Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content

PETITIONED PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

YAWORSKI LANDFILL
AND
YAWORSKI WASTE LAGOON
(ALIASES: YAWORSKI DUMP AND PACKER ROAD LANDFILL)
CANTERBURY, WINDHAM COUNTY, CONNECTICUT


APPENDIX A: MAPS AND FIGURES

Site Location Map
Figure 1. Site Location Map

Site Map Yaworski Lagoon Site
Figure 2. Site Map Yaworski Lagoon Site

Yaworski Site
Figure 3. Yaworski Site

Potentiometric Surface Contours, Shallow Flow Zone
Figure 4. Potentiometric Surface Contours, Shallow Flow Zone

Potentiometric Surface Contours, Intermediate Flow Zone
Figure 5. Potentiometric Surface Contours, Intermediate Flow Zone

Potentiometric Surface Contours, Deep Flow Zone
Figure 6. Potentiometric Surface Contours, Deep Flow Zone

Groundwater Sampling Locations
Figure 7. Groundwater Sampling Locations

Intro Map
Figure 8. Intro Map


APPENDIX B: TABLES

Table 1.

YAWORSKI WASTE LAGOON SUPERFUND SITE- GROUNDWATER DATA FROM SEPTEMBER 1992 to DECEMBER 1998. 1
 Analyte CAS
Number
Detected Concentrations Maximum Frequency of
Detection
Minimum Maximum Location QMR (Date)
Analytes Detected in at Least One Groundwater Monitoring Location
VolatileOrganicCompounds(mg/L)
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 1   44   Ni 17 (4-5/97)

7 / 560

1,1-Dichloroethane 75-34-3 0.2 J 2100   Gs 2 (6/93)

85 / 570

1,1-Dichloroethene 75-35-4 0.2 J 4 J Ld 24 (12/98)

8 / 563

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 96-12-8 74 J 74 J Ni 17 (4-5/97)

1 / 262

1,2-Dibromoethane 106-93-4 0.9 J 0.9 J Hd 22 (6-7/98)

1 / 295

1,2-Dichloroethane 107-06-2 0.5 J 8   Cs 18 (6/97)

9 / 560

1,4-Dioxane 123-91-1 5.2 J 50000 J Cs 16 (12/96)

139 / 331

2-Butanone 78-93-3 0.9 J 180000 J Cs 12 (12/95)

48 / 458

4-Isopropyltoluene 99-87-6 0.2 J 1.2   Ni 24 (12/98)

3 / 47

4-Methyl-2-pentanone 108-10-1 0.5 J 9300 J Cs 2 (6/93)

38 / 554

Acetone 67-64-1 2 J 56000   Cs 2 (6/93)

54 / 507

Benzene 71-43-2 0.2 J 290 J Bd 13 (4/96)

104 / 570

Bromobenzene 108-86-1 4.7   4.7   Ni 11 (9/95)

1 / 232

Bromodichloromethane 75-27-4 0.3 J 320 J Bd 13 (4/96)

5 / 560

Bromomethane 74-83-9 0.3 J 360 J! Cs 21 (3/98)

12 / 560

Chloroethane 75-00-3 0.3 J 4900   Gs 11 (9/95)

165 / 570

Chloroform 67-66-3 9 J 6000 J Cs 12 (12/95)

10 / 560

Chloromethane 74-87-3 0.9 J 87   Nd 24 (12/98)

12 / 560

Dibromochloromethane 124-48-1 1 J 230 J Bd 13 (4/96)

2 / 560

Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 0.1 J 7000   Cs 22 (6-7/98)

141 / 570

Hexachlorobutadiene 87-68-3 0.8 J 1.4   Ki 22 (6-7/98)

2 / 242

Isobutyl alcohol 78-83-1 200 J 4300 J Gs 2 (6/93)

3 / 45

Isopropylbenzene 98-82-8 0.1 J 24   Ni 16 (12/96)

56 / 232

Methylene chloride 75-09-2 0.6 J 1700   Gs 7 (9/94)

47 / 560

Tetrachloroethene 127-18-4 0.5 J 1200 J Bd 8 (12/94)

7 / 565

Tetrahydrofuran 109-99-9 2 E 98000 J Cs 16 (12/96)

251 / 503

Toluene 108-88-3 0.2 J 3400 J Cs 2 (6/93)

82 / 569

trans-1,2-Dichloroethe 156-60-5 0.3 J 2   Ld 22 (6-7/98)

5 / 255

trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 110-57-6 180   180   Cs 22 (6-7/98)

1 / 20

Trichloroethene 79-01-6 0.4 J 1800 J Cs 7 (9/94)

24 / 563

Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 1.1   26   Cs 22 (6-7/98)

12 / 563

Xylene (total) 1330-20-7 0.6 J 27000   Cs 5 (4/94)

174 / 466

Semivolatile Organic Compounds (mg/L)
Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 117-81-7 0.2   79 B Gd 21 (3/98)

116 / 321

Pentachlorophenol 87-86-5 3 J 3 J Bi 21 (3/98)

1 / 163

Pesticides/PCBs (mg/L)
Dieldrin 60-57-1 0.0013 JP 0.4 J Cs 10 (6/95)

3 / 175

Heptachlor 76-44-8 0.0013 JP 0.087 P Cs 20 (12/97)

6 / 175

Heptachlor Epoxide 1024-57-3 0.0012 J 0.35 P Gs 23 (9/98)

