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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

OLD SOUTHINGTON LANDFILL
SOUTHINGTON, HARTFORD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS

The majority of the sampling data reviewed for this assessment wasobtained from the EPA RI/FS performed by GZA Consultants. Datawere also obtained from the CT DEP and the Southington WaterCompany files. During the investigations by GZA on-site andoff-site samples were collected from ground water, soils, ambientair, surface water, and surface water sediments.

Sampling for methane in indoor air is being conducted as afollow-up to citizen complaints and because unsafe levels have beendetected in commercial buildings. In addition, combustible gaseshave been detected in residential yards.

In the data tables that follow under the On-site Contamination andOff-site Contamination subsections, the listed contaminant does notmean that it will cause adverse health effects from exposures. Instead, the list indicates which contaminants will be evaluatedfurther in the Health Assessment.

Comparison values for health assessments are contaminantconcentrations in specific media that are used to selectcontaminants for further evaluation. These values includeEnvironmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs), Cancer RiskEvaluation Guides (CREGs), and other relevant guidelines. CREGsare estimated contaminant concentrations based on a one excesscancer in a million persons similarly exposed over a lifetime. Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) represent drinking watercontaminant concentrations that EPA deems protective of publichealth (considering the availability and economics of watertreatment technology) over a lifetime (70 years) at an exposurerate of two liters of water per day. Proposed Maximum ContaminantGoals (PMCLGs) are MCLs that are being proposed. While MCLs areregulatory concentrations, PMCLGs are not. The EPA Reference Dose(RfD) is an estimate of the daily exposure to a contaminant that isnot expected to cause adverse health effects.

A. THE TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE INVENTORY

To identify possible facilities that could contribute tocontamination near the site, the l989 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI)was searched. The TRI contains information on total releases ofchemicals from certain industries. Only the Lori Corporationlocated just north of the OSL was listed on the TRI in 1989. Thefacility reported releasing 250 pounds of copper and 15,000 poundsof trichloroethylene into the air. The TRI did not containinformation on any of the commercial facilities located on thelandfill.

The TRI does not identify all facilities which may havehistorically contributed to contamination near the site.

B. ON-SITE CONTAMINATION

The on-site contamination which is presented in Table 1 through Table 4 include sampling data from ground water monitoring wells,surface and subsurface soils, and indoor air. The data in thetables reflect all contaminants of concern identified and theirrange of concentrations. These chemicals are those which arepresent in high concentrations relative to comparison values, andwhich are known to be toxic. Comparison values are contaminantconcentrations in specific media (soil, air, ground water, etc.)that are used to select contaminants for further evaluation.

Ground Water-Monitoring Wells

GZA (1990, 1991) and ESE (1992) sampled 12 on-site ground watermonitoring wells and detected VOCs, semi-volatile compounds(SVOCs), metals, and PCBs above comparison values. Table 1 liststhose contaminants detected above comparison values.




Table 1.

GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION IN ON-SITE MONITORING WELLS(1,2)
CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION
RANGE
ppb
COMPARISON VALUE

ppb                     SOURCE

Benzene ND - 27 1 CREG
Beryllium ND - 24.6 0.008 CREG
Cadmium 5 - 14.4 7 EMEG
Chromium ND - 593 100 MCL
1,1-Dichloroethene ND - 580 0.06 EMEG
1,2-Dichloroethene ND - 3,000 70 MCL
Ethyl Benzene ND - 710 700 MCL
Manganese 6.2 - 50,500 200 RMEG
Naphthalene ND - 100 20 LTHA
PCBs ND - 8.3 0.005 CREG
Di(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) ND - 78 3 CREG
Toluene ND - 12,000 7,000 RMEG
1,1,1-Trichloroethane ND - 1,300 200 MCL
Trichloroethylene ND - 11 3 CREG
Vinyl Chloride ND - 3,500 0.7 EMEG
CREG - Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
EMEG - Environmental Media Evaluation Guidelines

LTHA

- Lifetime Health Advisory for drinking water

MCL

- Maximum Contaminant Levels: The level EPA has determined to be protective of public health over a lifetime at an exposure rate of two liters of water a day.

ND

- none detected

ppb

- parts per billion

RMEG

- Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide

1 GZA 1990,1991

2 ESE 1992

Private Drinking Water

On October 6, 1992, in response to citizens concerns thatcontaminated groundwater may enter the municipal water mains andcontaminate their tap water, the CT DPHAS sampled the tap water atthe four homes located on-site. The tap water samples wereanalyzed for metals, VOCs, and the standard chemicals that watercompanies are required to test for (i.e. nitrates). No chemicalswere identified above health comparison values. The water wasfound to be hard. Hardness is a measure of the amount of calciumand magnesium in the water. Hardness is not considered to be acontaminant. Drinking water that is hard is believed to beneficialin the prevention of heart disease.

Surface Soil

Forty surface soil samples (0 to 12 inches in depth) were collectedand analyzed for metals, VOCs, SVOCs, polyaromatic hydrocarbons(PAH), PCBs, and pesticides. Nineteen samples were taken from thefour residential properties (ESE 1992). No contaminants were found in the surface soils above health comparison values.

Subsurface Soil

Approximately sixty-three subsurface soil and refuse samples werecollected and analyzed for metals, VOCs, SVOCS, PAHs, PCBs, andpesticides collected by GZA (1990, 1991) and ESE (1992). SeveralVOCs and PAHs were found above comparison values. The highestconcentrations of VOC contaminants were detected on the R.V. & Sonsproperty in 1991.

Subsurface soil samples collected by ESE (1992) identifiedconcentrations of PAHs above comparison values on the R.V. & Sons,Parks and Recreation and on all residential properties. Table 2 lists those contaminants identified above health comparison valuesin subsurface soils.

Table 2.

SUBSURFACE SOIL CONTAMINATION ON-SITE (1, 2)
CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION RANGE (ppm) COMPARISON VALUE

ppm                     SOURCE

Benzene ND - 1,500 20 CREG
Benzo(a)pyrene(PAH) ND - 690 0.1 CREG
Toluene ND - 16,000 10,000 RMEG-C
CREG - Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide

ND

- non detected

ppm

- parts per million

RMEG-C

- Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide - Children

1 GZA 1990,1991

2 ESE 1992

Gas Monitoring Wells

In 1987, methane was found in four on-site gas monitoring wells andwithin a methane extraction trench installed by GZA at levelsbetween 5 percent and 66 percent by volume of methane in air andabove comparison values (25 percent Lower Explosive Limit {percentLEL}), indicating that a condition of gas entrapment, methanemigration or both is present beneath the ground surface. The fouron-site gas wells and the methane extraction trench are locatedeast of the Northeast Machine and the Parks and Recreationbuildings.

