Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content

PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

CLEBURN STREET WELL SITE
GRAND ISLAND, HALL COUNTY, NEBRASKA


CONCLUSIONS

  1. ATSDR has concluded that the Cleburn Street well site an indeterminate public health hazard because although available environmental sampling data and health outcome data do not indicate that people have been exposed to site contamination at levels that would be expected to cause adverse health effects, sampling data are not available or insufficient for some environmental media, such as indoor air and private well water, to which people may be exposed.
  2. Residents of Grand Island using municipal water have been and may still be exposed to low levels of VOCs, including THMs, 1,1,2-TCA, and possibly PCE, in their drinking water through ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact. Although no adverse health effects are expected based on the contaminant levels measured in the municipal water system, the contaminant levels at the point of exposure (i.e., at the tap) are not known.
  3. Other persons with potential exposure to site-related contaminants include 1) residents in the site area who use private wells for their household water needs (e.g., drinking, showering); 2) persons living or working in areas where groundwater is contaminated by VOCs, especially PCE, due to soil gas infiltrating their residences or places of business and contaminating their indoor air; 3) persons who worked in businesses where PCE or other volatile chemicals were stored, used, or disposed of, such as the One Hour Martinizing dry cleaners; and 4) persons, such as remedial site workers or city utility personnel, working in areas with significant VOC contamination including soils at the One Hour Martinizing building and standing water inside the nearby underground traffic light control box. However, the public health significance of those potential exposures cannot be fully evaluated with currently available information
  4. Data inadequacies include the following:
    1. Sampling data for the municipal water system is insufficient to determine contaminant levels at users' taps.
    2. Available sampling data and water use information for private wells in the site area are extremely limited.
    3. Indoor air quality data are not available for residences and other buildings in areas where VOCs are present in the underlying groundwater and soil gas.
  5. Community health concerns about the Cleburn Street Well site have been addressed in the Public Health Implications section of this document.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Site Characterization Recommendations

  1. Monitor VOC levels in the Pine Street reservoir to characterize the quality of water entering the municipal distribution system. Also, periodically collect tap water samples from residences and businesses in Grand Island that use the municipal water system and analyze for VOCs to characterize drinking water quality.
  2. Periodically sample the Pine Street well to ensure that VOCs are not present at levels of health concern.
  3. Identify users of private drinking water wells in the site area, especially those with wells in the vicinity of the Cleburn Street well and the former One Hour Martinizing building. Collect and analyze representative water samples from their wells to determine whether site-related contaminants are present at levels of health concern.
  4. Periodically sample indoor air in residences and businesses, primarily those near the Cleburn Street well and the former One Hour Martinizing building, to determine if building occupants are exposed to VOCs at levels of concern due to soil gas infiltration.
  5. Consider periodic air sampling inside the underground traffic control box, especially when the box is accessed by utility workers or other personnel, to determine if VOCs are present at levels of concern.

Cease/Reduce Exposure Recommendations

  1. In order to protect public health, continue to prevent use of contaminated groundwater sources (such as the Cleburn Street well) for drinking water supplies. Such restrictions should remain in place until remediation or natural processes have reduced contaminant concentrations to below levels of public health concern.
  2. Continue on-going actions (e.g., operation of extraction well at the former One Hour Martinizing location) to prevent groundwater contamination from spreading to downgradient areas and possibly impacting other public and/or private water supply wells.
  3. If site-related contaminants are found at levels of health concern in any private drinking water wells, provide acceptable drinking water to the well users.
  4. If indoor air monitoring in residences and other buildings detects site-related contaminants at levels of concern, take measures to lower the indoor concentrations to acceptable levels.
  5. Provide any remedial site workers or utility personnel working in areas where significant VOC contamination is present or potentially present, such as the former One Hour Martinizing building and the nearby underground traffic light control box, with adequate protective equipment and training in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.120. Also, ensure that appropriate National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines are followed.
  6. Restrict public access to the former One-Hour Martinizing building as long as it poses a physical hazard. Also, protect workers and nearby residents from exposure to any dusts or vapors that may be release during renovation or demolition of the building.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel Recommendations

In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, the data and information developed in the Cleburn Street Well Public Health Assessment have been evaluated by the Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) for appropriate follow-up health activities. HARP has determined that no follow-up health activities are indicated at this time because exposure to groundwater contamination in the past and present is not expected to cause adverse health effects. As a means of educating the community on the groundwater's health implications, HARP determined that the public health assessment should be provided to appropriate community members.

