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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

U.S. NAVAL SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON
GROTON, NEW LONDON COUNTY, CONNECTICUT


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS

Contaminants discussed in the subsequent sections of this publichealth assessment will be evaluated to determine whether exposureto them has public health significance. All the contaminantsdetected at each site are not included in this document. Instead,ATSDR has selected certain contaminants that require furtherevaluation in this public health assessment.

ATSDR selects and discusses contaminants based on several factors: concentrations of environmental contaminants on and off thesubmarine base, field and laboratory data quality, samplingdesign, and comparison of chemical concentrations to healthassessment comparison values for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenichealth effects. Community health concerns are also consideredwhen selecting the contaminants presented in this public healthassessment.

Listing a chemical contaminant in the data tables that follow doesnot mean that it will cause adverse health effects. Instead, thelist indicates which contaminants will be evaluated further in thepublic health assessment. The potential adverse health effectsfrom those selected contaminants of health concern will bediscussed in the Public Health Implications section of thisdocument. When selected in one medium, a contaminant will bereported in all media in which it is found.

The comparison values for ATSDR public health assessments aredeveloped by environmental and health agencies to provide anestimate of chemical concentrations present in each environmentalmedium (air, water, soil) that should be evaluated for possiblehealth effects if exposure to the contaminants occurs. In manycases, the values have been derived from animal studies oroccupational studies. Health effects are related to the exposuredose, the routes of entry into the body, and the amount ofchemical absorbed by the body. ATSDR uses the followingcomparison values.

The data tables include the following abbreviations for thesecomparison values.

ALAction Level. ALs represent levels at which the agency(EPA) must take additional action under its control toreduce the levels of the contaminant, and inform residentsabout the action they can take to lower exposure.

CREGCancer Risk Evaluation Guide. CREGs are health assessmentcomparison values that correspond to one excess cancer in amillion persons exposed over a lifetime. CREGs arecalculated from standard cancer risk, adult body weight,adult ingestion rate, and EPA's cancer slope factor(toxicity values for carcinogenic effects).

EMEGEnvironmental Media Evaluation Guide. EMEGs are media-specific values that correspond to ATSDR's Minimal RiskLevel (MRL). They are calculated by using ATSDR'sconservative exposure assumptions that would protect themost sensitive populations.

DWELDrinking Water Equivalent Level. DWELs are lifetimeexposure levels specific for drinking water at whichadverse health effects would not be expected to occur.

HAHealth Advisory. An HA is an estimate of acceptabledrinking water levels for a chemical substance based onhealth effects information. A health advisory is not alegally enforceable federal standard, but serves as atechnical guidance to assist federal, state, and localofficials.

LOAELLowest Observed Adverse Effect Level. The LOAEL is thedose of chemical in a study or group of studies thatclearly shows adverse health effects.

LTHALifetime Health Advisory. LTHAs represent contaminantconcentrations that EPA deems protective of public healthover a lifetime (70 years) at an ingestion rate of twoliters of water per day. LTHAs are not legally enforceablestandards.

MCLMaximum Contaminant Level. MCLs represent contaminantconcentrations that EPA deems protective of public health(considering the availability and economics of watertreatment technology) over a lifetime (70 years) at aningestion rate of two liters of water per day. MCLs areenforceable regulatory standards.

MCLGMaximum Contaminant Level Goals. MCLGs are drinking waterhealth goals. MCLGs are set at a level at which no knownor anticipated adverse human health effects occur. MCLGsare not enforceable standards.

MRLMinimal Risk Level. Developed by ATSDR, MRLs are estimatesof daily exposure to a chemical that is not likely to causeadverse non-carcinogenic health effects. MRLs are based onthe most current information available.

NOAELNo Observed Adverse Effect Level. The NOAEL is a dose ofchemical in a study or group of studies that clearly showsno adverse health effects.

RfDReference Dose. The EPA's RfD is an estimate (withuncertainty spanning perhaps a factor of ten) of the dailyexposure of a person to a contaminant that is unlikely tocause adverse health effects. The RfD is operationallyderived from the NOAEL (from animal and human studies) by aconsistent application of uncertainty factors that reflectvarious types of data used to estimate RfDs and anadditional modifying factor, which is based on aprofessional judgement of the entire database on thechemical.

Additionally, individual chemicals may be grouped into generalchemical classifications based on their similar physicalproperties. The following abbreviations are used in the sectionsof the public health assessment that follow.

PAHsPolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. The chemicals inthis group include chemical constituents found in coaltar and asphalt. PAHs are divided into two subgroups: carcinogenic PAHs and non-carcinogenic PAHs. Carcinogenic PAHs include benzo(a)anthracene,benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene,benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno (1,2,3-cd)pyrene,chrysene. Non-carcinogenic PAHs include naphthalene,acenaphthylene, fluorene, anthracene, pyrene, andothers. Some PAHs are also considered Semi-VolatileOrganics.

PCBsPolychlorinated Biphenyls. These chemicals are verystable and persistent in the environment. They areused as heat transfer liquids in transformers,hydraulic fluids, lubricants, and in plasticizers,surface coatings, inks, and adhesives. They are alsoused as pesticide extenders and for microencapsulationof dyes for carbonless duplicating paper. PCB 1260 isa name for one specific chemical in this group. Thereare 209 chemicals are classified as PCBs.

PesticidesThere are many different physical properties ofchemicals used to kill pests. In this public healthassessment, DDT and its breakdown products DDD and DDEare included in this group of chemicals.

Inorganic
Chemicals
Organic chemicals contain carbon; inorganic chemicals do not contain carbon. VOCs, SVOs, PAHs,PCBs, and some pesticides are organic chemicals. Elemental metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium,silver, nickel, and others are inorganic chemicals. Other non-metal inorganic chemicals include boron,antimony, and magnesium.

SVOsSemi-Volatile Organics. The chemicals in this classslowly evaporate when exposed to air. Chemicals inthe class include: 4-methylphenol, isophorone,dibenzofuran, etc. Other chemicals in this class arealso PAHs, such as fluoranthracene, anthracene,naphthalene, pyrene, etc.

VOCsVolatile Organic Compounds. The chemicals in thisgroup readily evaporate or volatilize into gases whenexposed to air. This chemical class includestetrachloroethane, chloroethane, trichloroethylene,dichloroethylene, benzene, toluene, xylenes, etc.

An overview of the contamination found in soils, groundwater,surface water, and other environmental media may be helpful inunderstanding how the individual sites may be affecting theinstallation as a whole and the surrounding communities. For thisreason, an overview is presented below and is followed by site-specific information. "Detected" denotes where contamination wasfound.

The information for this section was obtained from theInstallation Restoration Study, Naval Submarine Base New Londonand the Phase I Remedial Investigation, Naval Submarine Base, NewLondon as listed in the "References" section of this document.

A. Introduction

Soil (3)

Surface soil samples have been collected and analyzed at sixof the installation sites. Contamination has been identifiedin surface soil at four of the sites. Subsurface soil sampleshave been collected and analyzed at nine sites. Contaminationwas identified in subsurface soils at five of those sites. The table that follows shows where surface and subsurface soilcontamination has been identified. PCBs, PAHs, and inorganicchemicals are among the contaminants detected in both surfaceand subsurface soils. Site-specific contaminants requiringfurther evaluation within the public health assessment areincluded in the On-Base Contamination section.




Table 1.

Overview of Soil Contamination (3)
SiteSurface Soil
Contamination
Subsurface Soil
Contamination
CBU Drum Storage Area
Detected
NAa
Rubble Fill at Bunker A-86
Detected
NA
Torpedo Shops
NA
Detected
Goss Cove Landfill
NA
Detected
Over Bank Disposal Area
Detected
Detected
Spent Acid Storage and Disposal Area
NA
Detected
Former Gasoline Station
NA
NDb
Area A
Detected
Detected
DRMO
Detected
Detected
Lower Subase
NA
Detected
North Lake
ND
ND
Rock Lake
NA
NA
a - NA = Not Analyzed
b - ND = Analyzed, but Not Detected

Groundwater (3)

Groundwater has been tested at five sites. Also, privatewells have been sampled in a neighborhood near Area ALandfill. The shallow aquifer (overburden water table) hasbeen sampled at all five sites. The bedrock (deep) aquiferhas been sampled at three sites. A summary table of the on-site groundwater contamination follows. Contaminants detectedinclude inorganic chemicals and volatile organic chemicals. The lists of selected contaminants and their concentrationsappear in the On-Base Contamination section.




Table 2:

Overview of Groundwater Contamination (3)
SiteOverburden Water Table
Contamination
Bedrock Aquifer
Contamination
CBU Drum Storage Area
NAa
NA
Rubble Fill at Bunker A-86
NA
NA
Torpedo Shops
Detected
ND
Goss Cove Landfill
Detected
NA
Over Bank Disposal Area
NDb
ND
Spent Acid Storage and Disposal Area
NA
NA
Former Gasoline Station
NA
NA
Area A
Detected
Detected
DRMO
Detected
ND
Lower Subase
Detected
NA
North Lake
NA
NA
Rock Lake
NA
NA
a - NA = Not Analyzed
b - ND = Analyzed, but Not Detected

Surface Water and Sediment (3)

Surface water samples have been tested at five on-base sitesand two off-base areas (Thames River and a residential pond). Analysis of samples collected from Area A and the off-baseThames River identified contamination. Contaminated surfacewater was not detected at any other site.

Sediment samples have been collected at one on-base and twooff-base sites. Contaminants were detected in the Area A andin the off-base area of a neighboring residence, but not inthe Thames River. The specific contaminants identified insurface water and sediment samples are listed with theirconcentrations in the On-Base Contamination section.



Table 3.

Overview of Surface Water and Sediment Contamination (3)
SiteSurface Water
Contamination
Sediment
Contamination
CBU Drum Storage Area
NAa
NA
Rubble Fill at Bunker A-86
NA
NA
Torpedo Shops
NDb
Detected
Thames River near Goss Cove
Detected
NA
Over Bank Disposal Area
Detected
Detected
Spent Acid Storage and Disposal Area
NA
NA
Former Gasoline Station
NA
NA
Area A
Detected
Detected
Thames River near DRMO
Detected
NA
Lower Subase
NA
NA
North Lake
ND
ND
Rock Lake
ND
NA
Off-base Thames River
Detected
ND
Off-base residential area
ND
Detected
a - NA = Not Analyzed
b - ND = Analyzed, but not Detected

Air (3)

No air monitoring has been performed at any site. Soil gasscreening has been conducted at six sites. Levels of VOCswere reported as "high," "moderate," "low," or "trace." Measurements were recorded as volt/seconds (Vs), whichrepresent relative quantities as compared to othermeasurements. A reading of greater than (>) >300 Vs wasconsidered "high," a reading of 50.1 - 300 Vs was considered"moderate," a reading of 2.1 - 50 Vs was considered "low," areading of 0.3 - 2.0 Vs was considered "trace," and a readingless than (<) <0.3 Vs was considered as "not detected." Highand moderate levels of benzene and/or other VOCs were reportedat five sites. A summary table of sites where high andmoderate levels of VOCs were identified follows.



Table 4.

Overview of Soil Gas Screening (3)
Site Soil Gases Detected at High/Moderate Levels
CBU Drum Storage Area
NAa
Rubble Fill at Bunker A-86
NA
Torpedo Shops
Detected
Goss Cove Landfill
Detected
Over Bank Disposal Area
NA
Spent Acid Storage and Disposal Area
NA
Former Gasoline Station
NDb
Area A Landfill
Detected
DRMO
Detected
Lower Subase
Detected
North Lake
NA
Rock Lake
NA
a - NA = Not Analyzed
b - ND = Analyzed, but not Detected

Biota (3)

Frog and bird (catbird fledgling) tissues were collected fromthe Area A Wetland and analyzed for inorganic chemicals andpesticides. No contaminants were detected in the tissuesamples. No other biota have been sampled at any other site.

B. On-Base Contamination

Contamination detected within the installation boundaries isconsidered on-base contamination. Contamination found at eachsite on the submarine base is discussed in this site-specificinformation. Although the specific sampling dates were notprovided, all samples were collected and analyzed in 1990.

CBU Drum Storage Area (3)

Surface soil was the environmental medium sampled at the CBUDrum Storage Area.

    Soil

    Surface soil samples were collected to identifycontaminants present in the top 18 inches of soil. Sevensamples were collected from three on-site locations. Thesamples were collected at depths of 0 - 6 inches and at 12- 18 inches. One sample was a composite of surface soil (0- 6 inches) from two sampling locations at the site. VOCs,SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, total petroleum hydrocarbons(individual chemicals were not specified), and inorganicchemicals were analyzed. Only the composite sample wasanalyzed for inorganic chemicals. Lead was the onlycontaminant identified above comparison values. Cadmiumwas detected at 2,100 parts per billion (ppb), which isbelow health comparison values for soil.




Table 5.

Contaminant in Surface Soil at CBU Drum Storage Area (3)
ChemicalConcentration
(ppba)
Comparison Value
Concentration
(ppb)
Source
LeadNAb - 59,30053,200cRegionalBackground
a - ppb = parts per billion
b - NA = Not Analyzed
c - no health criteria established for this environmental medium; comparison value = background level (US Geological Survey regional value)

No other environmental medium has been sampled for analyses atthis site.

Rubble Fill at Bunker A-86 (3)

Surface soil was the environmental medium sampled at theRubble Fill at Bunker A-86.

    Soil

    Five soil samples were collected and analyzed from twosampling locations north (downgradient) of the site. Notall samples were analyzed for every chemical group. One ofthe five samples was a composite of soil from the twosampling locations. Only the composite sample (0 - 6inches) was analyzed for SVOs, PAHs, inorganic chemicals,and pesticides. The inorganic chemicals, lead and cadmiumwere detected at low levels not exceeding comparisonvalues. Three samples were analyzed for VOCs. No VOCsexceeded comparison values. Two surface soil (0 - 6inches) samples were analyzed for PCBs. PCBs were notdetected.



Table 6.

Contaminants in Surface Soil at Rubble Fill at Bunker A-86 (3)
ChemicalConcentration
(ppba)
Comparison Value
Concentration
(ppb)
Source
Benzo(a)anthracene
NAb - 2,700
120
CREGc
Benzo(a)pyrene
NA - 1,800Jd
120
CREG
Chrysene
NA - 3,200
120
CREG
a - ppb = parts per billion
b - NA = Not Analyzed (some samples)
c - CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide. The CREG value has been calculated using the EPA Region IV Interim Guidance for Cancer SlopeFactor for the polycyclic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene.
d - J = estimated value

Torpedo Shops (3)

Environmental media sampled for this site consisted ofsubsurface soil, groundwater, and soil gas.

    Soil

    Nine soil samples were collected from the two former septictank drainage line fields for Buildings 450 and 325. Building 450 lines are considered the North System whileBuilding 325 lines are designated the South System. Allnine samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOs, pesticides,PCBs, and inorganic chemicals.

    Three subsurface (2 - 4 feet) soil samples were collectedfrom the North System area. Five subsurface (4 - 8 feet)soil samples were collected from the South System area. One surface/subsurface sample (0 - 2 feet) was collectedfrom an upgradient area east of the site to representpossible background levels at this location on thesubmarine base. PAHs were detected at higherconcentrations in the sample taken from the upgradient wellboring location, adjacent to the Torpedo Shops. The levelsof PAHs detected in soil were below comparison values. ThePCB contaminant, PCB 1254 was detected in one of the ninesubsurface soil samples analyzed for PCBs.

    Antimony was detected in six of the nine subsurface soilsamples. Samples containing antimony were identified fromthe upgradient well location, from one of three samplestaken from the North System at a depth of 2 - 4 feet, andfrom four of the five samples taken from the South System. All samples containing antimony were identified atconcentrations below comparison values.




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Table 7.

Contaminants in Soil at the Torpedo Shops (3)
ChemicalConcentration
(ppba)
Comparison Value
North SystemSouth SystemConcentration
(ppb)
Source
PCB 1254b
NDc
ND - 600
91
CREGd
a - ppb = parts per billion.
b - Polychlorinated Biphenyl. This chemical is grouped within a chemical classification of (PCBs).
c - ND = Not Detected
d - CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide

    Groundwater

    Three groundwater monitoring wells were installed at theTorpedo Shops. One well was installed in each system(North and South) and one well in the upgradient samplingarea. The upgradient well was drilled into the bedrock andscreened at a depth of 11 feet because of the shallow depthof bedrock in that area. The other wells are shallowoverburden wells screened at 10 and 7 feet. Groundwaterwas analyzed for VOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, andinorganic chemicals.

    Antimony was only detected in the one well in the SouthSystem. Lead and cadmium were detected at trace levels,below comparison values in all samples including thelaboratory blanks, indicating a possible low levelbackground concentration.




Table 8.

Contaminants in Groundwater at the Torpedo Shops (3)
ChemicalConcentration
(ppba)
Comparison Value
North SystemSouth SystemConcentration
(ppb)
Source
Antimony
NDb
108Jc
4
from RfDd
a - ppb = parts per billion
b - ND = Not Detected
c - J = estimated value
d - RfD = Reference Dose

    Soil Gas

    Twenty-eight soil gas measurements were taken at the site.However, the data were not reported as concentrations. Measurements were recorded as volt/seconds (Vs) whichrepresent relative quantities as compared to othermeasurements. A reading of greater than (>) >300 Vs wasconsidered "high," a reading of 50.1 - 300 Vs wasconsidered "moderate," a reading of 2.1 - 50 Vs wasconsidered "low," a reading of 0.3 - 2.0 Vs was considered"trace," and a reading less than (<) <0.3 Vs was consideredas "not detected." The only "high" reading was an"unknown" compound that was speculated to be toluene. Benzene was recorded at "trace-low" readings. Benzene mayhave been present in other positive readings.

Goss Cove Landfill (3)

The field investigations at this site consisted of radiation,geophysical, and soil gas surveys. Additionally, samples werecollected from soil, groundwater, and surface water.

At Goss Cove, 458 measurements for radiation were made atground surface or at waist level. No readings were detectedabove normal background levels.

A geophysical survey consisting of a combination ofmagnetometry, electromagnetic conductivity (EM), and groundpenetrating radar (GPR) was conducted on the ground surface todetermine if drums or other metal objects were buried on thesite. Buried metal objects were identified at three locationsbetween 10 - 25 feet beneath ground surface.

    Soil

    Seven soil samples collected at depths ranging from 4 - 12feet were analyzed for VOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, andinorganic chemicals. Oil stains and sheens were noted onapproximately half the soil borings taken.

    The soil borings showed the depth of fill to range from 10to 20 feet. All soil samples were collected from withinthe landfill material, and generally at or below the watertable.

    PCBs were detected in three of seven samples collected. The PAHs, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were detected inall of the seven soil samples collected. Benzo(a)pyrenewas detected in four of the seven samples collected. Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene weredetected in one of the seven soil samples collected. Bothbenzo(b)fluoroanthene and benzo(k)fluoroanthene weredetected in five of seven samples collected. Since GossCove Landfill is asphalt covered, the source of these PAHsis questionable and could come from the asphalt covering.Lead was detected at estimated levels above background insix samples. PCB 1248 was detected in three of sevensamples collected.

    DDE, and DDD were detected in two of the seven samplesanalyzed. The levels of DDE and DDD were below the healthrelated comparison values. DDT was detected in foursamples. DDT was detected at levels below 100 ppb in threeseparate locations. Another sample identified DDT at anestimated concentration of 3,400 ppb.




Table 9:

Selected Contaminants in Subsurface Soil at Goss Cove Landfill (3)
ChemicalConcentration
(ppba)
Comparison Value
Concentration
(ppb)
Source
PCB 1248
NDb - 4,900Xc
91
EMEGd
Benzo(a)anthracene
320Je - 19,000
120
CREGf
Benzo(a)pyrene
ND - 9,300
120
CREGf
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
ND - 19,000
120
CREGf
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
ND - 7,600XJ
120
CREGf
Chrysene
340J - 20,000
120
CREGf
DDT
ND - 3,400XJ
2,100
CREGf
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
ND - 4,100
120
CREGf
Lead26,500J - 3,020,000J53,200gRegionalBackground
a - ppb = parts per billion
b - ND = Not Detected
c - X = computer edited value
d - EMEG = Environmental Medium Evaluation Guide
e - J = estimated value
f - CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide. The CREG value has been calculated using the EPA Region IV Interim Guidance for Cancer SlopeFactor for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene.
g - no health criteria established for this environmental medium; comparison value = background level (US Geological Survey regional value)

    Groundwater

    Four monitoring wells, all screened in the overburden watertable, were sampled for VOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs,inorganic chemicals, and gross alpha and beta radiation. Three of the wells are located within the former landfill,while one well is upgradient of the site.

    Naphthalene was detected in two of four groundwater samplescollected. Gross alpha radiation was detected in three offour groundwater samples. Gross beta radiation wasdetected in three of four groundwater samples. In one ofthose samples, gross beta radiation exceeded comparisonvalues.



Table 10.

Selected Contaminants in Groundwater at the Goss Cove Landfill (3)
ChemicalConcentration Comparison Value
ConcentrationSource
Naphthalene
4Ja - 62 ppbb
20 ppb
LTHAc
Gross Alpha Radiation
0.0 - 28.9 pCi/Ld
15 pCi/L
MCLe
Gross Beta Radiation
21.7 - 134 pCi/L
50 pCi/L
MCLf
a - J = estimated value
b - ppb = parts per billion
c - LTHA = Lifetime Health Advisory
d - pCi/L = picoCuries per liter
e - MCL = Maximum Contaminant Level
f - screening value used; beta particles and photon radioactivity that results in </=4 milliRoentgen per year total body dose equivalent (theMaximum Contaminant Level)

    Surface Water

    One surface water sample was collected from the ThamesRiver downstream from the Goss Cove Landfill. The samplewas analyzed for VOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, inorganicchemicals, and gross alpha and beta radiation. No selectedcontaminants were detected above comparison values.

    Soil Gas

    Sixty-four soil gas points were analyzed. Most of thesamples were taken from the area beneath the paved parkinglot. Sampling results do not include analysis for methanegas. Methane gas is a naturally occurring gas producedduring the decay process present in landfills. It ishighly explosive and elevated concentrations may becometrapped in confined areas such as cabinets or closets. Phase II sampling will include analysis for methane gas.

    Trace to low levels of the VOCs, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, benzene, and toluenewere detected. Actual sampling results were not includedin the Installation Restoration Study (3).

    Three samples containing moderate to high levels ofunidentified compounds mixed with benzene, toluene, andxylenes were identified. Further analysis indicates thepresence of a petroleum product (3). These elevated levelsof VOCs are in the vicinity where elevated soilconcentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons were detected.

Over Bank Disposal Area (3)

Soil and sediment were sampled at this site. The discussionof sediment sampling is included in the Area A DownstreamWatercourses section that follows.

    Soil

    Five soil samples were collected from two locations at thesite. Three of the samples were collected at depths of 0 -6 inches, and two samples were collected at depths of 12 -18 inches. One of the samples collected at the 0 to 6 -inch depth was a composite sample of the two locations. The 12 to 18-inch samples were analyzed for VOCs only. Thecomposite sample was analyzed for SVOs, pesticides, PCBs,and inorganic chemicals. The other two 0 to 6-inch sampleswere analyzed for selected inorganic chemicals only. Leadand cadmium were detected at low levels below healthrelated comparison values.

Spent Acid Storage and Disposal Area (3)

Soil was the medium sampled at the Spent Acid Storage andDisposal Area.

    Soil

    Six soil samples were collected at depths of 0 - 4 feet and4 - 8 feet. One additional sample was collected from thegravel used to fill the spent acid tank. One samplecollected near the sanitary sewer line was analyzed forVOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, and inorganic chemicals. Theother samples were analyzed for a selected number ofinorganic chemicals only. No contaminants were detected atlevels above health comparison values.

Former Gasoline Station (3)

Investigations at this site included geophysical survey, soil,and soil gas sampling.

A geophysical survey using GPR indicated that only one of thethree underground storage tanks remains below the ground.

    Soil

    Five subsurface soil samples were collected at depthsranging from 8 - 16 feet. The samples were analyzed forVOCs and inorganic chemicals. Samples were collected tothe north, east, and southwest of that location. Cadmiumand lead were detected in all samples at traceconcentrations not exceeding health comparison values.

    Soil Gas

    Eleven soil gas samples all collected beneath the pavedroad were analyzed. No VOCs were detected at moderate orhigh levels.

Area A (3)

Area A is divided into three areas: Area A Landfill, Area AWetland, and Area A Downstream Watercourses.

The Step II investigations of Area A consisted of a radiation,geophysical, and soil gas survey within the former landfillonly. Soil, groundwater, surface water, and soil gas samplingwas performed throughout Area A. All groundwater data forArea A is combined in Table 14.

Area A Landfill (3)

A total of 1,272 measurements were taken for radiation.Radiation detected was determined to be naturally occurring.

Geophysical investigations using GPR, magnetic andelectromagnetic conductivity were conducted at ground surface.Metal objects, some of which were "large," were determined tobe at depths of 5 feet and 8 feet below ground surface (3).

    Soil

    Twelve subsurface soil samples were collected from eightlocations in the landfill area. Two surface soil sampleswere also analyzed. The samples were collected at the siteand analyzed for VOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, andinorganic chemicals.

    In subsurface soil samples, benzo(a)anthracene was detectedin three of twelve samples analyzed. Benzo(b)fluoranthene,benzo(k)fluoranthene, and chrysene were detected inapproximately six of twelve samples collected. Benzo(a)pyrene was detected in three of twelve samplescollected. Cadmium was detected at low levels notexceeding health related comparison values. Landfillmaterials were encountered during drilling to anapproximate depth of 10 - 12 feet, which was beneathdredged sediment from the Area A Wetland.

    In surface soil samples, PCBs, DDT, and lead were detectedin both samples analyzed. Benzo(a)anthracene,benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and chrysenewere detected in one of two samples collected.




Table 11.