Subsurface Soil Gas

As part of the RI/FS, two soil gas surveys, and a survey forcombustible gases at 111 locations throughout the site wereperformed by GZA and ESE.

Four pockets of detectable VOCs were found within the OSL site andneighboring properties by GZA in subsurface soils (RI/FS 1990). VOCs were detected around the buildings of R.V. & Sons, Parks andRecreation, Southington Metal Fabricators and Solomon Casket. VOCreadings in exceedance of 1,000 ppm on an HNU screening instrumentwere measured during subsurface soil drilling in front of the R.V.& Sons Welding building by GZA in 1991. The facility wassubsequently evacuated to protect employees from potentially toxicgases and fumes.

No VOCs were detected in subsurface soil gas on the residentialproperties.

In the July of 1992, a total of 60 subsurface gas samples weretaken by ESE in order to assess VOC and methane contaminationthroughout the site. Samples were also taken from permanentmonitoring probes on residential properties. Elevated levels ofcombustible gases were identified on two residential propertieslocated on the north side of the landfill and in the areasextending from the Parks and Recreation property to the SolomonCasket property (see Figure 3 in Appendix 4 for the location of methane concentrations). Screening for combustible gases (i.e., methane) is performed with a combustible gas indicator (CGI). TheCGI is an instrument that measures the percentage of gases that canbe combusted in the atmosphere. The results are presented aspercentages of lower explosive limit (LEL) of methane. The LEL isthe minimum amount of gas required in air by volume to sustaincombustion.

Combustible gas readings were identified above the LEL fromsubsurface (below the surface by at lease 3 inches) measurementstaken from the yards of residential properties number 11 and number 12 (see Figure 1-2). Combustible gas readings rangedbetween 0 and in exceedance of 1,000 percent LEL (see Figure1-2). This suggests that either methane is migrating from thesouthern areas of the landfill or is being generated naturally fromburied organic materials.

Indoor Air

Indoor air sampling for air toxics and methane was performed on anumber of occasions. The following paragraphs represent achronological summary of the indoor air testing that has takenplace at the OSL to date.

In 1986, GZA performed air quality monitoring in buildings withinthe study area for organic vapors, oxygen and combustible gasconcentrations. This was done for the protection of on-siteworkers, nearby residents and businesses. VOCs were found inapproximately 25 percent of the 220 samples screened.

In 1990, the EPA took indoor air samples (EPA Sept, 1990) in twohomes located within the boundaries of the landfill. These homeswere sampled because a study conducted by the EPA in 1985identified methane in a commercial building located on OSL belowthe LEL. The concern was raised that methane buildup from thelandfill may be present and could act as a carrier gas for othertoxic chemicals buried within the landfill. The two privateresidences selected were located at 413 and 425 Old Turnpike Road. The VOCs detected were below health comparison values.

In November of 1991, the EPA had received the following reports:that workers in the Southington Parks and Recreation Departmentwere becoming ill while inside the building; and that flames hadbeen ignited in cracks in the concrete floor at the SouthingtonMetal Fabricator facility during welding operations.

Subsequently, the Southington Fire Department detected the presenceof organic vapors and combustible gases inside and outside of theSouthington Parks and Recreation building. The Southington FireDepartment obtained LEL readings ranging from 30 to 90 percent, andat least one substance in addition to methane was also detectedduring their survey in the Southington Parks and RecreationDepartment facility and Southington Metal Fabricators. The resultsin Table 3 show the percent LEL of methane detected.

In response on December 12, 1991, the EPA performed indoor airscreening for methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds inthree residential and nine commercial buildings. The EPA screeningresults found elevated levels of combustible gases in the breathingzone of three of the nine commercial/industrial facilities tested. No combustible gases were identified above comparison values in anyof the three private residences screened.

In June of 1992, OSHA performed indoor air screening and foundmethane above comparison values (8-198 percent LEL) in twobuildings of the Southington Metal Fabricators facility.

In August of 1992, the CT DEP sampled the private residence locatedat 413 Old Turnpike Road for VOCs and found benzene belowcomparison values.

In September of 1992, explosive levels of methane (0-70 percentLEL) were identified in the floor cracks of the R.V. & Sons weldingshop by the Southington Fire Department. According to the owner ofthe facility, the level of combustible gases set off the ambientair combustible gas alarm.

In response to the identification of explosive levels of methane inthe three commercial facilities, passive venting systems wereinstalled in the summer and fall of 1992 in the followingcommercial facilities: R.V. & Sons, Southington Metal Fabricators,and Parks & Recreation Department.

In November of 1992, the EPA performed an air monitoring survey forthe presence of methane and total VOCs. Samples were collectedfrom the residential properties, two residential methane monitoringprobes and from inside the following businesses: Southington MetalFabricators, Parks and Recreation Department, Northeast Machine,WNTY Radio Station, Solomon Casket, and Meriden Box. High levelsof total VOCs and explosive levels of methane were identified inthe cracks in the floor of Southington Metal Fabricators. Elevatedreadings of total VOCs were detected in the Northeast Machinebuilding. These detections may be due to the chemicals used in thefacility (i.e. degreasers).

No VOCs or combustible gases were detected above background levelsin the other facilities. None of the VOC measurements obtainedfrom the residential properties were above health comparisonvalues.

Table 3.

RANGE OF METHANE CONCENTRATION IN INDOOR AIR
LOCATION CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION RANGE
(percent LEL)
COMPARISON VALUE SOURCE (percent LEL)
R.V. & Sons Methane 0 - 70 25 OSHA
Southington Dept. of Parks and Recreation Methane 30 - 1,000 25 OSHA
Southington
Metal
Fabricators
Methane 8 - 198 25 OSHA

LEL-Lower Explosive Limit standard set by the Occupational Safetyand Health Administration.

Ambient Air

Past exposures to contaminants in air from previous fires and theopen burning of waste cannot be assessed because there are no dataavailable for the years the landfill was in operation.

C. OFF-SITE CONTAMINATION

Ground Water Monitoring Wells

There are approximately forty-six ground water monitoring wellsoff-site. VOCs, SVOCs, metals, and PCB contamination abovecomparison values were found in eight wells just west of the site. Table 4 lists those contaminants found above present comparison values.

Analytical testing by Warzyn in 1980 (Warzyn May 1989, p. 32) foundtwo off-site monitoring wells with methylene chloride at 10 ppb andtrans 1,2-dichloroethylene at 29 ppb. GZA could not confirm theseresults on their follow-up sampling of these wells in 1990.

Elevated concentrations of metals were found in off-site monitoringwells near the Lori Corporation facility and may reflect localizedcontamination and not contamination from the OSL site.