If information becomes available in the future which indicates that human exposure to hazardous substances is occurring or has occurred at levels of public health concern, ATSDR will reevaluate the site for any indicated follow-up.

Public Health Action Plan

The purpose of the Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment.

At this time no public health actions to be implemented have been identified by the Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP).

ATSDR will collaborate with the appropriate federal, state, and local agencies to pursue the implementation of the recommendations outlined in this public health assessment.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

William Greim
Environmental Health Scientist
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Moses Kapu
Environmental Health Scientist
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Stephen Richardson
Environmental Health Engineer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

ATSDR Regional Representative:

Denise Jordan-Izaguirre
Senior Regional Representative
EPA Region VII


REFERENCES

  1. Sverdrup Corporation. Remedial Investigation Study for the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at the Cleburn Street Well Site, Grand Island, Nebraska. May 1993.

  2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Memorandum from D. Williams to W. Rice regarding Request for Removal Action and 12-Month Exemption at Cleburn Street Well Site, Grand Island, Hall County, Nebraska. July 9, 1993.

  3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Cleburn Street Site Hazard Ranking System Package. February 22, 1991.

  4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Memorandum from M. Peterson, EPA, to D. Parker, ATSDR, regrading draft public health assessment for Cleburn Street Well site. September 11, 1996.

  5. Ecology and Environment, Inc. Final Report, Grand Island Ground Water Contamination Site. January 24, 1989.

  6. Life Systems Inc. Baseline Risk Assessment - Human Health Evaluation, Cleburn Street Well RI/FS. May 7, 1993.

  7. Sverdrup Corporation. Remedial Investigation Study for the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at the Cleburn Street Well Site, Grand Island, Nebraska, Phase III Addendum. December 1993.

  8. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR Record of Activity: health consultation for Cleburn Street Well site. January 8, 1993.

  9. Nebraska Department of Health, Lincoln, Nebraska. Nebraska Cancer Registry, Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Nebraska: 1989.

  10. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR Record of Activity for telephone communication with Monica Seeland, Division of Health Support, Nebraska Department of Health. April 22, 1992.

  11. Nebraska Department of Health, Lincoln, Nebraska. Vital Statistics Report, 1989.

  12. Ecology and Environment, Inc. Memorandum. Trip Report for the Soil-Gas Investigation at the Grand Island Ground Water Contamination Site. November 29, 1988.

  13. State of Nebraska Department of Health. Laboratory Data Sheets. 1986 and 1988-1991.

  14. State of Nebraska Department of Environmental Control. Laboratory Data Sheets. 1991.

  15. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. June 1990.

  16. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft for Public Comment, Update Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene. Atlanta: ATSDR, August 1995.

  17. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Bromodichloromethane. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1989. DHHS publication no. ATSDR/TP-89-04.

  18. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Bromoform/Chlorodibromomethane. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1990. DHHS publication no. ATSDR/TP-90-05.

  19. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft for Public Comment, Update Toxicological Profile for Chloroform. Atlanta: ATSDR, August 1995.

  20. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. Atlanta: ATSDR, December 1989. DHHS publication no. ATSDR/TP-89-24.

  21. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Update Toxicological Profile for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. Atlanta: ATSDR, August 1995.

  22. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft for Public Comment, Update Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene. Atlanta: ATSDR, August 1995.

Next Section          Table of Contents

  
 
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341
Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888-232-6348

A-Z Index

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #