waste on the ground, compacting it, and covering it with soil. Wastes that may have been dumped at the landfill include POLs, hazardous wastes, pesticides, asbestos, vehicular paint waste, and inert munitions. According to a 1983 USAEHA study, some rare occurrences of small arms and explosive disposal may have occurred. Soil and Sediment:
No contaminants were detected above CVs in 33 surface soil samples, 24 sediment samples, and 9 ash samples, during the 1993 RI.

Groundwater:
Samples were collected from 20 groundwater wells in 1993 and 17 samples were collected in 1994. VOCs detected above CVs include benzene (4.4 ppb), bromodichloromethane (2.9 ppb), chloroform (33 ppb), 1,2-DCA (5.1 ppb), cis-1,2-DCE (470 ppb), total 1,2,-dichloroethene (130 ppb), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,300 ppb), PCE (91 ppb), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (8.1 ppb), and TCE (170 ppb). One SVOC was detected above its CV, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (620 ppb). Metals detected above CVs include arsenic (110 ppb), lead (23 ppb), iron (100,000 ppb), and manganese (5,800 ppb).

No contaminants exceeding CVs were detected in the sediments located in the water that pools in the gravel pits.

The OU 4 ROD, released in August 1996, concluded that the preferred alternative for the landfill area is a phased approach involving capping the older, inactive portion of the landfill, natural attenuation, groundwater monitoring, institutional controls, and evaluation to determine the need for future groundwater treatment.

A landfill cap was constructed in 1997. Groundwater monitoring was initiated in October 1997. Since the cap was installed, contaminant levels in groundwater (from 1997-2001) show no significant changes.

There are no public health hazards associated with this site.

Groundwater contaminants do not affect any drinking water supplies and the area is fenced to prevent public access to the site.

Fire Training Pits:
The area is located approximately 0.5 miles from Montgomery Road, southeast of the airfield and several hangars, northeast of Building 2295 and southwest of the Ammunition Storage.
The Fire Training Pits were used for the training of fire department and rescue crews at Fort Wainwright. Flammable liquids were stored and then burned during the fire extinguishing training exercises.

Contaminants at this site include diesel and JP-4 fuels, waste oils, and solvents.

Soil is contaminated with POLs, but is limited in areal extent.

Ten of thirteen groundwater wells sampled showed detectable levels of site-related contaminants. Only arsenic was detected exceeding CVs.

1,860 yds3 of petroleum-contaminated soil were removed during the summer of 1996 under the TPA between the state of Alaska and the Army. After the removal action, analytical tests of soil indicated that there were no contaminants above CVs. The soil was thermally remediated off site and then sent to the landfill for capping material use. This area is recommended for NFA. There are no public health hazards associated with this site.

Groundwater flows in the west-northwest direction. The nearest drinking water wells are over 1.5 miles west of the site. The source of groundwater contamination was removed.

Operable Unit 5

Former Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Range:
This site was formerly called the Blair Lakes Alpha Impact Area and was originally part of OU 1. The area lies within the active firing range. This is a large maneuver area south of the main Fort Wainwright installation.
Reportedly, the former EOD Range was used as an open burning/open detonation site for disposing of unexploded ordnance, unused explosives, motors that propel weapons, and ammunition for small fire arms. It was in operation from the 1950s until 1974. No sampling was conducted at this site. Records searches and reviews of historical photographs could not identify the exact location of the site. It is believed that this site is the same site identified as Open Burn/Open Detonation.

Because this site could not be identified or located, it has been proposed for NFA.

This site poses no public health hazard because there is insufficient evidence to identify where this site existed. The site Open Burn/Open Detonation, is thought to be the site described here as the EOD range. The Open Burn/Open Detonation site is addressed separately under Operable Unit 5.
East Section, Quartermaster's Fueling System (EQFS) Area:
The EQFS area is located between Taxiway 18 and the Chena River, and between Building 1579 to the southwest and Building 1054 to the northeast, covering approximately 40 acres.

The area includes the motor pool buildings 1053, 1054, 1060, and 1565; former building 1567; and former fueling systems.