CONCENTRATION RANGE OF CONTAMINANTS IN OFF-SITE
GROUND WATER WELLS (1,2)
CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION RANGE (ppb) COMPARISON VALUE
(ppb)               SOURCE
Barium 41.1 - 1,080 700 RMEG-C
Benzene ND - 9 1 CREG
Beryllium ND - 43.5 0.008 CREG
Chromium ND - 1,020 100 MCL
1,2-Dichloroethene ND - 6,000 70 MCL
Ethyl Benzene ND - 10,000 700 MCL
Lead 113 - 670 0 MCLG
Manganese ND - 38,800 50 RMEG-C
Methylene chloride ND - 10 5 MCL
Naphthalene ND - 100 20 LTHA
PCBs ND - 14 0.005 CREG
Di(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) ND - 700 3 CREG
Tetrachloroethylene ND - 62 0.7 CREG
Toluene ND - 23,000 2000 RMEG-C
1,1,1-Trichloroethane ND - 1,800 200 LTHA
Trichloroethylene ND - 580 3 CREG
Vinyl chloride ND - 23 0.7 EMEG
CREG - Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide

EMEG

- Environmental Media Evaluation Guide

LTHA

- Lifetime Health Advisory

MCL

- Maximum Contaminant Level

MCLG

- Maximum Contaminant Level Goal

ppb

- Parts Per Billion

RMEG-C

- Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide -Children

1 GZA 1990, 1991

2 Warzyn 1989

Ground Water - Public Well

Municipal well number five was found to be contaminated abovenatural background levels in 1976 and not deactivated until 1979.The well continued to operate until 1979 because there were nowater quality guidelines for VOCs when the well was initiallyidentified as contaminated. The well was found to be contaminatedwith TCA, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, methane andtrace amounts of lead and mercury. PCB contamination was detectedby GZA in 1987 during one sampling round (GZA RI/FS Volume III,1991). Table 5 lists those contaminants detected in municipal wellnumber five above present comparison values. Currently there areno public drinking water wells within a mile of the OSL site. Inaddition, the Southington public water supply is safe to drink.

Ground Water - Private Wells

Low levels of VOCs were detected in two commercial private waterwells located just west of OSL. The VOCs include chloroform, l,2dichloroethene, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. The VOCsdetected were found at levels below comparison values and are notconsidered a health concern. Currently there are no residentialdrinking water wells in the vicinity of the site. All residentialwells in the vicinity of the site have been connected to the publicwater supply.

Table 5.

GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION OF MUNICIPAL WELL 5 (1)
CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION
(ppb)
COMPARISON VALUE
(ppb)                     SOURCE
Carbon tetrachloride 8.9 0.3 CREG
PCB 1.1 0.005 CREG
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 300 200 LTHA
Trichloroethylene 45 3 CREG
CREG - Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide

LTHA

- Lifetime Health Advisory

ppb

- parts per billion

1 GZA 1991

 

Surface Water

Black Pond and its outlet stream are the main receiving waters forOSL and neighboring properties, collecting surface water runofffrom the surrounding roadways, industrial, residential, andcommercial properties.

Surface water samples were collected in June of 1990 from BlackPond and the stream into which Black Pond discharges. Iron,hexavalent chromium, and manganese were detected above comparisonvalues and are listed in Table 6. Trace amounts of carbondisulfide were found and are not considered a risk to human healthor aquatic life. The aquatic criteria values protect plants andanimals. The fish consumption values are protective of humanhealth taking into account the lowest contaminant concentrationsfrom ingestion of water and fish, and the ingestion of fish only.

Surface water samples collected from the Quinnipiac River (GZA1990) identified minimal levels of VOCs and semi-volatilecompounds. Several metals were detected at levels higher thanbackground concentrations in downstream surface water samples. Samples taken in wetland areas (using ground water well points lessthan 5 feet deep) indicated the same pattern of contamination asdescribed in surface water samples.

Table 6.

CONCENTRATION RANGE OF CONTAMINANTS IN OFF-SITE SURFACEWATER 1
CONTAMINANT RANGE (ppb) AQUATIC CRITERIA (ppb)

FISH CONSUMPTION
(ppb)

Acute
LOEL
Chronic
LOEL
water+fish
ingestion  
fish ingestion
only
Carbon disulfide 4-23 - - - -
Iron 666 -2,010 1,000 - 300 -
Manganese 212-1,000 - - 50 100
Chromium ND-25.95 16 11 - -
LOEL - Lowest observable effect level

ND

- None detected

ppb

- parts per billion

1 GZA 1990

 

Fish

In September of 1992, the CT DPHAS and the CT DEP, Inland FisheriesProgram caught approximately 200 live fish specimens from BlackPond using a net. All the fish caught appeared healthy. Twenty-five fish were collected from this sample of 200 fish. Theremaining fish were returned to the pond. The fish speciescollected were catfish, yellow perch, bass and white suckers. Composite samples of five specimens from each species were analyzedfor metals and PCBs. Trace levels of metals and PCBs were found inthe fish below health comparison values.

Stream Sediments

Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were found in sedimentsfrom the outlet stream to Black Pond and the impounded wetlandsouth of Black Pond. The SVOC concentrations in the sedimentsranged from 0.9-l0 ppm. These levels are below comparison valuesand therefore are not considered a health threat.

Other chemicals identified in the sediments below comparison valuesinclude carbon disulfide, phthalates, and furans. The metalsdetected include cadmium, lead and nickel. The metals detected insediments occur at natural background levels (Kabata-Pendias andPendias, l985).

Subsurface Soil Gas

Subsurface gas sampling was also conducted, primarily for theprotection of workers, as well as the residents and businesseslocated adjacent to the subject site area. Some boreholescontained VOC levels between 1-3 ppm, and levels between 0-50 ppmwere found in a few of the ground water monitoring wells. The VOClevels detected in borehole readings correspond with areas ofcurrent industrial operations. Monitoring well results may beexplained by the potential for the natural biodegradation oforganic matter, or the fact that the PID readings may be skewed bythe presence of naturally occurring chemicals, such as hydrogensulfide (GZA,1990).

Four areas were found to be contaminated with detectable levels ofVOCs. These include:

- the southern portion of Chuck and Eddie's Used Auto Parts property,
- east and west of the Solomon Casket Co. building,
- east and west of Old Turnpike Road, and
- north of Meriden Box.

Based on the sampling distribution results, those contaminantsdetected west of Old Turnpike Road and north of Meriden Box are notlikely attributable to past landfill activities, but rather, topresent industrial activities ongoing in the sampling areas.

Ambient Air

Past exposures to contaminants in air from previous fires and theopen burning of waste cannot be assessed because there are no dataavailable for the years the landfill was in operation.

D. QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL

The Consulting Firms (GZA and ESE) conducting the RI/FS weremonitored by EPA oversight personnel, both in field and laboratoryprocedures. However, the procedures used by these firms or otherconsultants who have conducted historic sampling at the site werenot evaluated by the Connecticut Department of Public Health andAddiction Services. Therefore, the conclusions drawn for thishealth assessment were determined by the availability andreliability of the referenced information and it is assumed thatadequate quality assurance and quality control measures werefollowed with regard to chain of custody, laboratory procedures anddata reporting.

As indicated in Table 5, elevated levels of PCB contamination wasdetected by GZA in 1987 during only one sampling round (GZA RI/FSVolume III, 1991.) in Town well number five. The levels rangedfrom ND to 1.1 ppb. However, it should be noted that there existssome controversy regarding the reliability of the data analysissince PCBs were not analyzed for in prior sampling events.

E. PHYSICAL AND OTHER HAZARDS

Although no physical hazards were observed during our site visit,methane has been detected in one building at Southington Parks andRecreation, one building at R.V. & Sons, and two buildings atSouthington Metal Fabricators. Gas production in landfills is asubject of much concern because of the potential hazards of methanecombustion.

Methane was detected in 1986 (GZA 1986) at levels ranging from 0.1to 2.3 percent Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) beneath the R.V. andSons building (GZA 1986), and in 1991 and 1992 at dangerously highlevels (30 to greater than 1000 percent LEL) in the R.V. & Sonsbuilding, the Southington Parks and Recreation building and in twoout of three buildings (northernmost and southernmost buildings) ofSouthington Metal Fabricators.

According to an employee from Southington Metal Fabricators, duringthe winter seasons, a gas-like odor is frequently detected in thebuilding where welding is commonly performed. In addition, he alsostated that cracks in the floor of the facility have ignited whena welding torch was lit.

The CT DEP observed the ignition of floor cracks in the SouthingtonParks and Recreation building during a site inspection in thesummer of 1992.

In July of 1992, the ATSDR performed a health consultation toassess the presence of combustible gases on-site and provide advicefor its remediation. The ATSDR health consultation report indicatedthat due to ceiling height, floor space and adequate dailyventilation of the structures, it is unlikely that enough methanecould accumulate in these buildings to cause an explosion or healthhazard. However, the report notes that accumulation of methanegases in a small confined space, such as a closet, is possible andcould create a dangerous situation (the ATSDR health consultationreport is in Appendix 5).

Engineering controls have been installed in 2 facilities (Southington Parks and Recreation and Southington Metal Fabricators) to control the entrance of combustible gases. Steps have also been taken by ESE to seal cracks in these 2 buildings. Combustible gas indicators have been installed in all the commercial and residential buildings on the site. However, cracks in the floors of some of the commercial buildings continue to develop creating new gas migration pathways into the buildings.

Because of the continuing subsidence, the methane levels detectedand the fire incidents, the potential exists for methane levels toincrease at any time. In addition, the potential exists formethane to migrate into other buildings. Therefore, the potentialexists for fire and explosion hazards.


PATHWAYS ANALYSES

To determine whether nearby residents have been or are beingexposed to contaminants migrating from the site the CT DPHAS andthe ATSDR evaluated the environmental and human components thatlead to human exposures and an exposed population. The pathwayanalysis consists of five elements: a source of contamination,transport through an environmental medium, a point of exposure, aroute of human exposure and an exposed population. Exposurepathways discussed here are air, soil, groundwater and surfacewater. For exposure pathways to be completed all five elements ofthe pathway must be present. Potential pathways are those wherethere is not enough evidence to show that all the elements arepresent, could be present or were present in the past.

A. Completed Exposure Pathways

Public Ground Water Wells

Residents were exposed to the contaminated public water supply foran indeterminate period of time. OSL is suspected to havecontaminated one of the town production wells located 600 feet fromthe site. According to various engineering reports, landfill wastesources are suspected to have migrated in the ground water to townwell number five. In addition, there are other industrialfacilities in the area (Lori Corporation, and Chuck and Eddie's)which could also have been sources of contamination.

A large portion of the population of Southington receivedingestion, skin contact and inhalation exposure to watercontaminated with VOCs from town well number five. This occurredfor an unknown period of time between 1972 and 1979. Southingtonresidents ingested water contaminated with VOCs, and receiveddermal and inhalation exposures to VOCs when they bathed or washedwith water from this well.

Although not site related, town wells 2, 4, and 6 are discussedhere because all municipal wells are pumped through the entirewater distribution system of the town. Town well 4 was installedin l967, was identified as contaminated with VOCs in l976, and wasoperated until deactivated in l979. Town well 6 was installed inl976, identified as contaminated with VOCs in l976 and deactivatedin l980. Town well 2 was installed in l952, identified ascontaminated with VOCs in l982 and deactivated. Subsequently, anair stripper was installed to remove the VOCs contamination and thewell is currently in use. As a result, Southington residents wereexposed to VOCs when they ingested water contaminated with VOC fromthese wells. The residents received dermal and inhalation exposureto VOCs when they bathed or washed with water from these threewells. The ATSDR estimates that approximately 30,000 Southingtonresidents received contaminated water from these wells for anunknown period of time.

Indoor Air Pathway

Employees of the Southington Parks and Recreation facility andSouthington Metal Fabricators received skin contact and inhalationexposure to indoor air contaminated with methane and other unknowngases migrating from landfill waste source.

Concentrations of combustible gases have repeatedly been shown toexceed comparison values in the floor cracks of three facilitieson-site, the Southington Parks and Recreation Department andSouthington Metal Fabricators and R.V. & Sons. In addition,employees of the Southington Parks and Recreation have complainedof illness (allergic skin reactions, headaches and nausea.)

B. Potential Exposure Pathways
Private Well Pathway

Ingestion, dermal (skin absorption), and inhalation exposures toelevated concentrations of VOCs, or metals may have occurred in thepast if the four private wells (three commercial wells and oneresidential well) in the area were used for drinking or washing. Both Solomon Casket and the one private residence historically usedprivate water wells for drinking water purposes. These two wellshave been closed and both the residence and Solomon Casket havebeen connected to public water. All residential wells in thevicinity of the site have been connected to the public watersupply.

An employee of Solomon Casket stated that the well wateroccasionally had a bad odor and was not ingested during thesetimes. According to the employee the well was principally used forwashing trucks.

Although the resident claimed the well was tested for basic waterchemistry standards and was declared 'acceptable' this informationcould not be confirmed.

Inhalation and dermal exposure can occur when contaminated wellwater is used for both household and industrial purposes, such asshowering or hand washing.

Soil Pathway

High levels of VOCs and PAHs were found in subsurface soils onseveral commercial properties. The compounds found (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and PAHs) are volatile. The potential exists fordermal and inhalation exposures to contaminated soils to occur topersons involved in excavations or digging on the R.V. & Sonsproperty and/or along Old Turnpike Rd near the R.V. & Sonsproperty.

