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EXPOSURE INVESTIGATION

HYDROGEN SULFIDE IN AMBIENT AIR

DAKOTA CITY/SOUTH SIOUX CITY
DAKOTA CITY/SOUTH SIOUX CITY, NEBRASKA


Table 1a.

Hydrogen Sulfide Peak Concentrations by Date: 1997
Indoor Sampling Location 1
Dateppb Dateppb Dateppb Dateppb Date ppb
4/30 4/1823 5/30 5/18 >90 6/2 >90
4/40 4/1928 5/40 5/190 6/3 >90
4/54 4/202 5/5 >90 5/2017 ---------
4/60 4/210 5/645 5/212 ---------
4/70 4/224 5/70 5/220 ----------
4/80 4/232 5/80 5/2315 ----------
4/90 4/2431 5/93 5/2440 ----------
4/109 4/2562 5/100 5/258 ----------
4/112 4/26 >90 5/110 5/2615 ----------
4/12 0 4/27 8 5/12 0 5/27 13 ----- -----
4/130 4/289 5/133 5/287 ---------
4/140 4/293 5/140 5/29 >90 ----------
4/151 4/303 5/151 5/30 >90 ----------
4/1659 5/18 5/160 5/31 >90 ----------
4/1784 5/28 5/17 >90 6/1 >90 -----------
ppb = part per billion (0.001 part per million)
> = equal or greater than
---- = no sampling occurred


Table 1b.

Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations vs. Time
Indoor Sampling Location 1
Date
(1997)
Minutes over
5 ppb
Minutes over
20 ppb
Minutes over
90 ppb (off-scale)
4/16120 1200
4/17470 2600
4/180 2250
4/19475 1200
4/24310 1250
4/25235 1700
4/26560 485115
4/27115 00
4/28200 00
5/1105 00
5/275 00
5/5125 12530
5/6375 1150
5/17175 130100
5/18320 265130
5/20450 00
5/2330 00
5/24620 1800
5/25145 00
5/26170 00
5/27240 00
5/28240 00
5/29200 185155
5/30775 715200
5/31305 20075
6/1215 200120
6/230 3030
6/355 4020
ppb = part per billion (0.001 part per million)


Indoor Sampling Location 3

Table 2a.

Hydrogen Sulfide Peak Concentrations by Date: 1997
Indoor Sampling Location 3
Dateppb Dateppb Dateppb
4/30 4/185 5/30
4/47 4/190 5/41
4/50 4/201 5/50
4/60 4/213 5/60
4/70 4/220 5/72
4/80 4/230 5/80
4/90 4/240 5/943
4/102 4/250 5/102
4/110 4/2611 5/110
4/120 4/270 5/120
4/130 4/281 5/130
4/140 4/291 ----------
4/150 4/300 ----------
4/160 5/10 ----------
4/172 5/20 ----------
ppb = part per billion (0.001 part per million)
---- = no sampling occurred


Table 2b.

Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations vs. Time
Indoor Sampling Location 3
Date (1997) Minutes over
5 ppb
Minutes over
20 ppb
Minutes over
90 ppb (off-scale)
4/4135 00
4/1830 00
4/26270 00
5/9435 4200


Table 3a.

Hydrogen Sulfide Peak Concentrations by Date: 1997
Indoor Sampling Location 4
Dateppb Dateppb Dateppb
4/30 4/180 5/30
4/40 4/190 5/40
4/52 4/201 5/50
4/60 4/210 5/60
4/70 4/220 5/70
4/80 4/230 5/80
4/90 4/240 5/90
4/100 4/250 5/101
4/110 4/260 5/110
4/120 4/270 5/123
4/130 4/280 5/130
4/140 4/2915 5/140
4/150 4/300 ----------
4/160 5/10 ----------
4/170 5/20 ----------
ppb = part per billion (0.001 part per million)
---- = no sampling occurred


Table 3b.

Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations vs. Time
Indoor Sampling Location 4
Date (1997) Minutes over
5 ppb
Minutes over
20 ppb
Minutes over
90 ppb (off-scale)
4/2975 00
ppb = part per billion (0.001 part per million)


Table 4a.

Hydrogen Sulfide Peak Concentrations by Date: 1997
Indoor Sampling Location 5
Dateppb Dateppb Dateppb
4/30 4/180 5/30
4/40 4/190 5/40
4/51 4/2016 5/50
4/60 4/213 5/60
4/70 4/226 5/70
4/84 4/230 5/80
4/90 4/240 5/90
4/100 4/250 5/100
4/110 4/262 5/110
4/120 4/270 5/120
4/135 4/280 5/130
4/140 4/294 ------------
4/150 4/305 ------------
4/160 5/10 ------------
4/170 5/20 ------------
ppb = part per billion (0.001 part per million)
---- = no sampling occurred
 


Table 4b.

Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations vs. Time
Indoor Sampling Location 5
Date (1997) Minutes over
5 ppb
Minutes over
20 ppb
Minutes over
90 ppb (off-scale)
4/1615 00
4/1790 00
4/1830 00
4/1915 00
ppb = part per billion (0.001 part per million)


Table 5a.

Hydrogen Sulfide Peak Concentrations by Date: 1997
Indoor Sampling Location 6
Dateppb Dateppb Dateppb Dateppb Date ppb
4/32 4/180 5/30 5/183 6/20
4/40 4/194 5/43 5/190 ------------
4/54 4/2011 5/50 5/200 ------------
4/60 4/2118 5/60 5/211 -------------
4/70 4/220 5/760 5/224 ------------
4/86 4/230 5/89 5/230 --------------
4/90 4/240 5/90 5/240 -------------
4/107 4/259 5/100 5/250 --------------
4/110 4/260 5/110 5/260 --------------
4/120 4/270 5/120 5/270 --------------
4/137 4/280 5/130 5/288 -------------
4/140 4/2917 5/1440 5/290 -------------
4/150 4/300 5/1521 5/300 -------------
4/16 2 5/1 11 5/16 2 5/31 0 ------- ------
4/175 5/20 5/170 6/10 ------------
ppb = part per billion (0.001 part per million)
---- = no sampling occurred


Table 5b.

Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations vs. Time
Indoor Sampling Location 6
Date (1997) Minutes over
5 ppb
Minutes over
20 ppb
Minutes over
90 ppb (off-scale)
4/13 30 0 0
4/17 15 0 0
4/20 150 0 0
4/21 150 0 0
4/29 230 0 0
5/1 190 0 0
5/7 170 60 0
5/8 115 0 0
5/14 85 55 0
5/15 225 20 0
5/28 15 0 0
ppb = part per billion (0.001 part per million)


Table 6.

Hydrogen Sulfide Peak Concentrations by Date: 1997
Outdoor Sampling Location
53 - 1,500 ppb detection range
Dateppb Dateppb Dateppb Dateppb Date ppb
4/3----- 4/18----- 5/3------ 5/181301 6/2892
4/4------ 4/19------- 5/4------ 5/190 6/30
4/5------ 4/20------ 5/5------ 5/200 -----------
4/6------ 4/21------ 5/6------ 5/210 ------------
4/7------ 4/22------ 5/7------ 5/220 -----------
4/8----- 4/23------ 5/8------ 5/230 ------------
4/9----- 4/24------ 5/9------ 5/240 -------------
4/10------ 4/25------- 5/10------ 5/250 ------------
4/11------ 4/26------- 5/11------ 5/260 ------------
4/12------ 4/27------ 5/12------ 5/27319 ------------
4/13------ 4/28------ 5/13------ 5/280 ------------
4/14------ 4/29------ 5/14------ 5/291137 ------------
4/15------ 4/30------ 5/150 5/30419 ------------
4/16------ 5/1------ 5/16253 5/31402 ------------
4/17------ 5/2------ 5/17324 6/11375 ------------
ppb = part per billion (0.001 part per million)
---- = no sampling occurred


Table 7a.

Hydrogen Sulfide Peak Concentrations by Date: 1997
Outdoor Sampling Location
0 - 90 ppb detection range
Dateppb Dateppb Dateppb Dateppb Date ppb
4/3----- 4/18----- 5/3------ 5/18 >90 6/2 >90
4/4------ 4/19------- 5/4------ 5/19 >90 6/30
4/5------ 4/20------ 5/5------ 5/20 >90 -----------
4/6------ 4/21------ 5/6------ 5/210 ------------
4/7------ 4/22------ 5/7------ 5/220 -----------
4/8----- 4/23------ 5/8------ 5/2349 ------------
4/9----- 4/24------ 5/9------ 5/2419 -------------
4/10------ 4/25------- 5/10------ 5/2510 ------------
4/11------ 4/26------- 5/11------ 5/260 ------------
4/12------ 4/27------ 5/12------ 5/27 >90 ------------
4/13------ 4/28------ 5/13------ 5/2874 ------------
4/14------ 4/29------ 5/14------ 5/29 >90 ------------
4/15------ 4/30------ 5/150 5/30 >90 ------------
4/16------ 5/1------ 5/16 >90 5/31 >90 ------------
4/17------ 5/2------ 5/17 >90 6/1 >90 ------------
ppb = part per billion (0.001 part per million)
---- = no sampling occurred
> = greater or equal to


Table 7b.

Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations vs. Time
Outdoor Sampling Location
Date (1997) Minutes over
5 ppb
Minutes over
20 ppb
Minutes over
90 ppb (off-scale)
5/1615 1515
5/1765 5030
5/18240 180105
5/1910 105
5/20140 11040
5/2315 150
5/27105 6045
5/28105 450
5/29235 225190
5/30415 315155
5/31145 10045
6/1160 130105
6/235 3530
ppb = part per billion (0.001 part per million)


Table 8.

Comparison of Location 1: Hydrogen Sulfide
Indoor Air vs. Ambient Air at Adjacent Location
Date (1997) Indoors
Minutes Over
90 ppb (off-scale)
Outdoors
Minutes Over
90 ppb (off-scale)
Outdoors
Peak H2S Value
ppb
(high conc. tape)
4/26 115 ------ -----
5/5 30 ------ -----
5/17 100 30 324
5/18 130 105 1301
5/29 155 190 1137
5/30 200 155 419
5/31 75 45 402
6/1 120 105 1375
6/2 30 30 892
6/3 20 0 0
ppb = part per billion (0.001 part per million)
---- = no sampling occurred


Table 9.

Health Impacts of and Regulatory Guidelines for
Hydrogen Sulfide in Ambient
Air Concentration inparts per billion (ppb)Health/Regulatory Significance
0.02 - 0.07 Levels in air in an undeveloped area in Colorado [11]
0.11 - 0.33Average U.S. background levels in air [12]
0.72 EPA RfC: an estimate of daily human exposure to a potential hazard that is likely to be without risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime [14]
8Odor Threshold [10]
90 ATSDR Intermediate MRL: an estimate of daily human exposure that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of adverse, noncarcinogenic effects from 15 to 356 days of exposures [4]
100ERPG-1: the maximum airborne concentration below which itbelieved that nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to 1hour without experiencing other than mild, transient adversehealth effects or without perceiving a clearly definedobjectionable odor [15]
500 ATSDR Acute MRL: an estimate of daily human exposure that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of adverse, noncarcinogenic effects from 14 or fewer days of exposures [4]
3,000 - 5,000offensive odor, moderately intense [16]
10,000 TLV; NIOSH 10-minute ceiling REL; obvious and unpleasant odor
15,000OSHA 15-minute ceiling
20,000 - 30,000 Strong and intense odor [16]
30,000ERPG-2: the maximum airborne concentration below which itis believed that nearly all individuals could be exposed for upto 1 hour without experiencing or developing irreversible orother serious health effects or symptoms which could impair anindividual's ability to take protective action [15].
50,000 NIOSH recommends worker evacuation; marked irritation of eyes and respiratory tract
100,000IDLH, loss of smell in 3-15 minutes [16]
RfC = Inhalation reference dose
ERPG = Emergency Response Planning Guidelines
MRL = Minimal Risk Level
TLV = Threshold limit value
NIOSH = National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
REL = Relative exposure limit
OSHA = Occupational Health and Safety Administration
IDLH = Immediately dangerous to life and health




Figure 1. Dakota City Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure Investigation Sampling Locations/Potential Sources


Figure 1 Map ID



GRAPHS 1-13


Outdoor Sulfur/H2S Concentrations - May 16-17, 1997


Outdoor Sulfur/H2S Concentrations - May 18, 1997


Outdoor Sulfur/H2S Concentrations - May 19-20, 1997


Outdoor Sulfur/H2S Concentrations - May 20, 1997


Outdoor Sulfur/H2S Concentrations - May 23, 1997


Outdoor Sulfur/H2S Concentrations - May 24-25, 1997


Outdoor Sulfur/H2S Concentrations - May 27, 1997


Outdoor Sulfur/H2S Concentrations - May 27, 1997


Outdoor Sulfur/H2S Concentrations - May 29-30, 1997


Outdoor Sulfur/H2S Concentrations - May 30-31, 1997


Outdoor Sulfur/H2S Concentrations - May 31, 1997


Outdoor Sulfur/H2S Concentrations - June 1, 1997


Outdoor Sulfur/H2S Concentrations - June 2-3, 1997



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