The EQFS area contains USTs and ASTs that were used to store fuel for vehicles and aircraft. The east QFS also contained a number of buildings that were used for a variety of activities including dry cleaning, a communications center, automotive maintenance, and testing and storage of mobile refueling equipment. Buildings 1053, 1054, 1060, 1565, and 1567 were built between 1945 and 1950. A TCE plume extends approximately 600 feet to the Chena River but does not intersect the river. A benzene plume was detected covering 1.5 acres. Also, a TRPH plume was detected covering 1/4-acre and a 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) plume was detected extending 300 ft.

Surface Soil:
DRO (8,430 ppm) and GRO (886 ppm) were the primary soil contaminants. No contaminants were identified above CVs in testing conducted after soil remediation.

Groundwater:
VOCs detected above their CVs include benzene (18 ppb), TCE (60 ppb), 1,1,1-TCA (1,100 ppb), 1,2-ethylene dibromide (0.46 ppb), and bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (0.5 ppb). There are two distinct plumes, one upgradient southeast of Building 1565 (the source is an abandoned fuel pipeline near airfield), and one downgradient of Building 1565 (the source is an abandoned 6-inch fuel pipeline near Building 1575).

In 1994, debris and contaminated soil were removed near Building 1060. A SVE/AS remediation system was installed at Building 1060. Nine SVE wells and eight AS wells have been in operation since June 1994. The Army will also establish and maintain institutional controls to prevent exposure (e.g., restrict access, prevent well installation, and limit building and use).

This site is also being addressed under the TPA between the state of Alaska and the Army.

There is no public health hazard for soil exposure. Although military housing and recreational facilities are located approximately 0.5 miles northeast of this site and access is unrestricted, it is in an industrialized area not commonly used by children or adults for recreation.

There is no public health hazard for groundwater; contaminants do not impact any drinking water wells. The closest drinking water well (standby well 71) is cross-gradient, located 4,300 feet to the south-southwest.

Motor Pool Buildings (overview) These buildings are vehicle maintenance facilities. The sites were transferred to OU 5 from OU 1 to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the motor pools. Contaminants found at the motor pools are primarily POLs and solvents.    
Motor Pool Buildings:
Building 1053
This is a one-story building used for vehicle storage so that vehicles will not freeze during the winter weather. No contaminants were detected above their CVs in 16 surface soil samples. POLs in soil did not exceed cleanup criteria. NFA was recommended for soils. Groundwater contamination beneath the building is discussed as part of EQFS. No public health hazard exists because no contaminants were detected at levels of health concern. There is no exposure to groundwater.
Motor Pool Buildings:
Building 1054
This is a two-story building, with the first floor used to store vehicles. No contaminants were detected above their CVs in 16 surface soil samples. POLs in soil did not exceed cleanup criteria. NFA was recommended for soils. Groundwater contamination beneath the building is discussed as part of EQFS. No public health hazard exists because no contaminants were detected at levels of health concern. There is no exposure to groundwater.
Motor Pool Buildings:
Building 1168
An on-site leach well is suspected to have received waste POLs and solvents from floor drains. Site investigations for this building are discussed in OU 2, under the heading Building 1168 Leach Well. Investigations and remediation are on-going. See OU 2 for details. Investigations and remediation are on-going.

Refer to OU 2 for additional details.

This area is not a public health hazard for the neighboring communities.

Motor Pool Buildings:
Building 3015
Drums of contaminated soil, excavated elsewhere, were brought to building 3015. Potentially contaminated groundwater produced during well development also were brought to this building. VOCs were detected in two wells in August 1989. No contaminants were detected above CVs in 1993. 5,300 yds3 of contaminated soil were excavated and thermally treated in 1989. Two old storage tanks were replaced by new tanks. A new oil-water separator has been installed at this motor pool building. NFA recommended. No public health hazard exists because no contaminants were detected at levels of health concern. There is no exposure to groundwater.
Motor Pool Buildings:
Building 3421
This is a vehicle maintenance building, constructed in 1954, with two maintenance shops. There is one 1,000 gallon UST that stores used oil. There have been three recorded spills at this site. In 1987, 30 gallons of lube oil was spilled on the paved area of the yard. Also in 1987, 30 gallons of diesel were released from a tanker truck onto the paved area. Sorbent material was used to contain these spills. In 1991, 20 gallons of lube oil were spilled on soil near the loading ramp. Contaminated soil was removed and incinerated. Groundwater sampling was conducted in 1989 and 1990 for metals, VOCs, and fuel constituents. Miscellaneous fuels were reported during the 1990 sampling round at levels between 210 ppb and 366 ppb.