No contaminants were identified above health comparison values insurface soils. Therefore, exposures to surface soils is notconsidered a cause for concern.

Surface Water Pathway

Residents could potentially receive inhalation, dermal or ingestionexposures to potentially contaminated water or landfill leachatewhile swimming in Black Pond. Leachate seeps are common along thewestern shores of the pond and carbon disulfide and a variety ofmetals have been found in surface water samples.

Ambient Air Pathway

Landfill workers and other persons in the area may have received inhalation exposures to toxic air emissions generated from the open burning of potentially hazardous liquid and solid wastes in the landfill. The estimated period of exposure was from 1920 to 1967. The landfill open burned industrial wastes (solvents, metal sludges, etc.) and spontaneous chemical fires were common, according to an employee from Solomon Casket.

We do not know which chemicals landfill workers and other personsin the area may have been exposed to, since we do not have anyambient air data for the years when the landfill was operating.

Food Chain Pathway

According to local residents and employees, people fish and froghunt in and along the shores of Black Pond.

The Black Pond surface water sampling results indicate that a number of metals are at levels above those established under the Federal Clean Water Act Criteria for aquatic health (freshwater criteria and fish ingestion or fish consumption only). Therefore, there was concern for potential bioaccumulation of metals in fish. In response, fish were collected from Black Pond and analyzed for metals and PCBs. The concentrations of metals and PCBs identified in fish are below health comparison values and thus are not a health concern.


PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Completed exposure pathways have been identified for indoor air andground water. Potential exposure pathways have been identified forsoil, surface water, and groundwater. In this section the healtheffects associated with exposure to contaminants of concern will bediscussed.

A. Toxicologic Evaluation

In this section we will discuss the potential health effects in persons exposed to specific contaminants. To evaluate health effects, the ATSDR has developed a Minimal Risk Level (MRL) for contaminants commonly found at hazardous waste sites. The MRL is an estimate of daily human exposure to a contaminant below which non-cancer or adverse health effects are not likely to occur. MRLs are developed for each route of exposure, such as ingestion and inhalation, and for the length of exposure, such as acute (less than 14 days), intermediate(15 to 364 days), and chronic (greater than 364 days). The ATSDR presents these MRLs in Toxicologic Profiles. These chemical specific profiles provide information on the health effects, environmental transport, human exposure, and regulatory status. When MRLs are not available for certain chemicals, other comparison values are used to assess the potential adverse health effects associated with exposures. In the following discussion, we used the ATSDR Toxicological Profiles for trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, benzene, ethyl benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, lead, mercury, and PCBs.

Methane

Methane was detected in the floor cracks of two non-residentialfacilities on the site at levels that could pose a fire orexplosion hazard. The action level for the combustion of methaneis greater than or equal to the OSHA 25 percent lower explosivelimit (LEL) (or 25,000 ppm.) If the OSHA LEL is exceededevacuation is necessary. The methane levels measured in the floorcracks in the facilities measured between 30 and 198 percent LEL. However, the methane levels detected in ambient air at thebreathing elevations could not cause any adverse health effects. There is no MRL or RfD for methane. Methane is an asphyxiant (willcause suffocation) and has no other health effects.

Methane will cause suffocation at a level of 330,000 ppm (or 33percent). The levels measured in the breathing levels in homes andin the commercial facilities (7 percent) were considerably lowerthan the level that would cause suffocation. Therefore, no adversehealth effects from methane are expected.

Trichloroethylene (TCE)

Trichloroethylene was found above comparison values in the publicdrinking water well number five (45 ppb) and in ground watermonitoring wells (580 ppb). The well was in operation forapproximately 7 years. TCE was also detected in soil gas and inminor amounts in indoor air samples.

TCE exposure through ingestion occurred in the past to persons whodrank water from TCE contaminated public well number five (45 ppb). Using the highest TCE concentration detected in the public waterwell (45 ppb), the ingestion exposure was calculated for adults(1.3 ug/kg/day) and children (4.5 ug/kg/day) did not exceed theATSDR intermediate MRL (700 ug/kg/day). Therefore, adversenon-carcinogenic health effects are unlikely to occur in thosepersons who drank TCE contaminated water for one year. We assumethat adults drink two liters (66 ounces) of tap water each day forseven years and weigh 70 Kg (154 pounds) For children we assumethat they drank one liter (33 ounces) of tap water each day forseven years and weigh 10 kg (22 pounds). Because of insufficientdata neither the ATSDR nor the EPA have chronic guidelines for TCE. Therefore, the health effects associated with drinking TCEcontaminated tap water for over one year are not known.

Carcinogenicity studies have indicated that an association mayexist between leukemia in humans and exposure to well watercontaminated with chlorinated organic compounds includingtrichloroethylene (Kotelchuck and Parker, l979; Parker and Rosen, l98l; Lagakos et al. l986 a,b). The EPA has classifiedtrichloroethylene in Group B2 - probable human carcinogen.

The estimated cancer risk was calculated. The cancer riskestimates calculated for an adult and a child for a seven yearperiod indicate that TCE induced cancer from the ingestion of theTCE contaminated drinking water is unlikely to occur.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane (Methyl Chloroform, TCA)

As indicated in the environmental contamination section TCA wasdetected in ground water monitoring wells and in the publicdrinking water supply well number five at levels (300 ppb) abovethe Lifetime Health Advisory of 200 ppb.

There is no acute or chronic MRL or RfD for TCA. The concentrationsof trichloroethane found in the well are below the Lowest ObservedEffect Level for ingestion in laboratory animals. Studies have notbeen performed on the effects of long term exposure on humans tolow levels of TCA. Thus, the human health effects resulting fromlong-term exposure of humans to water contaminated with specificlevels of trichloroethane are not known. Therefore, the long termhealth effects of exposure to trichloroethane in the tap water arenot known.

Although TCA was also detected in soil gas samples (ranging from NDto l50 ppb) and in indoor air samples at levels at or above 98percent of average homes (US EPA TEAM Study, 1987), no adversehealth effects are expected from inhalation exposures at theselevels.

The main effect of TCA exposure at levels much greater than thosefound in the public drinking water well and in indoor air iscentral nervous system depression. Kidney and liver damage areminimal and have not occurred when used as an anesthetic agent.

Carbon Tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride was found in ground water monitoring wells andin public drinking water well number five (8.9 ppb) above the ATSDRCREG (0.3 ppb). The calculated dose estimate for an adult (0.25ug/kg/day) and child (0.9 ug/kg/day) are below the ATSDRintermediate MRL of 7 ug/kg/day. Therefore, adversenon-carcinogenic health effects are unlikely from the ingestion ofcarbon tetrachloride contaminated tap water from well number fivefor one year.