Selected Contaminants in Soil at Area A Landfill (3)
ChemicalConcentration (ppba)Comparison Value
Surface SoilSubsurface SoilConcentration
(ppb)
Source
PCB 1260350J - 12,000ND91CREG
Benzo(a)anthraceneND - 130J
NDb - 570Jc
120
CREGd
Benzo(a)pyreneND
ND - 310J
120
CREGd
Benzo(b)fluorantheneND - 220J
ND - 280J
120
CREGd
Benzo(k)fluorantheneND - 96J
ND - 560J
120
CREGd
ChryseneND - 160J
ND - 460J
120
CREGd
DDT71J - 23,000ND - 83XJ2,100CREG
Lead36,200 - 85,700
5,500J - 277,000J
53,200e
Regional
Background
a - ppb = parts per billion
b - ND = Not Detected
c - J = estimated value
d - CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide. The CREG value has been calculated using the EPA Region IV Interim Guidance for Cancer SlopeFactor for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene.
f - no health criteria established for this environmental medium; comparison value = background level (US Geological Survey regional value)

Area A Wetland (3)

Investigations at the Area A Wetland included soil, sediment,surface water, and groundwater analysis. All groundwater datafor Area A is combined in Table 14.

    Soil and Sediment

    Thirty-three subsurface soil samples were collected fromtwelve locations within the Area A Wetland. The samplingdepths taken ranged from 0 - 2 feet to 16 - 18 feet. Benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were detected in 15 of 33samples collected. Benzo(a)pyrene was detected in six of33 samples collected. Benzo(b)fluoranthene andbenzo(k)fluoranthene were each detected in 11 of 33 samplescollected. Lead was detected above naturally occurringbackground levels in three of 33 samples collected. Nine sediment samples were also collected. All sampleswere analyzed for VOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, andinorganic chemicals. Benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene were each detected in oneof nine samples collected. Benzo(a)anthracene and DDE wereeach detected in two of nine samples collected. Benzo(b)fluoranthene, and benzo(k)fluoranthene, andchrysene were detected in three of the samples. Lead wasdetected above naturally occurring background levels infour of nine samples collected. Cadmium was not detectedabove naturally occurring background levels.




Table 12:

Selected Contaminants in Soil and Sediment at Area A Wetland (3)
ChemicalConcentration (ppba)Comparison Value
Subsurface SoilSedimentConcentration
(ppb)
Source
Benzo(a)anthracene
ND - 370J
ND - 27,000
120
CREGd
Benzo(a)pyrene
ND - 390J
ND - 35,000
120
CREGd
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
ND - 550J
ND - 55,000Y
120
CREGd
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
ND - 390J
ND - 45,000Y
120
CREGd
Benzo(g,h,i)peryleneNDND - 23,000120CREGd
ChryseneND - 600JND - 42,000120CREGd
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene270JND - 23,000120CREGd
Lead3,600 - 298,000
21,300 - 241,000
53,200e
RegionalBackground
a - ppb = parts per billion
b - ND = Not Detected
c - J = estimated value
d - CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide. The CREG value has been calculated using the EPA Region IV Interim Guidance for Cancer SlopeFactor for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene.
f - no health criteria established for this environmental medium; comparison value = background level (US Geological Survey regional value)

Area A Downstream Watercourses and Overbank Disposal Area (3)

Investigations at this site included geophysical evaluation(reported in under Area A geophysical evaluation), soil, andsediment analysis.

    Soil and Sediment

    Five subsurface soil samples were collected from fivemonitoring well locations. These sampling depths rangedfrom 0 - 3 feet to 3 - 5 feet. All samples were analyzedfor VOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, and inorganic chemicals. Benzo(k)fluoranthene and DDD were detected in one of fivesubsurface soil samples. DDE and DDT were detected in twoof five subsurface soil samples. Lead levels detected inthe five samples did not exceed naturally occurringbackground levels.

    Twenty-three sediment samples were collected from the AreaA Downstream Watercourses, OBDA, and associated ponds. Thesamples were collected from 18 sampling locations. Thesamples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, andinorganic chemicals. Benzo(a)anthracene, and chrysene weredetected in nine of 23 samples collected. Benzo(b)fluoranthene was detected in eight samplescollected. Benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(k)fluoranthene weredetected in six samples collected. Lead was detected abovenaturally occurring regional background levels in sixsamples. Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, was detected in foursamples. DDD, DDE, DDT were detected in 18 samples. PCB1260 was detected in one sample collected.




Table 13.

Selected Contaminants in Soil and Sediment at Area A Downstream
Watercourses and Overbank Disposal Areas (3)
ChemicalConcentration (ppba)Comparison Value
Subsurface SoilSedimentConcentration
(ppb)
Source
Benzo(a)anthraceneND
NDb - 850Jc
120
CREGd
Benzo(a)pyreneND
ND - 640J
120
CREGd
Benzo(b)fluorantheneND
ND - 750J
120
CREGd
Benzo(k)fluorantheneND - 50JY
ND - 320J
120
CREGd
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyreneND
ND - 1,200J
120
CREGd
ChryseneND
ND - 1,200J
120
CREGd
DDDeND - 61
ND - 1,700,000J
2,900
CREGf
DDEgND - 28JY
ND - 28,000J
2,100
CREG
DDThND - 74 ND - 240,000J2,100CREG
Lead5,100 - 28,0005,000J - 223,00053,200iRegional
Background
PCB 1260NDND - 280JX91CREG
a - ppb = parts per billion
b - ND = Not Detected
c - J = estimated value
d - CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide. The CREG value has been calculated using the EPA Region IV Interim Guidance for Cancer SlopeFactor for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene.
e - DDD = p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane
f - CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide.
g - DDE = p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene
h - DDT = p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
i - no health criteria established for this environmental medium; comparison value = US Geological Survey background level
    Groundwater

    Twenty-eight monitoring wells were installed throughoutArea A Landfill, Area A Wetland, and the Area A DownstreamWatercourses. Eleven of these wells are in the shallow,overburden water table. The other 17 wells are screened inthe bedrock aquifer. Samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOs,pesticides, PCBs, inorganic chemicals, and radiation. Benzene, cadmium, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, lead, PCB 1254,1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and grossBeta radiation were each detected in one of 28 samplesanalyzed.

    Gross Alpha radiation was detected in five of the 28samples. Manganese was detected in three of the 28samples. Sodium was detected at levels above healthcomparison values in 20 of the 28 samples analyzed.




Table 14.

Selected Contaminants in Groundwater at Area A
Landfill, Area A Wetland, and Area A Downstream Watercourses (3)
Chemical Concentration Comparison Value
Concentration Source
Benzene ND - 10Ja ppbb 0 ppb Carcinogen
Cadmium NDc - 44.8J ppb 2 ppb EMEGd
1,4-Dichlorobenzene ND - 99J ppb 75 ppb LTHAe
Lead ND - 22.4J ppb 15 ppb Action Levelf
Manganese 2.3 - 8,130 ppb 3,000 ppb RfDg
PCB 1254 ND - 150Xh ppb 0.05 ppb EMEG
Sodium 9,000 - 1,360,000 ppb 20,000 ppb DWELi
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane ND - 140 ppb 0.175 ppb CREGj
Trichloroethylene ND - 17 ppb 0 ppb MCLGk
Gross Alpha Radiation 0 - 42.2 pCi/Ll 15 pCi/L MCLm
Gross Beta Radiation 2.8 - 56.3 pCi/L 50 pCi/L MCLn
a - J = estimated value
b - ppb = parts per billion
c - ND = Not Detected
d - EMEG = Environmental Medium Evaluation Guide
e - LTHA = Lifetime Health Advisory
f - AL = Action Level. No health criteria established for this environmental medium
g - Reference Dose
h - X = computer edited value
i - DWEL = Drinking Water Equivalent Level (EPA guidance)
j - CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
k - MCLG = Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
l - pCi/L = picoCuries per liter
m - MCL = Maximum Contaminant Level
n - screening value used; beta particles and photon radioactivity that results in </=4 milliRoentgen per year total body dose equivalent (theMaximum Contaminant Level)

    Surface Water

    Fifteen surface water samples were collected. Seven fromArea A Wetland, six from Area A Downstream Watercourses,and two from the Thames River. The samples were analyzedfor VOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, and inorganic chemicals. Four of the 15 samples analyzed for radiation detectedlevels below health comparison values. Cadmium wasdetected above health comparison values for drinking waterin one of the 15 samples analyzed. DDD was detected in oneof 15 samples analyzed. Lead was detected in 11 of the 15samples analyzed.



Table 15.

Selected Contaminants in Surface Water at Area A Wetland,
Area A Downstream Watercourses, and the Thames River (3)
ChemicalConcentration
(ppba)
Comparison Value
Concentration
(ppb)
Source
CadmiumNDb - 126Jc2 EMEGd
DDDND - 1.90.15CREGe
Lead ND - 715 Action Levelf
    a - ppb = parts per billion
    b - ND = Not Detected
    c - J = estimated value
    d - EMEG = Environmental Medium Evaluation Guide
    e - CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
    f - AL = Action Level. No health criteria established for this environmental medium

    Soil Gas

    Soil gas measurements were taken at 160 locations in theArea A Landfill. "High" readings were detected at 20locations. The compounds detected in the "high" range arebelieved to include benzene, toluene, trichloroethylene,tetrachloroethylene, dichloroethylene, and xylenes.

    Biota

    Frog and bird (catbird fledgling) tissues from the Area AWetland were analyzed only for metals and pesticides. Nocontaminants were detected.

DRMO (3)

The Step II investigations at this site consisted ofradiation, geophysical, and soil gas surveys. Soil,groundwater, and surface water were the media sampled.

A total of 372 radiation measurements were made. All werewithin the naturally occurring background radiation levels forthis region.

Because of the extensive surface metals (buildings and objectsthose awaiting auction) present at this site, theapplicability of magnetic measuring methods is limited.

    Soil

    Four surface soil samples were collected at depths of 0 -0.5 feet. All samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOs,pesticides, PCBs, and inorganic chemicals. Benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(k)fluoranthene were detectedin one of the four surface soil samples analyzed. Benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, and lead were each detectedin two of the four surface soil samples analyzed. PCB 1260was detected in all four surface soil samples analyzed. Lead was detected above naturally occurring backgroundlevels in two of the four samples analyzed.

    Twenty-four subsurface soil samples were collected atdepths ranging from 0 - 2 feet to 8 - 10 feet. All sampleswere analyzed for VOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, andinorganic chemicals. PCB 1260 was detected in 12 of 24subsurface soil samples analyzed. Benzo(a)anthracene andchrysene were each detected in 18 of 24 samples analyzed. Benzo(a)pyrene was detected in ten of 24 samples analyzed. Benzo(b)fluoranthene was detected in 16 of 24 samplesanalyzed. Benzo(k)fluoranthene was detected in 11 of 24samples analyzed. DDD, DDE, DDT, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane were detected in one subsurface soilsample analyzed. Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene was detected insix of 24 samples analyzed. Lead was detected abovenaturally occurring background levels in 14 of 24 surfacesoil samples analyzed.



Table 16.

elected Contaminants in Soil at DRMO (3)
ChemicalConcentration
(ppba)
Comparison Value
Surface SoilSubsurface SoilConcentration
(ppb)
Source
PCB 1260
550Jb - 3,100J
NDc - 12,000J
91
CREGd
Benzo(a)anthracene
ND - 570J
ND - 4,600
120
CREGe
Benzo(a)pyrene
ND
ND - 4,500
120
CREGe
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
ND - 440J
ND - 4,700
120
CREGe
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
ND - 310J
ND - 4,000
120
CREGe
Chrysene
ND - 560J
ND - 4,200
120
CREGe
DDD
ND
ND - 16,000J
2,916.7
CREGd
DDE
ND
ND - 8,800J
2,100
CREGd
DDT
ND
ND - 33,000J
2,100
CREGd
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
ND
ND - 3,600
120
CREGe
Lead20,700J - 204,0002,900J - 8,130,00053,200Regional

Background

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
ND
ND - 34,000
3,500
CREGd
    a - ppb = parts per billion
    b - J = estimated value
    c - ND = Not Detected
    d - CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
    e - CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide The CREG value has been calculated using the EPA Region IV Interim Guidance for Cancer SlopeFactor for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene.
    f - no health criteria established for this environmental medium; comparison value = US Geological Survey background level

    Groundwater

    Six monitoring well samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOs,pesticides, PCBs, and inorganic chemicals. Five of thewells are screened in the overburden water table and one isscreened in the bedrock aquifer.

    Surface Water

    One surface water sample was collected from the ThamesRiver and analyzed for VOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, andinorganic chemicals.

    Soil Gas

    A soil gas survey was performed at the site. One "high"reading was detected; the chemicals detected are believedto include benzene, toluene, and other unknownconstituents.

Lower Subase (3)

Field investigations consisted of a utility manhole inspectionand waterfront bulkhead inspection for evidence ofcontamination sources/residuals. Other sampling included asoil gas survey, soil, and groundwater sampling. Noradiological survey was performed at the Lower Subase.

A total of 212 utility manholes were inspected on two days inDecember 1990, and two days in April 1991. The utilitymanholes consisted of storm sewer, sanitary sewer, steam,electric, telephone, and sand manholes. Inspection consistedof removing manhole covers to note manhole type, and anyvisible evidence of oil contamination such as oil sheens onwater or discolored sediment, or any petroleum odors. Neitherair nor soil sampling was performed in the manholes. No oilsheens were observed along the waterfront.

Contamination sources in all but one manhole appear to be fromproduct releases from underground fuel lines and storage tankleaks. Oil in one manhole possibly originated from the formerwaste oil pits in Building 79 (3).

    Soil

    Subsurface soil samples were collected from 17 borings andanalyzed for VOCs, total petroleum hydrocarbons, andinorganic chemicals. The sampling depths ranged from 2 - 4feet and 14 - 16 feet. In addition to those samples, fivetest borings were made at Building 79. Samples werescreened for organic vapors and were visually inspected forcontamination, but they were not analyzed for chemicalconstituents. Lead was detected in only one sample abovebackground concentrations. Total petroleum hydrocarbonswere detected at concentrations ranging from not detected -14,000,000 parts per billion. Although the individualconstituents of "total petroleum hydrocarbons" were notprovided, fluorescence spectroscopy data indicate thepresence of waste lubricating oils, Number 2 fuel/dieseloil, asphalt/tar, and waste oil/heavy residual fuel oil(such as Number 6 fuel oil) mixture. No other contaminantsabove health comparison values were identified.

    Groundwater

    Groundwater samples were collected from 24 monitoring wellsand analyzed for volatile organic chemicals, totalpetroleum hydrocarbons, and inorganic chemicals. All wellswere screened in the overburden water table. Totalpetroleum hydrocarbons were detected in one sample at aconcentration of 5,400 parts per billion. The individualconstituents of "total petroleum hydrocarbons" were notprovided, but fluorescence spectroscopy data indicate thepresence of waste oil/heavy residual fuel oil (such asNumber 6 fuel oil) mixture, Number 2 diesel oil, wastelubricating oils, and heavy residual fuel oil. The otherselected contaminants are listed in the following table.



 

Table 17.

Selected Contaminants in Groundwater at Lower Subase (3)
ChemicalConcentration
(ppba)
Comparison Value
Concentration
(ppb)
Source
Benzene
NDb - 5
1.2
CREGc
Cadmium
ND - 25.5Jd
2
EMEGe
Lead
ND - 22.2
15
Action Levelf
    a - ppb = parts per billion
    b - ND = Not Detected
    c - CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
    d - J = estimated value
    e - EMEG = Environmental Medium Evaluation Guide
    f - AL = Action Level. This contaminant has been selected for further evaluation because no health criteria are available for evaluating its presencein drinking water; lead is classified by the Environmental Protection Agency as being a probable human carcinogen.

    Soil Gas

    A soil gas survey was conducted on the site. A total of127 locations were sampled. Two "high" readings wereidentified. Benzene, toluene, and xylenes (among otherunknown constituents) were the chemicals believed to causethese readings.

North Lake (7)

Soil and surface water were investigated at this site.

    Soil

    Sixteen soil (beach and sediment) samples at North Lakewere collected in 1988 and 1990. Samples were analyzed forVOCs, SVOs, phthalate esters, pesticides, PCBs, andinorganic chemicals. The samples were all designated as"soil" samples without distinguishing which were from thebeach area and which were sediments. No contaminantsdetected were above health comparison values.

    Surface Water

    Surface water samples were collected in 1988, 1990, and1991 and analyzed for VOCs, SVOs, phthalate esters,pesticides, PCBs, and inorganic chemicals. No contaminantsdetected were above health comparison values.

Rock Lake

Surface water was the medium sampled at this site.

    Surface Water

    Samples were collected in 1991 and analyzed for the sameparameters as the North Lake samples: VOCs, SVOs,phthalate esters, pesticides, PCBs, and inorganicchemicals. No contaminants above health comparison valueswere detected in the samples.

C. Off-Base Contamination (7)

During the assessment of the New London Submarine Base, thepreparers of this document searched the Toxic Chemical ReleaseInventory (TRI) to determine other sources of chemicalreleases into the environment in the areas near New LondonSubmarine Base. The TRI is an on-line database, maintained byEPA, that contains information (self-reported by chemicalmanufacturers and other industries) about more than 320different chemicals released into the environment. Data hasbeen compiled for the period between 1987 and 1990. The NewLondon Submarine Base is not a manufacturing facility and,therefore, is not subject to reporting releases to the TRI. However, the submarine base must comply with all other stateand federal reporting requirements for actual chemicalreleases.

TRI database reported chemical releases made to air, land, andsurface water points for VOCs and inorganic chemicals such asheavy metals from industrial sources within the zip code areasof New London, Groton, and Norwich, Connecticut.

Residential Wells

A total of twenty-three residential wells were sampled toevaluate overall groundwater quality and to determine if on-base contaminants have migrated off base, impactingneighboring areas. Depths of residential wells vary widelyfrom a surface spring to a 300-feet deep bedrock well. Wellsare designated by the letters OSW followed by a number.

    Groundwater

    The first round of sampling in 1991 included analysis of 14wells for VOCs, SVOs, inorganic chemicals, pesticides, andPCBs. Sampling locations were chosen based on proximity tothe submarine base and willingness of individual homeownersto have their wells tested (7). Generally, the residentialwells were located on roads closest to the Area A and DRMOsites: Sleepy Hollow, Pinelock Drive, Long Cove Road, andRoute 12.

    The second round of sampling in 1991 included confirmatoryanalysis of inorganic chemicals in four wells plus theinorganic chemical analysis on eight additional wells. Onewell from round 1 had only VOC analysis performed duringthe second round. The second round of sampling extendedthe sampling area to the east of Baldwin Hill Road andNorth Pleasant Valley Road.

    The third round of sampling in 1991 included confirmatoryinorganic chemical analysis on six wells from round 2sampling plus total analysis (VOCs, SVOCs, inorganicchemicals, pesticides, and PCBs) on one additional well notpreviously sampled.

    In August of 1992, the Connecticut State Department ofEnvironmental Protection in conjunction with theConnecticut State Department of Health Services analyzed 10of those previously sampled wells for VOCs and inorganicchemicals.

    In September of 1992, the Navy performed boron analysis ontwo of those wells previously sampled by the state andeight residential wells previously sampled in the firstround. Boron levels were near or below detection limits.

    During the first sampling round, lead was detected abovethe action level of 15 ppb in OSW 10 (39 ppb). In thesecond sampling round, lead was detected above 15 ppb inOSW 23 (32 ppb), OSW 21 (18 ppb), and OSW 6 (estimated at17 ppb).

    Subsequent confirmatory sampling showed lead levels to bebelow the action level in all but two wells, OSW 10 and OSW23. Concern for lead levels in those private wells promptedthe Navy to performed detailed lead analysis. Water wastaken at the well head and at the tap prior to flushing,then again after a five minute flushing at both locations. Well OSW 10 showed lead levels to be below the detectionlimit of 3 ppb in all four samplings. Further analysis byanother lab showed the actual lead concentration to be 1.7ppb. Well OSW 23 showed lead levels ranging from < 3 ppbto 37 ppb. This residential well showed lead levels to belowest (< 3 ppb) after flushing the line for five minutesand highest prior to flushing. Overall, lead levels inprivate wells were higher than the levels found ingroundwater at the Area A Landfill on base.

    The VOCs, methylene chloride and total xylenes weredetected at trace levels, below health comparison values inone residential well (OSW 15) during the first round. Chloromethane, another VOC, was also detected in thatresidential well at an estimated value above healthcomparison values for drinking water. This well wasresampled during the second round of sampling and again byCTDHS; no VOCs were detected. Chloromethane has not beendetected in groundwater at any of the sites on theinstallation.

    Cadmium was detected during the first sampling round inresidential well OSW 6. However, cadmium was not detectedin that residential well in the second and third samplingrounds or by CTDHS. Cadmium was detected at trace levelsin samples from seven other wells; however, the presence ofcadmium in the wells is questionable because cadmium wasalso detected in the laboratory control samples.

    Sodium was detected at levels above the health comparisonvalue in six of the 23 residential wells tested.

    Contaminants detected in private residential wells werefound to be hydrogeologically unconnected, (depths of wellsvaried from shallow to deep) and geographically unconnected(homes not adjacent to each other). No defined plume ofcontamination has been identified beneath the submarinebase. The source(s) of contamination in residential wellshas not been identified.



3)">

Table 18.

Selected Contaminants in Private Wells Located Off Base Near
Area A Landfill (3)
ChemicalConcentration
(ppba)
Comparison Value
Concentration
(ppb)
Source
Chloromethane
NDb - 27Jc
3
LTHAd
Cadmium
ND - 26.3
2
EMEGe
Lead
ND - 38.8
15
Action Levelf
Sodium
3,540 - 34,600
20,000
DWELg
    a - ppb = parts per billion
    b - ND = Not Detected
    c - J = estimated value
    d - LTHA = Lifetime Health Advisory
    e - EMEG = Environmental Medium Evaluation Guide
    f - This contaminant has been selected for further evaluation because no health criteria are available for evaluating its presence in drinking water;lead is classified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a probable human carcinogen.
    g - DWEL - Drinking Water Equivalent Level

Residential Property (7)

An investigation consisting of surface water and sedimentsampling was conducted as part of the RI/FS to determine ifon-base contaminants have migrated off base, impactingneighboring areas.

    Surface Water

    Three sampling points were selected in an off-base streamoriginating along the perimeter road at the northernportion of the base and flowing off-base to the north. Oneround of sampling was conducted. All samples were analyzedfor VOCs, SVOs, inorganic chemicals, pesticides, and PCBs. No contaminants were detected above health comparisonvalues.

    Sediment

    Three sediment samples were collected from a stream bed,which flows from the submarine base, (north of the Area ALandfill/Wetland) north to off-base residential areas. The samples were analyzed for VOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs,and inorganic chemicals. Pesticides DDE and DDD weredetected in the sediment of the stream bed at the samplingpoint at the submarine base perimeter. The second samplingpoint further off base (north) and downgradient of surfacewater flow, detected only trace amounts of DDE and no DDD. The third sampling point off base in the residential areadowngradient from the submarine base did not detect anypesticides. The levels of pesticides detected were belowhealth comparison values for children. Lead was detectedin sediment nearest the residential area at backgroundlevels. No chemicals were detected at levels above healthcomparison values.

Thames River (7)

An investigation consisting of surface water and sedimentsampling was conducted at points adjacent to on-base areas ofcontamination to determine if on-base contaminants havemigrated off base, impacting the Thames River.

Surface Water

Four surface water sampling points were selected in theThames River adjacent to on-base surface drainage outfalls.One surface water sample was collected from the ThamesRiver downstream from the Goss Cove Landfill. One samplewas collected from an up-stream area at the DRMO site. Twosamples were collected from outfalls of the Area ADownstream Watercourses. All samples were analyzed forVOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, inorganic chemicals, andgross alpha and beta radiation.

Sediment

Two sediment samples were collected from the Thames River,adjacent to on-base areas of contamination. The sampleswere analyzed for VOCs, SVOs, pesticides, PCBs, andinorganic chemicals. No chemicals were detected at levelsabove health comparison values.

D. Quality Assurance and Quality Control

The quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) report waspresented in Appendix C, Remedial Investigation, NavalSubmarine Base New London, Groton, Connecticut. Samplecollections and analyses followed proposed protocols. Thedata provided to ATSDR for review consisted primarily oflaboratory summaries rather than actual laboratory reports. ATSDR's conclusions concerning the sites on this installationare determined by the accuracy of the data summaries whenactual laboratory data were not available. ATSDR hasdetermined that the data evaluated for this public healthassessment are valid. Qualified data are indicated by acorresponding footnote.

Prompted by public concern over elevated boron levels, theNavy investigation revealed laboratory error caused byinterference of sulfur in boron analysis samples (11). Surface water and groundwater samples were reanalyzed usingtwo different labs and split sampling techniques. Confirmatory sampling revealed that boron concentrations insurface water and groundwater were not elevated.

E. Physical and Other Hazards

Physical Hazards

Soil gas concentrations of volatile organic compoundsincluding benzene, toluene, and xylenes were detected at theGoss Cove Landfill. However, samples were not analyzed formethane, a gas produced by decaying matter, common atlandfills. Since the Nautilus Museum is built on top of thelandfill, soil gases may accumulate in the utility tunnel andmechanical room of the museum building potentially creating aphysical explosive hazard. Proposed Phase II sampling willinclude methane analysis.

Other Hazards

Military housing reported that lead paints and asbestos wereused on the housing units, some within the family housingareas. Navy personnel are currently working to eliminate theproblem.


PATHWAYS ANALYSES

To determine whether humans are exposed to contaminants migratingfrom a site, ATSDR evaluates the environmental and human componentsthat lead to human exposure. This evaluation or pathways analysisconsists of five elements: source of contamination, environmentalmedium in which contaminants may be present or may migrate, pointsof human exposure such as a private water well, a route of humanexposure such as ingestion, inhalation or dermal contact, and areceptor population (people who are exposed or potentially exposed).

ATSDR identifies exposure pathways as completed, potential, oreliminated. For a completed pathway to exist, all of the fiveelements must be present to provide evidence that exposure to acontaminant has occurred in the past, is occurring or will occur inthe future. A potential pathway indicates that at least one of thefive elements is missing, but could exist. Potential pathwaysindicate that exposure to a contaminant could have occurred, couldbe occurring or could occur in the future. Pathways are eliminatedwhen at least one of the five elements is missing and will never bepresent.

Past, present, and future exposure pathways that may present apublic health hazard are discussed in this section.

A. Completed Exposure Pathways

Private Well Pathway

A past, current, and future completed exposure pathway existsfor residents who drink contaminated water or use it for otherhousehold purposes. Exposures to lead, cadmium, and sodiumoccur through the route of ingestion. Exposures to VOCs occurmainly through the route of ingestion; however, skin absorptionand inhalation of contaminants may also occur.

During the first sampling round, lead was detected above theaction level of 15 ppb in OSW 10 (39 ppb). In the secondsampling round, lead was detected above 15 ppb in OSW 23 (32ppb), OSW 21 (18 ppb), and OSW 6 (estimated at 17 ppb).

Subsequent confirmatory sampling showed lead levels to be belowthe action level in all but two wells, OSW 10 and OSW 23. TheNavy then performed detailed lead analysis in those two wells. Water was taken at the well head and at the tap prior toflushing, then again after a five minute flushing at bothlocations. Well OSW 10 showed lead levels to be below thedetection limit of 3 ppb in all four samplings. Furtheranalysis by another lab showed the actual lead concentration tobe 1.7 ppb. Well OSW 23 showed lead levels ranging from< 3 ppb to 37 ppb. This residential well showed lead levels tobe lowest (< 3 ppb) after flushing the line for five minutes andhighest prior to flushing.

There are 11 estimated residences exposed to lead concentrationsabove the action level (OSW 10 serves 10 residences) from wellsOSW 10 and OSW 23. Because lead levels fluctuated above andbelow the action level of 15 ppb, exposure to lead atconcentrations above the health comparison value isintermittent, but could potentially last for longer than oneyear.

Lead found in these private wells does not appear to beoriginating from contaminant sources on base because 1) flushingof the pipes causes a drastic decrease in the concentration oflead from 37 ppb to < 3 ppb, 2) the location of wells containinglead are geographically isolated, and 3) because of thehydrogeology which shows that the varying depths of the wellstap different aquifers: shallow aquifer or bedrock aquifer.

Lead is a common contaminant of household water in the NewEngland area because lead plumbing and/or lead solder were usedin older houses. The natural acidity of the groundwater maycause the lead in pipes to leach into the water. Because thelead detected in OSW 23 dropped to < 3 ppb after flushingindicates that lead is not originating from the groundwater, butfrom piping leading to the home.

The VOCs, methylene chloride and total xylenes were detected attrace levels, below health comparison values in one residentialwell (OSW 15) during the first round. Chloromethane, anotherVOC, was also detected in that residential well at an estimatedvalue above health comparison values for drinking water. Thiswell was resampled during the second round of sampling and againby CTDHS; no VOCs were detected. Chloromethane has not beendetected in groundwater at any of the sites on the installation. Because VOCs were detected in only one sampling event and not inany other subsequent samplings, exposure to VOCs is consideredto be short-term to intermediate in duration.

Cadmium was detected during the first sampling round inresidential well OSW 6. However, cadmium was not detected inthat residential well in the second and third sampling rounds orby CTDHS. Because cadmium was detected in only one samplingevent and not in any other subsequent samplings, exposure tocadmium is considered to be short-term to intermediate induration.

Sodium was detected at levels above the health comparison valuesin four of the 23 residential wells tested. Past, current, andfuture exposure to sodium is considered to be long-term induration.

Sodium is a naturally occurring contaminant in wells located incoastal areas. Saltwater intrusion of well water is a result ofvarying depths at which saltwater and fresh water meet. Depending on the rate at which underground freshwater moves andseveral other factors, such as underground sedimentcharacteristics, wells contaminated with sodium, if not pumped,will over time, flush out saltwater contamination. Humanactivities also contribute sodium to natural waters. Sodiumchloride used as a deicing agent on roads may also enter watersupplies as runoff from both roads and storage depots.

Even though a definitive source has not been established forlead and sodium contamination, residents who use private wellsfor drinking water and household purposes have been and arebeing exposed to lead and sodium in their well water.

Preliminary findings from the Installation Restoration Studyindicate that the shallow aquifer (overburden water table)generally flows toward the Thames River to the west of theinstallation. However, the flow may vary slightly at each site. Hydraulic connection between the shallow aquifer (overburdenwater table) and the deep (bedrock) aquifer has not beenconfirmed. The bedrock aquifer may flow in anorthwest/southeast orientation at some areas of theinstallation (a small section of Area A Landfill), but thecomplex fracture structure of granite makes flow directiondifficult to predict for all areas of the submarine base. Theoverburden water table is contaminated at several sites on theinstallation.

Soil Pathway

The DRMO site is an open-air site partially covered by dirt andgravel with some asphalt covered areas. This site is used as aholding area for scrap materials before they are sold atauction. Materials are placed in rows on the dirt, gravel, andasphalt covered areas by hand, trucks, and large liftingequipment. This continuous activity as well as wind from theThames River frequently cause dust particles to be stirred up. Surface soil is contaminated with PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, andlead. There are three full-time employees at the DRMO site. Human contact with contaminated soil represents a past, current,and future completed exposure pathway through the routes ofinhalation, dermal absorption, and unintentional ingestion ofsurface soil dust for workers.

Once a month, public auctions are held at the DRMO site. Publicattendance ranges from approximately five to 50 people,including children. An intermittent, short-term completedexposure pathway exists for people who contact surface soilcontaminants through inhalation, dermal contact, andunintentional ingestion of surface soil dust.

Surface Water and Sediment Pathways

Area A is comprised of Area A Landfill, Area A Wetland and AreaA Downstream Watercourses. The Area A Landfill received all ofthe waste material from the submarine base until it was closedand partially paved in 1973. Area A Wetland is a man-madewetland adjacent to the landfill. Leachate from the landfilland surface drainage from the Rubble Fill at Bunker A-86 flowsinto the Area A Wetland. Surface water drainage flows throughstreams originating from the wetland. Several divergent streamsknown as Area A Downstream Watercourses flow through the OverBank Disposal Area and around the Torpedo Shops past the NorthLake recreational area, and the golf course to the Thames River.

A fence has been installed between the Area A Wetland, andanother fence is under construction around the Area A Landfillto prevent people from walking through the wetland area closestto the landfill.

Prior to the installation of the fence, children were known toplay in the streams near the recreational areas that abut thewetland and landfill. Those children and any adults coming incontact with surface water and creek sediment have been, in thepast, exposed to contaminants in those areas.

The selected contaminants in surface water and sediment samplescollected at Area A Landfill and in the downstream water coursesinclude the PAHs: benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene,benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno (1,2,3-cd)pyrene, and chrysene; DDT and its breakdown products: DDD andDDE; lead, cadmium, and PCBs. Exposure routes of those chemicalwere through dermal absorption, inhalation of volatilizedmaterials, and unintentional ingestion of surface water andsediment.

Area A Landfill runoff accumulates in the Area A Wetlands regionbefore draining toward the river. Contaminants in the water orin sediment can be washed through the stream systems to theriver. Sediment contaminants may also stay in a localized areaand be covered by new deposits of sediment.

B. Potential Exposure Pathways

Soil Pathway

The August 1991, Installation Restoration Study describes soilon the submarine base as generally having moderate to moderatelyrapid permeability. Therefore, vertical migration of surfacecontaminants is possible.

Runoff is rapid to very rapid and the pH is strongly tomoderately acidic. The erosion hazard is considered severe. Drainage generally occurs toward the Thames River, west of thesubmarine base, but extensive filling has altered the topographyat various locations on the submarine base. Surface soil iscontaminated at the CBU Drum Storage Area, the Rubble Fill atBunker A-86, the Area A Landfill, and DRMO.

Subsurface soil is contaminated at the Torpedo Shops, the GossCove Landfill, Area A Landfill, the DRMO, the Spent Acid Storageand Disposal Area, and the Lower Subase.

No completed exposure pathway through human contact withcontaminated soil at the CBU Drum Storage Area, the Rubble Fillat Bunker A-86, the Area A Landfill, the Torpedo Shops, the GossCove Landfill, and the Lower Subase has been documented.

Access to the sites is currently restricted. However, peopleperforming remedial or removal work on the sites may be exposedto contaminants in the surface and subsurface soil. Thoseworkers could be exposed to the contaminants through incidentalingestion of contaminated soil particles, through inhalation ofentrained particles and volatiles, and through dermal contactwith contaminated soil.

Potential exposure of workers can be prevented or mitigatedthrough use of protective equipment and by maintaining thecurrent site restriction policy. Additionally, if excavation ofthe Goss Cove Landfill occurs, during the proposed future useplan, construction workers and people visiting the NautilusMuseum could be exposed to contaminants.

Surface Water and Sediment Pathways

Three distinct areas present potential exposure pathways.

The installation is located on the Thames River within theThames River Watershed. Approximately 1,400 square miles ofeastern Connecticut are drained by the Thames River and itstributaries. Surface water from the submarine base drains westtoward the river by way of streams and storm sewers. The on-base streams and lakes located in the north central portion ofthe installation discharge to the Thames River at the DRMO site,the Lower Subase, and the Goss Cove Landfill. People who comeinto contact with contaminated surface water and sediment may beexposed to contaminants through the routes of incidentalingestion, inhalation of volatile compounds and aerosols, anddermal absorption.

Migration of sediment contaminated with DDE from on base to off-base residential areas has occurred. The adjacent off-baseresidential area consists of lush, densely vegetated areas withlarge trees, rhododendron, and ferns. However, actual groundcover is minimal. Residences in this area are downhill from thesubmarine base. A stream and underground spring feed a smallpond between the submarine base perimeter and one of the homes. Sediment accumulated in the off-base residential pond fromrunoff associated with on-base road construction activities. Sediment from the pond were sampled and found to contain tracelevels of DDE. The Navy dredged the pond in December 1991. InAugust 1992, the Navy resampled sediment from this pond forpesticides and PCBs. No contamination was detected. Childrenswim in the pond in the summer. The pond is also used as anemergency source of water in case of fire. That home usesspring water (surface expression of groundwater) as its drinkingwater source. If any contaminated sediment interact withdrinking water, this resident's drinking water may potentiallybecome contaminated.

Currently, concentrations of contaminants detected in theunfenced portion of the Area A Downstream Watercourses do notpose a health threat for children. However, because sedimentmovement may occur over time due to natural occurrences, andbecause children are known to play in the stream alongside theroad to the North Lake recreational area, a potential exposurepathway exists for children who come in contact with surfacewater and sediment contaminants.

Air and Soil Gas Pathway

Prevailing winds are southwesterly in the summer andnorthwesterly in the winter with an average wind speed of 10miles per hour. The area is subject to storms, some ofhurricane intensity, that travel up the Atlantic coast.

Soil gas surveys have detected VOCs at several sites (seeEnvironmental Contamination section). No air monitoring datahave been collected to determine concentrations of contaminantsthat may be present in the air as volatilized chemicals or asentrained particles. No completed exposure pathway has beenidentified as a result of air contamination.

Potential exposure pathways exist for on-site workers enteringvisibly contaminated manholes. Confined areas may cause a buildup of volatile organic compounds creating a potential for humanexposure through inhalation and skin contact. Additionally,because the Nautilus Museum is built on top of an old landfill,methane gas and other soil gases if present could potentiallybuild up in the confined areas of the museum. Exposure ofmuseum workers and incidental exposure of museum visitors wouldrepresent the most likely receptor population.

Future land use at the Goss Cove Landfill may present anotherpotential exposure pathway depending on its actual use and/orfuture construction plans.

Biota Pathways

Species of local flora and fauna have been identified and arelisted in the Installation Restoration Study Naval SubmarineBase-New London Groton, Connecticut, Appendix F. People are notallowed to hunt or fish on the submarine base. However, peopledo fish in the Thames River. Despite the advisory on shellfishharvesting in the Thames River, it is known to occur. Severalcommercial shellfish beds are located north of the submarinebase on the Thames River. All commercial shellfish aredepurated for 30 days in approved waters to cleanse theshellfish of bacteria. However, this treatment does not removed chemical contaminants that may have accumulated in the shellfishtissue. Even though no contaminants were detected in riverwater and contaminants detected in river sediment were belowhealth comparison values, shellfish may accumulate andconcentrate any contamination that was present over time priorto sampling. If contaminants are detected in the shellfish,people who ingest contaminated shellfish would be exposed.

C. Eliminated Exposure Pathways

Surface Water and Sediment Pathways

North Lake and Rock Lake water and sediment have been sampledextensively. No selected contaminants have been identified inthe samples. Therefore, no exposures exist for people who swimand play in the lakes.

Biota Pathways

The Connecticut Department of Health Services has issued anarea-wide advisory warning residents not to consume striped bassand bluefish caught in Long Island Sound due to PCBcontamination. The advisory is not linked to contaminants foundon base. Human exposure to contaminated fish is eliminated ifpeople do not consume striped bass and bluefish caught in theLong Island Sound. No farming or livestock operations arereported to occur within a 1-mile radius of the submarine base.

Appendix F of the Installation Restoration Study provides anecological risk assessment based on surface water, sediment, andsoil data. Although no fish tissue was analyzed, tissue datafrom frogs and birds (species not usually consumed) werecollected from Area A Wetlands. No pesticides were detected insamples. Consumption of biota may result in a completedexposure pathway.




Completed Exposure Pathways

PATHWAY NAMECONTAMINANTEXPOSURE PATHWAY ELEMENTSTIMECOMMENTS
SOURCEENVIRONMENTAL
MEDIA
POINT OF
EXPOSURE
ROUTE OF
EXPOSURE
EXPOSED
POPULATION
Private WellsChloromethane,
Lead, Cadmium,
Sodium
UnknownGroundwaterResident's tapIngestion,
Inhalation,
Skin
Absorption
Residents,
including children
and
pregnant women
Past
Present
Future
No groundwatercontamination plumehas been defined atthe submarine base.
Surface SoilPCBs, PAHs, Lead DRMO siteSurface SoilContaminated surfacesoil at the DRMO SiteUnintentionalIngestion, Inhalation,Skin AbsorptionWorkers at the DRMOsite

Children playing in the soil during monthly public auction

Adults attending monthly public auction

Past
Present
Future
Three full timeworkers arepresent at theDRMO site.

Monthly auction attracts 5 - 50 people for a few hours at a time.

Surface WaterCadmium, Lead, PesticidesArea A LandfillSurface WaterArea A DownstreamWatercoursesUnintentionalIngestion, Inhalation,and SkinAbsorptionChildren playing in thestreams and nearbyrecreational areas

Adults using the recreational areas

PastAccess to Area AWetland isprevented by a7-foot fence.

Access to the Area A Downstream Watercourses is not prevented.

SedimentLead, PAHs, PCBs,PesticidesSediment
SedimentDDEOn-base AreasSedimentOff-base ResidentialAreasResidents coming incontact withcontaminated sedimentPastLatest samplingresults did notdetect anycontaminants



PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Chemicals released into the environment do not always result inhuman exposure. Human exposure to a chemical contaminant can onlyoccur if people come in contact with the contaminant either byingestion (eating or drinking a substance containing the chemical),inhalation (breathing air containing the chemical), or by dermalabsorption (skin contact of a substance containing the chemical).

To understand the type and severity of health effects that may becaused from exposure to a specific chemical contaminant, severalfactors related to the interaction of the chemical with theindividual must be considered. Such factors include the amount orchemical dose to which a person is exposed, the frequency andduration of exposure, the route the chemical enters the body(ingestion, inhalation or dermal absorption), and the multiplicity(combination of chemicals) of exposure.

Health effects are also related to such characteristics as age,sex, nutritional and health status, life style, and family traits,all of which may influence how a specific chemical is absorbed(taken up by the body); metabolized (broken down by the body); andexcreted (eliminated from the body).

To determine the possible health effects produced by specificchemicals, ATSDR considers physical and biological factors as wellas a variety of information, such as scientific literature,research reports, and reports from other federal agencies.

A. Toxicologic Evaluation

The following sections evaluate the potential health effectsfrom contaminant exposure at New London Submarine Base. Thetoxicological evaluation of each contaminant assesses probablehealth effects from exposure to the contaminant. Healtheffects are related to contaminant concentration exposureroute, exposure frequency, and potential exposed population. Populations known or suspected of being sensitive to thecontaminant are included. Information will be presented inrelation to those pathways identified as completed exposurepathways.

Cadmium

Cadmium is an element that occurs naturally in the earth'ssurface. Pure cadmium is a soft, silver-white metal; however,cadmium is not usually found in the environment as a metal. It is usually found as a mineral combined with other elementssuch as oxygen (cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride),or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide). Those compoundsare solids that may dissolve in water, but do not evaporate orbreak down in the environment. A common use of cadmium is toelectroplate steel to improve its corrosion resistance. Cadmium is also used in nickel-cadmium batteries, nuclearcontrol rods and metal coatings. It is used as the basis ofcolor pigments in ceramic glazes (12).

Cadmium was detected during the first sampling round in one ofthe 14 well samples at a maximum concentration of 26 ppb. However, cadmium was not detected in the second and thirdsampling rounds or by CTDHS sampling of that residential well. It is unknown why the contamination in the well was notdetected upon resampling. Cadmium was detected at tracelevels in seven other samples; however, the laboratory blanksalso contained trace levels of cadmium suggesting a qualityproblem in the blank sample. If cadmium was present in thewell sample, exposure of residents would be intermittent,short-term exposure through ingestion of contaminated wellwater.

EPA has suggested the concentrations of cadmium in drinkingwater that would not be expected to cause adverse healtheffects are 20 ppb for children for 1 - 10 day (short-term)exposure and 5 ppb for children for long-term exposure (overone year). For adults, a concentration of 40 ppb for 1 - 10day exposure and 5 ppb for long-term exposure has beensuggested (13).

The maximum detected concentration of cadmium converted to anestimated daily exposure dose is 0.002 mg/kg/day for childrenusing a one liter per day water ingestion rate and 0.001mg/kg/day for adults using a two liters per day wateringestion rate. Short-term exposure to cadmium at 0.1mg/kg/day (50 - 100 times higher than the estimated dose fromthe level detected in residential well water) can causestomach irritation, nausea, and vomiting. The Lowest ObservedAdverse Effect Level is 0.01 mg/kg/day. Long-term exposure tocadmium at (LOAEL) 0.01 mg/kg/day can cause detectable adversekidney effects. The LOAEL dose is five to ten times higherthan the estimated dose from residential well water (12).

Comparison of the estimated daily exposure dose to EPA'sreference dose of 0.0005 mg/kg/day for chronic exposure (RfD,an estimate of the daily exposure to a contaminant that isunlikely to cause adverse health effects) and ATSDR's minimalrisk level for chronic exposure of 0.0002 mg/kg/day, (MRL, anestimate of daily exposure to a chemical that is likely to bewithout adverse non-carcinogenic health effects) indicatesthat adverse non-carcinogenic health effects may occur forboth children and adults who ingest drinking water containingcadmium at a concentration of 26 ppb for longer than 1 year. However, cadmium was not detected in the residential drinkingwater well in the second and third sampling rounds, indicatingthat cadmium is not always present and therefore, long termexposure to 26 ppb cadmium in drinking water is unlikely. Based on that information, cadmium at a concentration of 26ppb in the residential drinking water well does not pose ahealth hazard.

Chloromethane

Chloromethane, also called methyl chloride is a colorless gasat room temperature. It is a naturally occurring chemicalthat is prevalent in oceans and is produced by some plants androtting wood, and when grass, wood, charcoal, and coal areburned. Chloromethane is commonly found in tap water that hasbeen chlorinated (14). When present in soil or water,chloromethane evaporates quickly.

Chloromethane was detected in one residential well at anestimated concentration of 27 ppb. Other VOCs were detectedat estimated trace levels below health comparison values.Resampling of this residential well did not detectchloromethane or any other VOCs. Resampling indicates thatchloromethane is not always present in drinking water, so longterm exposure to chloromethane in drinking water is unlikely. Therefore, exposure to chloromethane from the drinking waterwell represents an intermittent, short-term exposure throughingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Chloromethane hasnot been detected at any of the other residential wellssampled nor at any of the sites at the submarine base.

Inhalation of volatilized chloromethane from heated water usedfor showering represents an inhalation exposure tochloromethane. Short-term inhalation exposure to levels onethousand times greater (200,000 ppb) than the level detectedin well water has resulted in impaired ability to performsimple tasks (14). Long-term inhalation exposure to 265,000ppb chloromethane has caused central nervous system effectssuch as blurry vision, dizziness, staggering, and confusion(14). The health comparison value used for chloromethane indrinking water is EPA's Child Longer Term Health Advisory(CLTHA) value of 400 ppb. The CLTHA is 16 times higher thanthe levels detected in private drinking water.

ATSDR was unable to identify any studies in the scientificliterature regarding absorption of chloromethane in people oranimals that ingested food or water containing chloromethane. The health effects resulting from short-term or long-termexposure of animals or people to water containing specificlevels of chloromethane are unknown. However, EPA hasestablished a Lifetime Health Advisory (LTHA) level of 3 ppbin drinking water. LTHAs represent contaminant concentrationsthat EPA deems protective of public health for people over alifetime (70 years) at an ingestion rate of two liters ofwater per day. The LTHAs are not legally enforceablestandards, but guidelines to assist health professional. TheLTHA is used as a guideline that assumes a person will drinktwo liters of water containing 3 ppb chloromethane per day,everyday, for 70 years without any adverse human healtheffects. Little information is available on short-term orlong-term oral exposure to chloromethane. Therefore, theresulting adverse human health effects cannot be predicted.

Lead

Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal found in smallamounts of the earth's surface. It is used to produce somebatteries, pipes, solder, and paints. The amount and wide-range use of lead has decreased over the last several yearsbecause of the harmful effects of lead in people and animals(15).

Lead was detected above the action level of 15 ppb in OSW 10(39 ppb) during the first sampling round and in OSW 23 (32ppb), OSW 21 (18 ppb), and OSW 6 (estimated at 17 ppb) in thesecond sampling round.

Subsequent confirmatory sampling showed lead levels to bebelow the action level in all but two wells, OSW 10 and OSW23. Concern for lead levels in those private wells promptedthe Navy to performed detailed lead analysis. Water was takenat the well head and at the tap prior to flushing, then againafter a five minute flushing at both locations. Well OSW 10showed lead levels to be below the detection limit of 3 ppb inall four samplings. Further analysis by another lab showedthe actual lead concentration to be 1.7 ppb. Well OSW 23showed lead levels ranging from < 3 ppb to 37 ppb. Thisresidential well showed lead levels to be lowest (< 3 ppb)after flushing the line for five minutes and highest prior toflushing. Overall, lead levels in private wells were higherthan the levels found in groundwater at the Area A Landfill onbase.

Exposure of residents would be through ingestion. Lead is noteasily absorbed through the skin, or inhaled from contaminatedwater. Exposure to lead is particularly dangerous to theunborn and children less than 6 years old. Exposure to leadcan cause deficiencies in a child's mental development andability.

There are 11 residences with lead concentrations above theaction level (OSW 10 serves 10 residences) from wells OSW 10and OSW 23. Because lead levels fluctuated above and belowthe action level of 15 ppb, human exposure to lead atconcentrations above the health comparison value isintermittent, but could potentially last for longer than oneyear.

Normal baseline blood lead levels in children range from 3 - 8µg lead per deciliter of blood (µg/dL) (15). The actual bloodlead measurement is dependent on several factors including thesampling procedure, the analysis method, the variability inthe laboratory, and the age of the child (16).

Epidemiologic studies have identified some children with bloodlead levels as low as 10 µg/dL without distinctive symptomsthat show signs of decreased intelligence and impairedneurobehavioral development (16). Maternal and cord bloodlead levels of 10 - 15 µg/dL appear to be associated withreduced gestational age and reduced weight at birth (15). Additionally, women of child bearing age who may have anaccumulation of lead in their bone marrow, when pregnant, canpull the stored lead from the bone marrow into the blood andcan increase the amount of lead reaching the unborn child.

Increases in blood lead resulting from the ingestion of 39 ppblead in drinking water are estimated to be between 2 - 4 µg/dLin children and 1 - 2 µg/dL in adults. Therefore, a childwith a baseline blood lead level of 8 µg/dL who drinks watercontaining 39 ppb lead may develop a blood lead level of 12ppb. Because lead is a common element in the naturalenvironment, any additional exposure to lead that increasesblood lead concentrations in children to levels greater than10 µg/dL may result in adverse health effects. For childrenwhose blood lead levels are between 10 - 14 µg/dL, ATSDR/CDCrecommends intervention in preventing and reducing exposure. Therefore, ATSDR considers the lead concentrations present indrinking water wells to pose a health hazard for fetuses andyoung children.

Contact with lead contaminated sediment at the Area ADownstream Watercourses represents a past complete exposurepathway. Lead was detected at a maximum concentration of223,000 ppb in the sediment of the Area A DownstreamWatercourses. Because small children often ingest sediment asa result of hand-to-mouth activities, children generallyreceive greater doses of lead than do adults. Based on theestimated exposure dose for adults at this site, lead does notpose a health hazard to adults. Exposure of children whoplayed in the area would have been short-term, intermittentexposure through incidental ingestion of sediment mainlythrough hand-to-mouth action. That short-term, intermittentexposure to the concentrations of lead present in sedimentcould have potentially cause an increase in the blood leadlevels of children. Therefore, exposure to sediment at theArea A Downstream Watercourses posed a public health concernfor young children. Since the area has been fenced, it nolonger poses a health hazard to children.

Another complete exposure pathway exists for people who havecontact with lead contaminated surface soil at the DRMO site. Lead has been detected at a maximum concentration of 204,000ppb in surface soil. Exposure of full-time workers would belong-term, chronic exposure through inhalation and incidentalingestion of surface soil, and surface soil dust. Visitors tothe DRMO site during the monthly-held auction would be exposedto lead contaminated surface soil and surface soil dust for ashort, intermittent duration.

Adults are less sensitive to the effects of lead becauseadults do not absorb lead as readily as do children, andadults are not as sensitive to the toxic effects of lead asare developing children. It is estimated that 15% of the leadthat adults are exposed to is absorbed. Children, however,absorb approximately 50% of the lead from exposure (17).

Health effects associated with increases in blood lead levelsof 35 - 100 ug/dL blood above normal levels include decreasedreaction time, decreased memory, weakness in fingers andankles, anemia, and colic (17). Estimated increases in bloodlead levels for adult full-time workers would be approximately2 ug/dL. Therefore, exposure of DRMO full-time workers tolead at the concentrations detected is not a public healthconcern.

Estimated increases in blood lead levels in children andadults from intermittent exposures to lead at the levelsdetected in DRMO surface soil are less than 1 µg/dL blood. Noadverse health effects would be expected as a result of short-term, intermittent exposures of visitors to the levels of leaddetected in surface soil at the DRMO site.

PCB 1260 - (Polychlorinated Biphenyls)

Polychlorinated Biphenyls represent a class of complexchemical mixtures that are formulated when biphenyls arechlorinated. The composition of the end product is determinedby the degree of chlorination. The name PCB 1260 refers to aspecific PCB chemical. The individual PCB mixtures areidentified by four digits: the first two digits of most PCBformulations indicate that the preparation is a mixture; thesecond two digits denote the approximate chlorine content byweight percent. For example, PCB 1260 is a mixture with a 60%average chlorine content.

PCB compounds are very inert, thermally and chemically stablecompounds with dielectric properties. They have been used inas heat transfer liquids in transformers, hydraulic fluids,and lubricants. PCBs have also been used in plasticizers,surface coatings, inks, adhesives, pesticide extenders, andfor microencapsulation of dyes for carbonless duplicatingpaper (18).

PCB 1260 has been detected at a maximum estimatedconcentration of 3,100 ppb in surface soil at the DRMO site. Exposure of full-time workers would be long-term, chronicexposure through dermal absorption, inhalation, and incidentalingestion of surface soil dust.

Adults attending the monthly auction would be exposed tocontaminants for a short duration. Children, who may alsoattend the monthly auction, may have a greater exposure doseif they are allowed to play in the DRMO area. Exposure ofvisiting adults and children would be through dermalabsorption, inhalation, and incidental ingestion of surfacesoil dust.

Studies have shown that concentrations 1,300 times (3,436,000ppb) greater than those present in surface soil at the DRMOsite have not resulted in elevated blood levels of PCBs (19). Short-term exposure to PCBs at higher levels (35,000 ppb) thandetected at the DRMO site has resulted in skin irritation. Skin irritation is the only known acute adverse health effectfrom exposure to PCBs (20).

EPA has classified PCBs as probable human carcinogens based onevidence from animal studies that show PCBs cause cancer insome animals. Long-term exposure to PCBs has been associatedwith carcinogenic health effects. When evaluated using thecancer risk values, the maximum PCB concentration detected isnot expected to cause any increased cases of cancer in full-time workers or in adults and children who visit the basemonthly. Based on that information, PCBs at the levelsdetected at the DRMO site do not pose a public health hazard.

A complete exposure pathway exists for children playing insediment in the Area A Downstream Watercourses. PCB 1260 wasdetected in sediment samples from the Area A DownstreamWatercourses at an estimated maximum concentration of 280 ppb.

Exposure of children playing in those areas would be short-term, intermittent exposure through dermal contact andincidental ingestion of sediment mainly through hand-to-mouthaction. Those short-term, intermittent exposures to theconcentrations of PCB 1260 present in sediment are notexpected to cause adverse health effects.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

PAHs are a group of chemicals that are formed during theincomplete burning of coal, oil and gas, garbage or otherorganic substances. PAHs can occur naturally or be man-made. Only a few of the more than one hundred PAH compounds haveknown uses. However, PAHs are found throughout theenvironment. They are present in tobacco smoke, smoke fromwood, creosote-treated wood products, cereals, grains, flour,and meat. Cooking meat or other foods at high temperaturessuch as during grilling, increases the amount of PAHs in thefood (21).

PAHs are divided into two groups: carcinogenic PAHs and non-carcinogenic PAHs. Carcinogenic PAHs includebenzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene,benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno (1,2,3-cd)pyrene, and chrysene. Non-carcinogenic PAHs include naphthalene, acenaphthylene,fluorocene, anthracene, pyrene, and others.

PAHs can enter the body quickly and easily by all routes ofexposure: ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. PAHstend to be stored in fatty tissue and organs such as kidneys,the liver and spleen. Results from animal studies show thatPAHs are not stored in the body for a long time. Instead,PAHs that enter the body are eliminated within a few days,primarily in the feces and urine (21).

Although there is little information that describes theeffects of PAHs on humans, inhalation and dermal contactexposure have been associated with cancer in humans (21).

PAHs have been detected in the sediment of the Area ADownstream Watercourses at the following estimatedconcentrations: 850 ppb benzo(a)anthracene, 640 ppbbenzo(a)pyrene, 750 ppb benzo(b)fluoranthene, 320 ppbbenzo(k)fluoranthene, 1,200 ppb indeno (1,2,3-cd)pyrene, 1,200ppb chrysene. Exposure of children playing in the sediment ofthe Area A Downstream Watercourses would be short-term,intermittent exposure through dermal absorption, inhalation,and incidental ingestion of sediment.

When evaluated using the cancer risk values, the maximumconcentration of PAHs detected would not be expected to causeany increased cases of cancer in children playing in thesediment from the Area A Downstream Watercourses. Based onthat information, PAHs at the levels detected in the Area ADownstream Watercourses do not pose a public health hazard.

A complete exposure pathway exists for full-time workers andvisitors to the DRMO site. PAHs have been detected at thefollowing estimated concentrations: 570 ppbbenzo(a)anthracene, 440 ppb benzo(b)fluoranthene, 310 ppbbenzo(k)fluoranthene, 560 ppb chrysene. Exposure of full-timeworkers at the DRMO site would be long-term, chronic exposurethrough dermal absorption, inhalation, and incidentalingestion of surface soil dust.

Adults attending the monthly auction would be exposed tocontaminants for a short duration. Children, who may alsoattend the monthly auction, may have a greater exposure doseif they are allowed to play in the DRMO area. Exposure ofadults and children would be through dermal absorption,inhalation, and incidental ingestion of surface soil dust.

When estimated long-term exposure doses for full-time workers(based on an exposure duration of 40 hours per week for 20years) are evaluated using the cancer risk values, themaximum concentrations of PAHs detected are not expected tocause any increased cases of cancer in full-time workers. When estimated short-term exposure doses for visiting adultsand children (based on exposure duration of two hours permonth for five years) are evaluated using the cancer riskvalues, the maximum concentrations of PAHs detected are notexpected to cause any increased cases of cancer in thoseadults or children. Based on that information, PAHs at thelevels detected at the DRMO site do not pose a public healthhazard.

Pesticides DDT, DDD, DDE

DDT - p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

From 1946 to 1972, DDT was one of the most widely usedagricultural insecticides in the world. As of January 1,1973, all uses of DDT were banned from the United States andCanada, but it is still used in Mexico and many tropicalcountries. DDT does not readily dissolve in water, instead itadsorbs to soil, and organic matter (22). DDE is the majordegradation product in aerobic soil (in the presence ofoxygen). Under anaerobic conditions (in the absence ofoxygen), DDD is the major metabolite (22).

In people, DDT is metabolized by two pathways. A smallpercent is converted to DDE, which does not undergo furtherbiotransformation, but is stored in the fat (adipose) tissues. The major detoxification pathway is via dechlorination to DDD,which is readily degraded to a water soluble metabolite, DDAand is rapidly excreted into the urine (23).

DDT has been detected in sediment along the Area A DownstreamWatercourses at an estimated concentration of 240,000 ppb. Because the area is now fenced, past exposure of children whoplayed in the Area A Downstream Watercourses to DDT would havebeen through ingestion and dermal contact with contaminatedsediment for an intermediate duration (14 - 365 days). Dermalexposure to DDT has not been associated with any illness orirritation (24).

EPA has classified DDT as a probable human carcinogen based onevidence that it causes cancer in animals and insufficientevidence that it causes cancer in humans.

Symptoms of DDT poisoning in people are abnormally increasedsensitivity of the mouth and lower part of the face, which isfollowed by a burning or prickling sensation, and tremor ofthe extremities, confusion, malaise, headache, fatigue anddelayed vomiting (23). It is reported that human poisoninghas only occurred through ingestion of DDT. In general,symptoms occur as soon as 30 minutes after a large dose(unspecified concentration) or as late as 6 hours after asmall dose (unspecified concentration) (24). In acute, short-term exposure, recovery is usually complete or well advancedin 24 hours. In severe cases, complete recovery may take aweek or more (25).

The estimated exposure dose for children exposed to DDTcontaminated sediment is 0.007 mg/kg/day. The Lowest ObservedAdverse Effect Level (LOAEL) for intermediate human exposurewas 0.07 mg/kg/day (10 times higher than the estimated dosefor children) (26). The No Observed Adverse Effect Level(NOAEL) for DDT has not been established. A single oral doseof 10 mg/kg body weight produced illness in some persons, butno vomiting or convulsions occurred. When the dose was 16mg/kg body weight or greater, convulsions occurred frequently. Generally, smaller doses did not produce illness although adose of 6 mg/kg produced perspiration, headache and nausea inone man. Doses as high as 20 mg/kg might be taken withouteffect; however, doses that high have led to immediatevomiting so that the amount actually retained could notaccurately be determined (23).

Since the difference in the estimated exposure dose forchildren and the LOAEL is only 10 fold, estimates foruncertainty (uncertainty factors) would make the dosesequivalent, indicating a potential for adverse health effects. Based on that information, past exposure to DDT posed a publichealth concern for children exposed to DDT contaminatedsediment in the Area A Downstream Watercourses. Whenestimated intermediate doses for children are evaluated usingthe cancer risk values, the maximum concentrations of DDTdetected would not be expected to cause any increase cases ofcancer in those exposed children. No long-term adverse healtheffects (carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic) are expected tooccur as a result of exposure to DDT contaminated sediment inthe Area A Wetland and Area A Downstream Watercourses.

DDD - p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane

In animals, DDD is less toxic than DDT. DDD poisonings alsohave a slower onset and a longer duration in contrast to DDTpoisonings. Lethargy is more prominent in DDD poisonings, andconvulsions are less frequent (27). The main action of DDD ison the liver, where it stimulates the hepatic microsomaloxygenation of drugs and corticosteriods (28).

DDD has been detected along the Area A Downstream Watercoursessediment at an estimated concentration of 1,700,000 ppb. Pastexposure of children playing in sediment in the Area ADownstream Watercourses would have been intermediate,intermittent exposure to DDD through dermal contact, andingestion of contaminated sediment.

A purified form of DDD used at high levels (usually 8 - 10grams or 8,000,000 - 10,000,000 mg) therapeutically in humansto treat adrenal cortical carcinomas and Cushing's syndrome,produce some toxic effects, but were completely reversed whenDDD exposure ended (29).

The estimated exposure dose for children is 0.005 mg/kg/day.Doses of 110 - 114 mg/kg/day did not produce any detectableinjury to the liver, kidney or bone marrow, doses as high as7500 mg/kg/day may also be tolerated without discernable sideeffects (30). No LOAEL or NOAEL has been determined for DDDexposure in humans (26).

When the estimated intermediate dose for children is evaluatedusing the cancer risk values, the maximum concentrations ofDDD detected would not be expected to cause any increase casesof cancer in those exposed children. Exposure to DDD throughingestion of sediment is not expected to present any short-term or long-term adverse health effects. Therefore, exposureto DDD contaminated sediment in the Area A DownstreamWatercourses does not pose a public health hazard.

DDE - p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene

DDE does not undergo any biotransformation in the human body,but is stored for an indefinite period in the fat (adipose)tissue (31). Other than several metabolic studies, there are no reports of acute human exposure to DDE.

DDE has been detected along the Area A Wetland and in the AreaA Downstream Watercourses sediment at an estimatedconcentration of 28 ppb. Past exposure of children playing insediment in the Area A Downstream Watercourses would have beenintermediate, intermittent exposure to DDE through dermalcontact, and ingestion of contaminated sediment.

The estimated exposure dose for children is 0.0003 mg/kg/day. Oral administration of 5 mg/kg DDE to one human volunteer for92 days (intermediate exposure) produced no observed adversehealth effects (32). When the estimated intermediate dose forchildren is evaluated using the cancer risk values, themaximum concentrations of DDE detected would not be expectedto cause any increase cases of cancer in those exposedchildren. Based on the low estimated dose, past exposure toDDE through ingestion of sediment is not expected to cause anyshort-term or long-term adverse health effects.

Sodium

Sodium is a normal constituent of natural waters. It isderived geologically from the leaching of surface andunderground deposits of salts such as sodium chloride, fromthe incorporation of evaporated ocean spray particles intorainfall, and from the intrusion of seawater into freshwateraquifers. Salt spray from the sea is often the largestcontributor of sodium within 50 - 100 miles of seacoasts (34). Human activities also contribute sodium to natural waters. The sodium chloride used as a deicing agent on roads enterswater supplies in runoff from both roads and storage depots.

Sodium has been detected in private residential wells at amaximum concentration of 34,600 ppb. Residents would beexposed by ingesting drinking water containing sodium.

A survey of 2,100 water supplies covering 50% of thepopulation of the United States was taken between 1963 - 1966by the CDC's Heart Disease Control Program, Division ofChronic Diseases of the U.S. Public Health Service. Concentrations of 20,000 - 49,990 ppb sodium in drinking wateraccount for 19% of the water samples collected (35).

Sodium-restricted diets are required in the treatment ofcongestive cardiac failure, renal disease, cirrhosis of theliver, and toxemia of pregnancy (35)

A maximum level of sodium in drinking water of 20,000 ppb wassuggested by the American Heart Association in 1957 (35). EPA's Drinking Water Equivalent Level is 20,000 ppb. DrinkingWater Equivalent Levels are lifetime exposure levels specificfor drinking water at which adverse health effects are not expected to occur.

The level of sodium in drinking water may influence bloodpressure and may be associated with hypertension (36). Twentypercent of the adult U.S. population has hypertension (Intersociety Commission for Heart Disease Resources, 1971). In the treatment of essential hypertension, restriction ofdietary sodium leads to a drop in blood pressure (35).

Sodium is added to many foods during processing. Althoughsodium is required for normal body functions, the averageAmerican's intake of sodium exceeds the body's need by 10times or more.

Based on a representative survey of 15,778 persons aged 12 -74 years, the National Center for Health Statistics estimatedthat 2.8% or approximately 6.2 million Americans are on low-sodium diets prescribed for reasons of illness. The low-sodium diets most commonly prescribed limit the patient toeither 1.0 or 0.5 grams (g) of sodium per day. Where watersupplies contain more than 20,000 ppb sodium, dietary sodiumrestriction to less than 1.0 g/day is difficult to achieve andmaintain. Therefore, the presence of sodium at levels above20,000 ppb represents a public health concern for persons onsalt-restricted diets.

B. Health Outcome Data Evaluation

ATSDR has identified a completed exposure pathway for off-baseresidents who drink contaminated well water. The source ofthe contamination has not yet been determined. Anothercompleted exposure pathway exists for people who had contactwith sediment and surface water in the Area A DownstreamWatercourses.

In evaluating the potential correlation between cancersobserved in a population and the cause of those cancers, twofactors must be addressed. First, there must be a causativechemical agent, or environmental chemical contamination atconcentrations that would cause an increased risk of cancer. Secondly, a completed exposure pathway must exist for peopleto come in contact with that contamination.

After evaluation of these completed exposure pathways, noincrease in cancer rates is expected because of the lowestimated exposure dose. However, ATSDR has evaluated theConnecticut Tumor Registry Data Base information to determineif an elevated cancer incidence exists within the submarinebase area towns of Groton and Ledyard as compared the state ofConnecticut in order to address community concerns about localcancer rates. The Connecticut Department of Health Servicesmaintains one of the nation's most extensive Tumor RegistryData Bases. Information has been collected since 1935.

Cancer rates (Appendix B) are slightly elevated for the male"All Types" category in Groton and Ledyard as compared to theState of Connecticut. All types refers to the combined typesof cancers. Many factors affect cancer rates, such as dietaryinfluences, hereditary predisposition, and environmentalexposure. In general, cancer represents a group of diseaseswith a variety of causes. Since it has not been determinedthat any singular cause of all types of cancer exists, the"All Types" category cannot be accurately evaluated.

For the other cancers such as lung and rectal, ATSDR does nothave any information on the specific human risk factors suchas smoking or diet. Those factors are important whenevaluating cancer rates.

Only a few types of cancers have been linked with chemicalspecific environmental contamination. Among these, is theassociation of vinyl chloride with liver cancer and theassociation of benzene with certain types of leukemia.

At this time, it is not possible to link an elevation ofcancer rates to an environmental source of contamination suchas the New London Submarine Base.

C. Community Concerns Evaluation

In meetings with officials from the Town of Ledyard and Cityof Groton, a local physician, and an advisor to the City ofGroton, the following concerns were expressed.

  • possible elevated cancer rates for residents living northof the submarine base, along Military Highway;

    Military Highway, running north of the submarine base, isin the town of Ledyard. Cancer data were provided to ATSDRfrom the State of Connecticut Department of HealthServices. Cancer Incidence data from the Ledyard wascompared to that of Connecticut. However, ATSDR is notable to narrow the information down to the specificpopulation along Military Highway. At this time, it is notpossible to link any elevation of cancer rates to anenvironmental source of contamination such as the NewLondon Submarine Base.

  • possible elevated cancer rates for the city of Groton;

    The incidence of cancer for the Groton area was evaluated.Lung cancer rates were slightly elevated for Groton in theperiod from 1979-1981, but not in the later time period. Many factors such as smoking and occupation add to apersons risk for lung cancer. At this time, it is notpossible to link elevated cancer rates to an environmentalsource of contamination such as the New London SubmarineBase.

  • health effects from consumption of fish and other aquaticorganisms from the Thames River and Long Island Sound;

    Four surface water and two sediment samples from variouslocations on the Thames River were analyzed. As yet, theNavy has not sampled any edible biota. However,Connecticut Department of Environmental Protectionroutinely sample edible biota in the Thames River. TheConnecticut Department of Environmental Protection inconjunction with the Connecticut Department of HealthServices has issued health advisories for shellfish caughtin the Thames River due to high fecal coliform counts, butno health advisories exist for fish caught on the ThamesRiver. Other health advisories exist for fish andshellfish caught in Long Island Sound due to PCBcontamination of the region.

  • possible contamination of private and municipal wellslocated near the submarine base;

    The New London Submarine Base has sampled 23 private wellswithin 1 mile of the submarine base. Contamination hasbeen found (see Environmental Contamination section of this public health assessment) in private wells near thesubmarine base. Contaminants detected include cadmium,chloromethane, lead, and sodium. The source ofcontamination has not been identified. The municipal wellsand reservoirs are routinely sampled according to the SafeDrinking Water Act of 1974, as amended in 1986. To date,no contamination has been detected in those municipal wellsor reservoirs.

  • use of North Lake for swimming;

    After additional sampling of the North Lake area, mercurycontamination was found in only one of the 13 samples takenfrom the North Lake recreational area. Because only oneisolated case contained a low level of mercury, ATSDR hasdetermined that the North Lake swimming area does notrepresent a health hazard.

  • contamination of Thames River from fly ash contaminantsdumped in Goss Cove Landfill;

    One surface water and one sediment sample from the ThamesRiver have been analyzed from the Goss Cove Landfill. Nocontaminants were detected above health comparison values.However, because of proposed future changes in land use atthe Goss Cove Landfill area, ATSDR has recommendedadditional sampling of sediment and surface water in thoseGoss Cove areas where people could come in contact withpotentially contaminated environmental media.

  • the spread of contaminated river sediment dredged materialand possible adverse environmental health effects relatedto contact with dredged material;

    ATSDR recommends the Navy address the deposition of dredgedriver sediment, its location, its level of contamination,and the potential for human contact with the dredgedmaterial.

  • the lack of information on the submarine base'scontribution of pollution into the Thames River;

    ATSDR has recommended in this public health assessment thatfurther characterization of the river near the submarinebase be incorporated in future sampling plans in order toassess the potential for human exposure.

  • the quality and completeness of the investigations plannedfor the submarine base as expressed in the 1989 Plan ofAction [2];

    During the public health assessment process, ATSDR reviewedthe information contained in the 1989 Plan of Action aswell as the sampling results from the Phase I RemedialInvestigation. In this public health assessment ATSDRidentified specific data gaps, and made recommendations forfurther sampling in order to better characterize the extentof contamination and the potential for human exposure.

During informal one-on-one meetings with residents, thefollowing concerns were expressed:

  • A couple living across Highway 12 from the submarine basementioned that prior to the building of their home, theNavy/Army Corps of Engineers deposited Thames River dredgedsediment on the property that has become the site of theirhome. The couple is concerned that contaminated dredgedmaterial has caused their water supply to be contaminated. The couple currently uses bottled water for drinking waterpurposes.

    Two samples were taken from that residential well. Sodiumwas the only contaminant detected above health comparisonvalues. Sources of the sodium have not yet beenidentified; however, it is likely that salt water hasintruded the well.

  • Officer's wives, who regularly participate in recreationalactivities with their children at the North Lake SwimmingArea, are concerned that there has not been enough samplingperformed on beach sand, sediment, or surface water atNorth Lake to determine if the Lake is safe. They statedthat only one sampling event has occurred in 1988, whichwould not represent accurate or comprehensive informationon the condition of the North Lake Area.

    Because of the community concerns and the one sample thatshowed mercury contamination from the Navy's data obtainedin September 1990, the New London Submarine Base conductedfurther sampling to better characterize contamination inthe North Lake swimming area. Beach sand, sediment andsurface soil were analyzed. The additional samplingresults did not detect any contamination in the North Lakeswimming area. During summer months, routine sampling ofsurface water in the North Lake is analyzed forcontamination. To date, no further contamination has beenfound.

    North Lake is filled each year with city water before theswimming season and is subsequently drained to a low-waterlevel at the end of the season. City water is chlorinatedon base before North Lake is filled.

  • Residents were also concerned that the Navy has notinformed the public of the potential risks to those whoswim in North Lake. Residents felt that untilcomprehensive sampling is performed North Lake Area shouldbe closed.

    Additional sampling results did not detect anycontamination in the North Lake swimming area; therefore,there is no threat to public health.

  • Community members are concerned about adverse healtheffects from incidental ingestion of contaminants and skinexposure to contaminants at the North Lake swimming area. Children and pregnant women would be at greater risk ofsuch exposures.

    See above

  • A retired civilian employee is concerned about his pastexposure to paints, thinners, fuels, and other fluids inthe work place during his 20 years of Naval service.

    ATSDR has referred this concern to OSHA for furtherinvestigation:
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    Regional Office
    133 Portland Street
    Boston, MA 02114
    617-565-7164

    The Navy recommends that past employees who are concernedabout their exposure contact the servicing industrialhygiene department at Naval Hospital, New London. Industrial Hygiene surveys done in the past, along withpast air monitoring results should give the employees someindication of their past exposure to chemical stressors attheir old work place on the base.

  • Community members are concerned about the potential toxicconcentrations of contaminants in fish, shellfish, andmarine organisms, and their impact on the human food chain. They stated that sampling of aquatic species has not beenadequate to define the impact on the human food chain.

    The Connecticut Department of Environmental Protectionroutinely samples surface water and edible biota from theThames River. The Connecticut Department of EnvironmentalProtection in conjunction with the Connecticut Departmentof Health Services has issued health advisories for theshellfish caught in the Thames River due to high fecalcoliform bacteria count from sewage discharge, but nohealth advisories exist for fish caught on the ThamesRiver. Other health advisories exist for fish andshellfish caught in Long Island Sound due to PCBcontamination of the region.

  • Concerns were expressed about the lack of comprehensivesampling data of Thames River sediment and surface waterthat may contain toxic hot spots.

    Four surface water and two sediment samples from variouslocations on the Thames River were analyzed. Nocontaminants were detected in the Thames River.

A public meeting, conducted by the Navy personnel, was held onJuly 26, 1990. The following additional concerns wereexpressed during the meeting:

  • Where does the submarine base now dispose of its toxicwastes?

    Currently toxic waste is taken off base to a regulatedhazardous waste disposal area (37).

  • Does the submarine base have radioactive wastes?

    Solid radioactive waste materials associated withmaintenance and operation of naval nuclear-powered warshipsare packaged in federally approved containers and taken offbase to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licenseddisposal areas (37).

  • Does surface water drain into the Groton reservoir?

    No, all surface water and runoff from the New LondonSubmarine Base drain into culverts that empty into theThames River (3).

  • Are there any controls for leachate from the submarine baseto prevent contaminating the Thames River?

    Leachate drainage into the Thames River is regulated by theClean Water Act, which controls the direct discharge ofpollutants to surface waters through the National PollutantDischarge Elimination System (NPDES) program. NPDESrequires permits for direct discharges to surface water. The permits contain limits based upon either effluent(discharge) standards or, if they are more stringent,ambient (overall water quality) standards. NPDES permitsare issued, monitored, and enforced by EPA, or by a stateagency authorized by EPA to administer an equivalent stateprogram (36). New London Submarine Base has applied for and received several NPDES permits.

  • When did the submarine base start receiving water from thecity of Groton?

    The submarine base has received water from the city ofGroton since the 1940s.

ATSDR held a public meeting on August 18, 1992 to answer residents'questions about the health hazards associated with elevated boronlevels found in their drinking water wells. The following questionconcerns residents the most.

More information on boron in drinking water can be found in ATSDR'shealth consultation, August 1992. A copy of the healthconsultation is available at local document repositories or a copycan be requested from ATSDR.

Prompted by concern over elevated boron levels, the Navyinvestigation revealed laboratory error caused by interference ofsulfur in boron analysis samples (11).

Surface water and groundwater samples were reanalyzed using twodifferent labs and split sampling techniques. All confirmatorysampling revealed that boron concentrations in surface water andgroundwater were not elevated.

  • What are the health effects associated with the level ofboron in our drinking water wells? Is our water safe todrink?

    Because of boron's wide use and the estimated amount ofboron normally ingested by people, the low levels of borondetected in private wells are not expected to substantiallyincrease the relative body burden of boron. The amount ofboron detected in private well water is not expected tocause any adverse health effects for children or adults. Therefore, water from these private wells is safe to drink.



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