No soil sampling was conducted.

Site received ADEC closure. Old USTs have been replaced with new oil-water separators at these motor pool buildings. NFA has been recommended. No public health hazard exists because no contaminants were detected at levels of health concern. There is no exposure to groundwater.
Motor Pool Buildings:
Building 3425
This is a vehicle maintenance building with one 1,000 gallon UST that stored used oil. In April 1991, 7 gallons of lube oil were spilled behind Building 3425. Sorbent material was used to contain the spill. Groundwater:
Benzene was detected in 1994 and 1996 to a maximum of 6.7 ug/L, above its CVof 0.5 ug/L.

No soil sampling was conducted.

50 yds3 of contaminated soil were excavated and thermally treated in 1997. Closure is recommended for soil. Semi-annual monitoring of DRO in groundwater is ongoing. No public health hazard exists because no contaminants were detected at levels of health concern. There is no exposure to groundwater.
Motor Pool Buildings:
Building 3479
This is a vehicle maintenance building with one 2,000 gallon UST that stored used oil. This UST was removed in September 1993. No contaminants were detected above their CVs in six groundwater samples collected in 1991.

No soil sampling was conducted.

Site received ADEC closure. Old USTs have been replaced with new oil-water separators at these motor pool buildings. NFA has been recommended. No public health hazard exists because no contaminants were detected at levels of health concern. There is no exposure to groundwater.
Motor Pool Buildings:
Building 3485
This is a vehicle maintenance facility built in 1954. There was one UST that stored waste oil. This UST was removed in 1990.

There have been four reported spills at this site. In April 1989, between 50 and 100 gallons of lubricant oil was spilled on the snow. In May 1990, 3 gallons of lubricant oil was released to the soil. Also in May 1990, 2 gallons of jet fuel was spilled on the floor of the building.

No contaminants were detected above their CVs in surface soil or groundwater samples. The oil-contaminated snow was removed and burned in 1989. The contaminated soil and sorbent material used to clean-up the spills in 1990 were removed and burned. No public health hazard exists because no contaminants were detected at levels of health concern. There is no exposure to groundwater.
Motor Pool Buildings:
Building 3487
This is a battery storage warehouse. There are no floor drains or USTs. Used batteries are not disposed of here. Second hand reports indicate that past practices included neutralizing battery acid with baking soda and pouring it down the sink. Personnel interviews did not indicate any releases at this site, nor were any stained soil or other evidence of past releases observed.

No sampling was conducted here.

Site received ADEC closure. NFA has been recommended. No public health hazard exists at this site because there is no evidence of any past releases.
Open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) Area:
This area is located within the small-arms impact area, about 1,000 feet north of the Tanana River. This area is south of the main cantonment, approximately 7,500 feet south of the Richardson Highway.
This area was used by the Army and Air Force for propellant burning, ordnance detonation, petroleum was used to ignite munitions. UXO and soil contamination are concerns. The site is approximately 150 feet by 450 feet; and was used from the 1960s until 1986.

It is not known what site was used for this purpose prior to the 1960s, or after 1986. It is also not known what classes or sizes of explosives, etc, are burned and detonated here.

POLs, chromium, and lead have been detected at levels below CVs in surface soil samples. Eight surface soil samples (3-6 inches deep) and one surface water sample (from a detonation crater) were analyzed in September 1994. Eight more surface soil samples were collected and analyzed during the 1996 RI. No contaminants were detected exceeding CVs.

No groundwater monitoring wells were installed in this area.

This site was not closed under RCRA because it is still in an active range. EPA approved a delay of closure, that will be reviewed at least every 5 years to determine if closure has become necessary. Environmental contamination identified in the soil and possibly present in the groundwater as a result of OB/OD activities are not a public health hazard.

The groundwater in this area is not used for drinking water and public access is restricted.

ATSDR did not evaluate the public health effect of the actual OB/OD activities for this site.

West Section Quartermaster's Fueling System (WQFS) Area:
This area includes Building 1599 and former fueling systems, and covers about 50 acres. This area is located between the north runway and the Chena River, and between ROLF and Building 1595.
The WQFS supplied fuel for vehicles and aircraft. Tank and fueling components have been removed and the area is currently flat and covered with grass. Historical disposal practices included pouring solvents and other hazardous material into dry wells, into leaching fields, and onto the ground. In February 1971, 30,000 gallons of diesel was spilled at this site. In March 1971, approximately 16,000 gallons of gasoline spilled during fuel transfer activities from Birch Hill Tank Farm to Tank 342. Released fuel spilled into an abandoned sewer line and discharged onto the frozen Chena River. A portion of the fuel was recovered; the rest was burned on the river ice. (The history of the abandoned sewer line is unknown.)

A fuel leak into the Chena River was discovered in 1980 near the WQFS. An unknown amount of spilled material drained through a wooden sewer into the Chena River.

North Air Field investigations found groundwater plumes of solvents (1,2-DCA), surface water contamination in the Chena River, and the soil contaminated with fuel.

Surface Soil:
DROs (54,000 ppm), GROs (5,300 ppm), and low levels of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes were detected at levels below CVs. At Building 1599, contamination extends from the surface soil to the groundwater.

Groundwater:
VOCs detected above CVs include benzene (2,055 ppb), chloroform (55 ppb), toluene (7,105 ppb), 1,2-DCA (41 ppb), and TCE (42 ppb). The benzene plume covers 25 acres and is 25 ft thick. There are two distinct free product plumes, one covering 4.5 acres, the other extending 600 ft southwest of Building 1599. Further monitoring was conducted in 2000-2003.

In 1995, several drums of a tar-like substance were removed from the Chena River area. In 1996, nine drums of tar and 3 yds3 of soil were removed. In 1998, 700 yds3 of contaminated soil were removed.

A horizontal SVE/AS system was installed in August 1997. An "air sparge curtain" between the site and the Chena River was installed in the summer of 1998. The SVE/AS system is being used to remediate the free product in groundwater and the dissolved contaminants because as much as 98% of the product is trapped in the soil.

In situ heating was tested in 1998-1999. All of these remedial activities are ongoing, along with institutional controls to monitor and limit exposure to contaminants. No geophysical studies have been done to identify the presence of any other drums that may be here. The Army enhanced the AS treatment system by adding more wells along the Chena River in 2001 after monitoring results indicated that the groundwater contamination was still moving toward the river. The Army continues to monitor groundwater in the QFS a quarterly basis.

There is no public health hazard for soil exposure. Although military housing and recreational facilities are located approximately 0.5 miles northeast of this site and access is unrestricted, it is in an industrialized area not commonly used for recreation.

There is no public health hazard for groundwater, contaminants are closely monitored and are not impacting drinking water supplies. The closest drinking water well (standby well 71) is located cross-gradient, 4,000 feet to the southwest.

The contaminant plumes intersect the Chena River and contaminants have been detected in surface water near this location. An absorbent boom was installed near WQFS to collect contaminants that migrate on the surface water of the river.

Remedial Area 1A:
This area consists of the surface soil only at the Birch Hill Tank Farm Facility. It is located in the northern part of the cantonment area. The soil contamination in the top tank area was transferred from OU3 to OU5 to allow time to select an appropriate clean-up level for lead-based-paint in soil.
Records indicate that sources of lead contamination in soil at the Birch Hill Tank Farm Facility include sludge from the bottom of tanks, lead containing thread lubricant used on bolt threads, and leaded paint chips from routine maintenance. Surface Soil:
Forty-seven surface soil samples were collected, and analyzed for BTEX, volatile petroleum hydrocarbons, DRO, TRPH, fuels, and RCRA metals. Lead was detected in all samples with a maximum lead concentration of 7,840 ppm. Nine samples had lead levels greater than 1,000 ppm.

Groundwater:
See Tank Farm Facility (OU 3).

Institutional controls (fencing) will be implemented to restrict land-use to prevent activities and to restrict access.