The EPA has classified carbon tetrachloride in Group B2-probablehuman carcinogen. Therefore, the estimated cancer risk wascalculated and compared to the ATSDR excess lifetime cancer riskestimates. The cancer risk calculations for an adult and a childfor a seven year period indicate that the risk for carbontetrachloride induced cancer from the ingestion of carbontetrachloride-contaminated water is not significant.

Toluene

Elevated levels (16,000 ppm) of toluene have been detected insubsurface soils. Toluene was also identified in indoor air atlevels ranging from 69 ug/m3 to 2l2 ug/m3. Although these airlevels exceed average background levels for toluene in indoor air,adverse health effects from inhalation exposures at these levelsare not expected.

Studies have not been performed on the health effects of short orlong term exposure to toluene at low levels. None of the availablestudies suggest that toluene is carcinogenic.

Benzene

Elevated levels of benzene have been detected on-site in subsurfacesoils and soil gas, in ground water monitoring wells, and in indoorair samples. Benzene in ground water monitoring wells was found atlevels (27 ppb) above the EPA MCL of 5 ppb. There is no evidenceto indicate that residents have been exposed to benzene in drinkingwater.

Although the indoor air levels occur at concentrations greater thanapproximately 90 percent of the average home levels nationally,they are below health comparison values and thus no adverse healtheffects are expected at these levels.

Subsurface soils were found to contain between 0 and 1,500 ppm ofbenzene (GZA 1991). Since benzene evaporates into the air, thereis a potential for inhalation exposure to benzene during on-siteexcavations.

Benzene is a known human carcinogen. It has been linked to thedevelopment of leukemia and other adverse affects related to thehematopoietic (blood related) system. The indoor air samplingresults did not approach this level of toxicity and thus, adversehealth effects are not expected.

Ethyl Benzene

Ethyl benzene was detected in on-site ground water monitoring wells(ND to 7,800 ppb) above the EPA MCL of 700 ppb. Ethyl benzene wasalso detected in soil gas and in indoor air at levels below healthcomparison values. Thus, no adverse health effects are expectedfrom inhalation exposures to the ethyl benzene levels found on-siteand there is no evidence to suggest that residents have beenexposed to ethyl benzene in ground water

The health effects of low level exposure to ethyl benzene in theair for short periods of time include eye and throat irritation.One long-term study in animals suggests that ethyl benzene maycause tumors (Maltoni 1985). However, no studies were locatedregarding carcinogenic effects in humans to date.

Benzo(a)pyrene

Benzo(a)pyrene was found in subsurface soil at levels (4.4 ppm)above the ATSDR CREG of 0.1 ppm. Adverse dermal effects have beennoted in humans following skin exposure in patients withpre-existing skin conditions. In addition, benzo(a)pyrene is atumor promoter. Thus, humans dermally exposed to benzo(a)pyrenetogether with other chemicals that are carcinogenic may be at riskfor developing skin cancer. This may be cause for concern duringsoil excavation or diggings on-site.

Lead and Mercury

Lead has been detected in ground water monitoring wells in a fewlocations off-site at levels exceeding the EPA action levels of 15ppb (identified range ll3-670 ppb) during sampling conducted byWarzyn between l977-l980. In addition, lead and mercury were alsodetected in three public drinking water wells (4, 6, and 5).Although this contamination is not associated with the OSL sitethis information is included in this report to assess total metalexposures that could have potentially occurred in the Town ofSouthington. In addition, it should be noted that there existssome controversy regarding the reliability of the data analysis.Subsequent sampling in 1976 and 1977 did not identify mercury orlead in the three wells. The levels ranged from 7 to 70 ppb forlead which exceeds the EPA action level of 15 ppb. Town wellnumber five had a lead level of 1.8 ppb below comparison values.The levels of mercury (1.8 to 3 ppb) are only slightly higher thanthe EPA MCL (2 ppb) and exceed the EPA Health Advisory of 2 ppb forlifetime exposure to mercury in drinking water.

Studies indicate that long-term exposure to low levels of lead cancause brain damage and lowered Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) inchildren. If a pregnant woman is exposed to lead it can be carriedto the unborn child and may cause premature birth, low birthweight, or even spontaneous abortion.

Although not likely to cause adverse effects alone, drinking waterlevels in the range of 60 to 70 ppb would contribute significantlyto the overall body burden of lead and increase the percentage ofexposed individuals at risk from lead toxicity due to othersources.

Long-term exposure to either organic or inorganic mercury canpermanently damage the brain, kidneys, and developing fetuses. Exposure to mercury at the levels found in the drinking water couldput some exposed individuals at risk for some of these long termadverse effects later in life.

Domestic water uses other than drinking (incidental ingestion,inhalation dermal exposure) can increase the potential for chronichealth effects from mercury exposure. Mercury has not been shownto be carcinogenic in humans to date.

PCBs

PCBs were found in ground water in public drinking water wellnumber five (Warzyn 1980) after the well was deactivated, and inon-site groundwater monitoring wells above the ATSDR EMEGcomparison values. PCBs were only detected in one sampling eventafter the well had been deactivated. Therefore, it is unknownwhether PCB contamination was present during the time the well wasoperating.

Using the highest concentration of PCB found in well number five(1.1 ppb) the calculated ingestion exposure dose for an adult (0.03ug/kg/day) and a child (0.11 ug/kg/day) exceeded the ATSDR MRL of0.02 ug/kg/day. The ATSDR MRL of 0.02 ug/kg/day is forchronic-duration oral PCB exposure. Therefore, since the exposuredose was greater than the MRL for both a child and an adult, thepotential exists for noncancerous adverse health effects to haveoccurred or to occur in residents who were exposed to thePCB-contaminated drinking water in town well number five for overone year. The ATSDR MRL was derived from two studies that showedimmunologic effects in monkeys. The studies showed a reduction inantibodies and other proteins that help the body resist infections.

In general, PCBs are easily absorbed through the skin fromcontaminated soils or other materials. The four major toxiceffects of high level exposure to these compounds are chloracne,the wasting syndrome, liver toxicity, and immunotoxicity. Becausethe possibility exists that the water was contaminated with PCBs,and PCBs are classified as a probable carcinogen the estimatedcancer risk was calculated. The cancer risk calculations for anadult and a child for a seven year period indicate that the riskfor PCB induced cancer from the ingestion of PCB-contaminateddrinking water is not significant.

Currently, the potential for exposure to PCBs at the site is notexpected to occur and thus, adverse health effects from on-site PCBcontamination are unlikely to occur.

B. Health Outcome Data Evaluation

A number of health outcomes were evaluated for the town ofSouthington, including cancer, infant mortality, perinatalmortality, learning disabilities, and birth defects. While theseanalyses may generate clues regarding the association betweencertain chemical exposures and disease outcomes, it must bestressed that such an association is not considered a causal link. Many other factors may also contribute to the onset of disease,including diet, tobacco use, family history, age, race, occupation,and socioeconomic factors. In sum, the tools of epidemiology arevery limited in terms of proving causation because of thecomplexity of factors that are involved in the development ofdisease.

1. Results of Tumor Incidence Studies

Two cancer incidence studies have been completed and the third iscurrently underway. The results of these studies are presentedbelow.

a. Initial study of cancer incidence in Southington 1979 to 1988

Citizen concern prompted the CT DPHAS to conduct a study of cancerincidence in Southington, CT. Data was gathered from the TumorRegistry on tumor incidence for bladder, brain, breast, leukemia,non Hodgkin lymphoma, testis, and all sites combined for the years1979 to 1988.

Information on the total number of tumors in Connecticut and inSouthington was obtained from the Tumor Registry for the tumorsites listed above. Age specific incidence rates per 10,000population were generated for Connecticut and Southington for theten year period 1979 to 1988. The age specific incidence rates andstandardized incidence ratios were computed for each of the tumorsites bladder, brain, breast, leukemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,testis and all sites combined. A spreadsheet program was developedto assist in these calculations. A summary of the results ispresented in Table 7.



Table 7.

SUMMARY OF INITIAL CANCER INCIDENCE STUDY CONDUCTED BY DPHAS IN SOUTHINGTON, CT 1979-1988
SITE OBSERVED
EXPECTED
STANDARD INCIDENCE
RATIO
95 PERCENT
CONFIDENCE INTERVAL
ALL SITES 1355
1433
0.95 0.89, 0.99
BLADDER 79
76
1.04 0.80, 1.28
BRAIN 28
40
0.70 0.51, 0.87
BREAST 222
237
0.94 0.82, 1.05
LEUKEMIA 34
35
0.97 0.65, 1.27
NON-HODGKIN's
LYMPHOMA
44
47
0.94 0.68, 1.20
TESTICULAR 9
10
0.90 0.36, 1.49

The Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) is an overall summarymeasure of the cancer risk. The SIR is calculated by multiplyingthe Connecticut cancer incidence rate by the population of the townto estimate an 'expected' number of cancers in each age group. Theactual (or observed) number of cases identified by the TumorRegistry are divided by the expected number to obtain the SIR. When the SIR is less than one (1.00) the risk of cancer is lessthan expected, when the SIR is greater than one the risk is morethan expected. This method allows for the inclusion of age as arisk factor in the analysis. Age is important to consider becausegenerally speaking the risk of cancer varies with age.

The SIR did not significantly differ from one (1.00) in mostinstances. However, the SIR was significantly less than one forbrain and for all sites combined. This indicates that Southingtonas a whole did not experience a higher than expected cancerincidence for the period 1979 to 1988 and in fact the number oftumors was actually lower than expected for most sites evaluated. Review of the ten year age specific rates indicated that only forbladder cancer among individuals between age 40 to 49 did the 95percent confidence interval indicate a statistically significantelevation in rate.

This preliminary review of the tumor incidence data indicated thatthere is not a cancer epidemic occurring in Southington. Theanalysis was based on town wide statistics, however, and did notaddress the question of whether specific neighborhoods inSouthington were experiencing more than their share of cancer. Because there was known contamination of the water supply byemissions from SRSNE a follow-up of this preliminary study wasinitiated.

b. Follow-up study of bladder and testicular cancer inSouthington 1970 to 1989 using Geographic Information Systemtechnology

A computerized Geographic Information System (GIS) operated by theCT DEP assisted in the exact mapping of 11 of 12 testicular cancercases and 125 of the 127 bladder cancer cases that occurred toresidents of Southington during the years 1970 to 1989. The GISwas also used to determine where these cases lived in relation tothe contaminated public supply wells and to estimate the totalnumber of persons living in relation to the wells so that agespecific cancer incidence rates could be calculated.

The use of the GIS allowed the CT DPHAS to analyze cancer rates ingeographic areas not defined by town boundaries and to look atsmaller geographic areas. Specifically this study focused on a onemile radius surrounding the contaminated public drinking waterwells. While the town water supply system contained water that wasblended from several sources, this study area was chosen because itwas felt that the residents who lived closest to the contaminatedwells would receive the majority of their water from these wells.

Estimates of the population in these smaller geographic areas wasmade relying on data from the 1980 census. The study areas werecomprised of one mile radii surrounding each of the public watersupply wells. Wells 4 and 6 were combined because of their closeproximity.

Standardized incidence ratios were calculated for the study areas.The number of testicular cancers was too small to present anymeaningful statistical analysis near the contaminated wells. Asummary of the bladder cancer results is presented in Table 8.


Table 8.

OBSERVED/EXPECTED BLADDER CANCER CASES STANDARD INCIDENCE RATIOS AND 95 PERCENT CONFIDENCE INTERVALS IN ONE MILE RADIUS FROM CONTAMINATED WELLS IN SOUTHINGTON, CT 1970 TO 1989
Well OBSERVED
EXPECTED
STANDARD
INCIDENCE
RATIO (SIR)
95 PERCENT
CONFIDENCE
INTERVAL
WELL 2 7
8.52
0.820.21, 1.43
WELL 5 43
31.40
1.370.96, 1.78
WELLS 4 & 6 20
16.46
1.220.68, 1.75
WELLS 4, 5 & 6 63
47.86
1.320.99, 1.64

The population in the one mile radius around well number 2 did notexperience an excess cancer risk. The population who lived withinone mile of wells number 4, 5, or 6 did experience an excessbladder cancer risk.

This study demonstrated the value of the GIS in enabling the studyof the occurrence of disease in relation to a geographic area thatis not restricted to political boundaries.

This study did reveal an elevation in bladder cancer among personsliving near contaminated wells. However, the study could beimproved by developing a better measure of exposure to emissionsrather than just the one mile radii around the contaminated wells.

c. Expanded GIS study of exposure to contaminants and cancerincidence in Southington 1970-1989

The ATSDR has funded the CT DPHAS to conduct an expanded study tobetter assess how residents of Southington were exposed tocontaminants from the wells (including well number five near OSL),and contaminants released into the air from SRSNE.