Under the TPA, contaminated soil will be cleaned up when the ASTs are removed.

There is no public health hazard for soil exposure because the site is fenced and locked to prevent public access.

No public health hazard exists from groundwater because there are no drinking water wells at this site.

Other

Fort Wainwright Coal-Fired Cogeneration Plant:
This site is located adjacent to the Coal Storage Yard, 0.75 miles southwest of the airfield.
This plant burns 300 to 1,200 tons of coal per day to generate heat and power for Fort Wainwright. Previous practices included spraying waste oils and solvents on the coal before burning. Air:
Prior to 2003, no ambient air monitoring has been conducted on Ft Wainwright to investigate this site.
EPA found this site in violation of the Clean Air Act on March 10, 1999. Opacity monitors were not operating and the plant's smoke had violated opacity emissions limits. See the text and Appendix D for details about this evaluation. Fort Wainwright is installing additional air pollution control equipment and ambient air monitors to ensure compliance with all state and federal regulations.
Soil Vapor Extraction/Air Sparging Remediation Equipment:
These potential sources are found in various locations on post. They can be moved to meet the changing needs of groundwater remediation.
These soil and groundwater remediation systems have been in operation since 1994. They remove VOCs and free product from soil and groundwater. A portion is recovered in vapor phase and escapes as fugitive emissions. Air:
Under the Clean Air Act, Fort Wainwright is limited to 40 tons of VOC emissions and 25 tons of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions per year. In 1997, Fort Wainwright released 54 tons of VOCs. After the implementation of emission controls, 15 tons of VOCs were released in 1999.
In order to remain below the permitted limits for VOCs and HAPs, emission control measures were added to the SVE/AS systems in 1997. There is no public health hazard associated with this activity. The Army has installed the necessary pollution control equipment to reduce emissions to federal standards.
Chena River (sediment and surface water):
The Chena River flows east to west across the north portion of the main cantonment. The airfield and most of the housing and operational buildings are located south of the river. Several sites with contaminated soil and groundwater lie on both the north and the south river banks.
The river freezes for up to 6 months per year. Buried drums have been recovered in areas near the Chena River at the North Post site, the 801 Drum Burial Site, and the Engineers' Park Drum Site. Tar and organic contaminants have been identified seeping out of the river banks in the vicinity of the Chena River Tar Site and the EQFS and WQFS areas. Surface water and sediment sampling were conducted during the 1995 OU 5 RI, along sections of river adjacent to the EQFS and WQFS. Sediment sampling was also conducted in 1997 and 1998 as part of the Chena River Aquatic Assessment. Samples were collected from the Seep Area near the WQFS and from reference sites on and off post.

Surface Water:
Benzene was detected above the drinking water CV in 1 of 8 samples collected during the 1995 RI (1.3 ppb), however, this concentration is below the MCL. No other contaminants were detected above the drinking water CV.

Sediment:
During the 1995 RI, DRO and GRO were detected in 4 of 4 sediment samples. During the 1997-1998 Chena River Aquatic Assessment, sediment samples contained low levels of SVOCs and trace pesticides. No contaminants were detected above CVs.

Drums were removed from the 801 Drum Burial Site, the North Post Site, and the Engineers Park Drum Site. Groundwater remediation at the East and WQFS sites is addressing that source of pollution. The measures in place at the WQFS include an "Air Sparge Curtain," or group of AS wells designed to prevent additional migration towards the river. Also along the seepage face in the WQFS reach of the Chena River, a boom extends into the river with POL filters that capture contaminants that seep out into the water. There is no public health hazard from exposure to surface water or sediment because contaminants have not been detected at levels of health concern. The river is used in this area for boating, fishing, and other recreational activities. However, the river is frozen for up to 6 months, limiting the potential exposure. Chena River water is not used for drinking water in the vicinity of Fort Wainwright. The City of Fairbanks's water supply wells are located within the same unconfined aquifer as the river contamination downgradient of the OU5 source areas.

Sources: ABR Inc. and CH2MHill 1999; CH2M Hill 1993; Ecology and Environment, Inc. 1992, 1994, 1995; ENSR 1995, 1996; Harding Lawson Associates1993a, 1993b, 1994a, 1994b, 1994c, 1995, 1996a, 1996b; HartCrowser 1997, 1999a, 1999b, 1999c; OHM Remediation Services Corp. 1997; Rockwell Environmental Services 1997; USACE-AK 1997; U.S. Army Alaska 1992a, 1992b, 1995a, 1995b, 1996b, 1996c, 1997a, 1997b, 1999.

Key:

1,1,1-TCA
1,2-DCA
4,4'-DDD
4,4'-DDE
4,4'-DDT
ADEC
AST
bgs
cis-1,2-DCE
CV
DPW
DRMO
DRO
EOD
EPA
EQFS
FSPH
GRO
HAP
NFA
NPL
OU

 

1,1,1-trichloroethane
1,2-dichloroethane
4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane
4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene
4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation
above-ground storage tank
below ground surface
cis-1,2-dichloroethene
comparison value
Directorate of Public Works
Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office
diesel range organics
explosive ordnance disposal
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
East Section of the Quartermaster's Fueling Systems Area
field screening petroleum hydrocarbons
gasoline range organics
hazardous air pollutants
no further action
National Priorities List
operable unit

 

PAH
PCB
PCE
POL
ppb
ppm
PSE
RCRA
RI/FS
ROD
ROLF
SVE/AS
SVOC
TCE
TCLP
TFS
TPA
TRPH
UST
VOC
WQFS
yds3

 

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
polychlorinated biphenyl
tetrachloroethylene
petroleum, oil, and lubricant
parts per billion
parts per million
preliminary source evaluation
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
remedial investigation/feasibility study
record of decision
Railcar Off-Loading Facility
soil vapor extraction/air sparging
semi-volatile organic compound
trichloroethylene
toxicity characteristic leaching procedure
Truck Fill Stand
Two-Party Agreement
Total Recoverable Petroleum Hydrocarbons
underground storage tank
volatile organic compound
West Section of the Quartermaster's Fueling Systems Area
cubic yards

Table 4.

Exposure Pathways
Pathway Name

Exposure Pathway Elements

Comments
Source of Contamination Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Time of Exposure Exposed Population

Completed Exposure Pathways

Groundwater:
Off-post church drinking water wells located to the west of the Birch Hill Tank Farm.
Contaminated groundwater beneath Tank Farm Facility. Groundwater Shannon Park Baptist Church and the Steese Chapel Hall wells. Ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact. Past Church goers, and other church property users. Past:
Groundwater was contaminated with 1,2-DCA above ATSDR CV and EPA's MCL when the well was first sampled in 1991. Exposure to contaminated groundwater from 1985 to 1991 is possible, but not likely at levels of health concern..

Current and Future:
The Army provides bottled drinking water to the church and the well is now used only for irrigation.

Potential Exposure Pathways
Air Fort Wainwright Coal-Fired Power Plant and SVE/AS emissions Air The post and vicinity Inhalation Past Workers, visitors, or residents Past operations of both the coal-fired power plant and the SVE/AS systems released more pollutants into the air than permitted by state and federal regulations. Air pollution control systems and procedure modifications have reduced the emissions to levels for both systems.
Road Grit Coal Ash from the power plant Coal Ash on road surfaces Fort Wainwright roadways and adjacent property Dermal contact, inhalation, and ingestion Past Workers, visitors, or residents Results of the evaluation indicate that the constituents of the coal ash contaminants were below levels associated with health effects. No exposures are occurring since the Army has discontinued the practice of using coal ash as road grit.

See text and Appendix D for details of the evaluation.

Groundwater:
Off-site private wells located near the Fairbanks-Eielson pipeline Mile Posts 2.7 and 3.0.
Contaminated groundwater originating from FEP ruptures. Groundwater Drinking water wells Ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact Past
Current
Future
Visitors to the Ski lodge No harmful exposure has occurred. Groundwater generally flows southwest across Milepost 2.7. The closest drinking water well is located 1 mile west, at the Birch Hill Ski Area. The ski area well draws water from the Birch Creek Schists Aquifer, which is separate from the alluvial aquifer impacted by this contamination. Monitoring results show that a SVE/AS system has reduced the contaminant concentrations and prevents migration toward the drinking water well.
Groundwater:
Off-site private wells located near the Fairbanks-Eielson pipeline MilePost 15.75.
Contaminated groundwater originating from FEP ruptures. Groundwater Private drinking water wells Ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact Past
Current
Future
Off-post residents No harmful exposure has occurred. The SVE/AS ground-water remediation has reduced the contaminant concentrations at the site. Samples collected from the monitoring wells between the spills location and the wells indicate that contaminants have not migrated toward the drinking water wells.
Surface Soil Fort Wainwright Surface Soil Fort Wainwright IRP sites Incidental ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact Past
Current
Future
Primarily on-post workers, and residents and visitors to a lesser extent No harmful exposures are likely to have occurred. Areas of contamination are located away from public access. Any contact with the relatively low levels of contaminants in soil is expected to be infrequent and of short duration, and not likely cause health effects.
Surface Water:
Recreational uses (fishing, swimming, canoeing) of the Chena River.
Fort Wainwright Surface Water Chena River Incidental ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact Past
Current
Future
On-post and off-post residents, and visitors using the Chena River for recreation Contaminants found in surface water and sediment are not expected to cause harm to people who use the river for recreation.
Physical Hazards Fort Wainwright Varied Utilidors, UXO, structures in maneuver areas Contact Past
Current
Future
On-post and off-post residents, and visitors The Army has undertaken measures to remove or reduce hazards at these areas. Most areas are also posted with warning signs advising unauthorized people to keep out.
Radiation Exposure Fort Wainwright External radiation Runway Radio-active Waste Site and the Birch Hill Radioactive Waste Site None None None There is no evidence of releases of radiation from the above ground bunkers or the reported buried bunkers to the ground surface.

See text and Appendix D for details of this evaluation.

Lead and Asbestos in on-post residences and/or administrative and buildings Lead-based paint and asbestos Structures   Lead-Ingestion. Asbestos-inhalation. for lead Past, current, and potential future Workers and residents at Fort Wainwright Lead-based paint and asbestos have been used in many on-post buildings including some residential units. See text for details of the exposure evaluation.
Chena River Fish Fort Wainwright and other potential sources Fish Chena River Ingestion past, current, and potential future Fishers and their families Surface water and sediment data suggest that, except for arsenic, fish are not exposed to contaminants likely to cause health concerns for local fish consumers. Insufficient data is available to identify if metals, especially arsenic, exist at levels in the Chena that could indicate a health hazard for fish consumers.

Table 5.

Maximum Contaminant Concentrations in Off-Site Private Drinking Water Wells
Fort Wainwright, Fairbanks, Alaska
Chemical Maximum Detected Concentration (ppb) Location of Maximum Detected Conc. ATSDR Comparison Value (CREG)
(ppb)
EPA MCL
(ppb)
Frequency of Detection Concentration Range
(ppb)
Steese Chapel Hall    
Benzene 1.91 off site, west of tank farm facility 0.6 5 2 of 11 samples 1.53 to 1.91
1,2-Dichloroethane 3.4 0.4 5 7 of 11samples 1.8 to 3.4
Shannon Park Baptist Church    
Benzene1 2.22 off site, west of tank farm facility 0.6 5 1 of 9 samples ND to 2.22
1,2-Dichloroethane 5.86 0.4 5 8 of 9 samples 2.7 to 5.86

1 Benzene was detected one time in the church well. That one-time detection occurred in 2000 when the well was no longer used for drinking water.

Source: ABR Inc. and CH2MHill 1999; Ecology and Environment, Inc. 1994, 1995; ENSR 1996; Harding Lawson Associates 1993a, 1994a, 1994b, 1996a, 1996b; Hart Crowser 1997, 1999; OHM Remediation Services Corp. 1997; USACE-AK

Key

child standard for a child
CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
CV ATSDR comparison value
MCL Maximum Contaminant Level
ND Not Detected
ppb parts per billion


FIGURES

Site Location
Figure 1. Site Location

Fort Wainwright Main Containment and Maneuver Area
Figure 2. Fort Wainwright Main Containment and Maneuver Area

ATSDR Exposure Pathway Evaluation
Figure 3. ATSDR Exposure Pathway Evaluation


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