Additional cancer sites were selected for inclusion in the expandedstudy based on whether toxicological or epidemiological studies hadsuggested a possible link between exposure to the contaminantsfound in the drinking water and development of cancer in animals orhumans. Cases of liver and kidney cancer and leukemia, lymphomaand Hodgkins disease will be mapped using the GIS. The waterdistribution system is being evaluated by the ATSDR to develop anexposure ranking scheme. Census blocks will be scored for theamount of water contamination they were likely to have receivedthrough the water distribution system. Air contaminants will besimilarly ranked. The goal of this study is to compute SIRs foreach tumor site by a relative measure of exposure to contaminantsin the water and the air and determine if there is a dose/responseassociation between cancer risk and exposure to contaminants.

2. Infant and Perinatal Mortality Rates

Plots of the infant and perinatal mortality rates for Southingtonreflect elevated rates with respect to the state and surroundingtowns for the years l949 to l965 (Appendix 3). It has beentheorized that infant mortality rates or miscarriage rates may besensitive indicators of adverse environmental exposures. Althoughthe present rates are below those of the state and surroundingtowns, the historical fluctuation in rates may warrant furtherdetailed investigations with respect to past environmentalcontamination in the Town of Southington. This may prove to bedifficult due to the absence of environmental data from that timeperiod.

Other factors that may play a role in infant and perinatalmortality rates, include the availability of medical care, theoccurrence of infectious disease, as well as other data.

C. COMMUNITY HEALTH CONCERNS EVALUATION

On July 1, 1993, the Connecticut State Health Services CommissionerSusan S. Addiss of the Department of Health Services announced therelease of the Old Southington Landfill Public Health Assessment(PHA) for public comment. The locations for reviewing the PHAincluded the Southington Health Department, the Southington TownHall, the Office of the Southington Town Clerk, and the SouthingtonPublic Library. The public comment period was for 30 days beginningJuly 1, 1993. In response to community health concerns obtainedfrom interviews with local residents and employees of facilitieslocated on OSL, the following discussion provides an evaluation bythe ATSDR as well as those actions that have been or will be takento address the community's health concerns. See appendix five fordetails of the public comments.

  1. Residents living and working on the landfill are concerned overpotential exposures to toxic indoor air emissions.
  2. As previously discussed, indoor air sampling performed in homesidentified the presence of several potentially toxic gasesabove background levels which exceeded the average for areahomes but did not exceed health comparison values. However, itis difficult to assess whether these gases are generated fromthe landfill or from household sources (i.e. cigarette smoking,paint cans, and lawn mowers) given the sampling locations. Methane has been identified at explosive levels, in the floorcracks of nonresidential facilities. This suggests that othertoxic gases could be migrating into indoor air through thefloor cracks as well. Therefore, the CT DPHAS and the ATSDRbelieve that contamination of indoor air is possible.

  3. Residents expressed concerns over the potential exposures tocontaminated soils and gases while performing gardening andgeneral yard work. One resident stated that skin rashessometimes develop while working in the yard. In addition,residents question whether they can grow edible plants on theirproperty as they are worried that the soil is contaminated.

    As part of the RI/FS the EPA conducted surface soil sampling inorder to assess and subsequently remediate any potentiallycontaminated soils. No contamination was found and thusgrowing edible plants is not a concern.

    In July of 1992, ESE conducted subsurface gas screening forcombustible gases from permanent monitoring probes onresidential properties. Combustible gas readings were foundabove comparison values in the yards of residential propertiesnumber 11 and number 12. This suggests that either methane ismigrating from the southern areas of the landfill or is beinggenerated naturally from buried organic materials. The CTDPHAS does not know if dermal exposure to subsurface gaseswhile gardening, could have caused the resident's skinirritations.

  4. Recreational activities such as fishing and swimming are commonin Black Pond. Residents feel these recreational activitiesare unsafe and that warning signs should be posted along theshores of the pond to keep people out.

    The CT DPHAS and the ATSDR feel that recreational activitiestaking place at Black Pond could be cause for concern. Although surface water sampling has not detected anysignificant contamination, carbon disulfide was identified fromthe water samples taken from the stream into which Black Ponddischarges. In addition, during several site visits, staterepresentatives have observed leachate seeping from the westernshoreline into the water.

    The CT DPHAS did sample fish from Black Pond to assess whatpotential compounds may be bioaccumulating, and what adverseeffects may occur if the fish are ingested. The fish were notfound to be contaminated.

  5. An employee from the Southington Parks and RecreationDepartment stated that the building where he worked wascontaminated with toxic gases. He stated that he experiencedan allergic skin reaction (reddening and burning of the skin)while working inside the facility building. He stated thatother employees avoid working in the building because theyexperience nausea and headaches.

    The CT DPHAS brought this to the attention of the EPA. TheSouthington Fire Department responded and found elevatedmethane gas readings at levels that posed a fire and explosionhazard in the facility. The facility was evacuated and someremedial work was performed which lowered the methane gaslevels. In addition, methane monitoring alarms and a passiveventilation system have been installed inside two of thenon-residential facilities to ensure safe methane levels.

    In addition, the CT DPHAS, the Southington Fire Department anda representative from the Yankee Gas company providededucational training sessions to workers and residents on thedangers of combustible gases and on how to use their methanemonitoring alarms. Whether or not the combustible gasesseeping into the Parks and Recreation building caused theworkers health problems is unknown at this time.

  6. Residents living within the northern boundary of OSL haveexpressed concern over recent indoor air samples taken by theEPA. One resident expressed concern as to the meaning andinterpretation of the indoor air results and delays ingovernmental decision making.

    In response to the community concerns, the EPA performed aseries of air monitoring rounds for methane and total VOCs inresidential and commercial buildings. There were no combustiblegases detected in the residences sampled. The VOCs measurementssampled from the residences were approximately equivalent tothe instrument background levels.

  7. Several residents will not drink the tap water because thepublic water supply pipes were installed in landfill material.

    The CT DPHAS sampled the tap water of those residents thatexpressed concern. No contaminants were identified and thereis no evidence to indicate that there is cause for concern orthat the residents' tap water is contaminated.

  8. Several residents and employees of the commercial facilitiesstated that they see the EPA RI/FS workers wearing health andsafety protective clothing and equipment on their property. They feel the EPA is keeping information from them and they areworried about their safety.

    The EPA RI/FS workers are required by law to wear health andsafety equipment while they are on the site performing anysampling or investigative work. If the EPA identified apotential hazard, local residents and workers would be notifiedand evacuated, if necessary.

  9. Residents living along Rejean Road raised concerns about thepossibility of landfill gases entering their homes and the lackof adequate environmental monitoring to determine thepossibility of such movement.

    Additional environmental monitoring is recommended to determinethe possibility that landfill gases are migrating into homesnorth and east of the landfill, such as 3 homes on thenorthside of Rejean Road, across from the landfill.

  10. Residents living on the northern portion of the landfill didnot believe that the methane monitors installed in their homeswere adequately checked or maintained.

    The Southington Fire Department will be advised about thecitizens concerns.



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