6 / 175

Metals (mg/L)
Antimony 7440-36-0 1.2 ! 8.6   Gs 14 (6/96)

17 / 60

Arsenic 7440-38-2 0.62 B 1140   Bi 21 (3/98)

225 / 435

Barium 7440-39-3 1.9   3660   Bd 20 (12/97)

420 / 446

Cadmium 7440-43-9 0.15 J 33.2   Gd 21 (3/98)

87 / 279

Chromium 7440-47-3 0.26 J 81.8   Pi 18 (6/97)

118 / 445

Lead 7439-92-1 0.46 B! 52.2   Cs 21 (3/98)

83 / 298

Manganese 7439-96-5 4 B 33400   Cs 17 (4-5/97)

465 / 477

Mercury 7439-97-6 0.1 J 5.9   Bs 24 (12/98)

17 / 280

Nickel 7440-02-0 1 B 1040 N Ci 20 (12/97)

181 / 443

Thallium 7440-28-0 3.2 B 4.3 B Ci 22 (6-7/98)

5 / 60

Vanadium 7440-62-2 0.23 B 123   Cs 17 (4-5/97)

123 / 446

1. Data obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency , contained in the Final Predesign Engineering Report of the Yaworski Lagoon Superfund Site , prepared by Metcalf & Eddy, Inc December 1999.

QMR = Quarterly Compliance Monitoring Round

! = Data validated to Tier I; the result is at or below the validation blank action level, and is considered to be attributed to blank contamination.

If the data had been validated to Tier II, then it may have been qualified with a "J" or "U J" (M&E data only).

B = Organics: Analyte detected in a laboratory blank (laboratory qualifier)

Inorganics: Analyte detected at a concentration greater than the Instrument Detection Limit (IDL) but less than the Contract Required Detection Limit (laboratory qualifier).

E = Results reported outside calibration range (laboratory qualifier).

J = Value reported is either an estimated value which is below the sample-specific detection limit or is considered approximate due to limitations identified in the data validation review (laboratory or data validation qualifier).

P = Analysis performed using two gas chromatography columns. The higher detected value was reported because the RPD between the detected values was greater than 25 (laboratory qualifier).

Table 2.

Yaworski Landfill - Monitoring Well Data
Chemical Detected Concentration Detection Frequency Date of Maximum Concentration Location of Maximum Concentration Comparison Value (ppb) Comparison Value Reference Number of Samples Detected Above Comparison Value
Minimum (ppb) Maximum (ppb)
Benzene 0.9 78 140/432 4/3/90 MW-1 1 CREG 136
Bromomethane 1.3 3,500 71/275 10/2/91 MW-3D 10
50
RMEG Child
RMEG Adult
61
43
Bromomethane/Chloroethane 2.1 2,300 40/92 1/7/92 MW-3D 10
50
RMEG Child
RMEG Adult
34
20
Chlorobenzene 1.1 150 32/355 4/5/94 MW-1 100 LTHA/MCL 1
Chloroethane 1.3 3,500 110/312 10/2/91 MW-3D NA NA -
Chloromethane 1.4 80 21/269 10/7/93 MW-14S 3 LTHA 18
Chloromethane/ Vinyl Chloride 1.8 61 10/80 10/6/95 MW-14S 3 LTHA 7
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 1.3 150 38/306 4/5/94 MW-1 75 LTHA/MCL 2
Dichlorobenzenes a 7 147 10/125 7/2/92 MW-1 75 LTHA/MCL 5
1,1-Dichloroethane 1 75 68/373 4/5/94 MW-1 NA NA -
1,2-Dichloroethane 1 240 11/340 1/16/96 MW-14I 0.4
5
CREG
MCL
11
2
1,1-Dichloroethene 1.1 47 10/354 4/23/97 MW-21D 0.06
90
300
CREG
EMEG (C) Child
EMEG (C) Adult
10
0
0
1,2-Dichloroethene (total) 2 350 9/69 12/1/93 MW-LD 70
200
700
LTHA/MCL
RMEG Child
RMEG Adult
6
4
0
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene 1.1 837 65/295 7/3/90 MW-14D 70 LTHA/MCL 30
cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 130 310 2/310 10/2/91 MW-14D 3
10
RMEG Child
RMEG Adult
2
2
Dichloromethane 2.3 460 6/263 1/5/94 MW-5 NA NA -
Methylene Chloride 45 570 5/85 10/28/96 MW-33 5
600
2,000
CREG
EMEG (C) Child
EMEG (C) Adult
5
0
0
Tetrachloroethylene 1.6 7.2 5/357 10/28/96 MW-33 0.7b
400
1,000
CREG
RMEG Child
RMEG Adult
5
0
0
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 37 37 3/351 7/1/93 MW-23
MW-31
MW-32
0.6
40
100
CREG
RMEG Child
RMEG Adult
3
0
0
Trichloroethylene 1.4 2,200 70/406 4/5/94 MW-14D 3
5
20
70
CREG
MCL
EMEG (I) Child
EMEG (I) Adult
56
55
48
40
Vinyl Chloride 1.4 80 23/269 10/7/93 MW-14S 0.2c
0.7
EMEG (C) Child
EMEG (C) Adult
23
23
Xylenes, Total 1.1 2,500 112/378 10/2/91 MW-3 2,000
7,000
EMEG (I) Child
EMEG (I) Adult
3
0
Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds
4-Chlorophenyl-Phenylether 1 1 1/8 12/1/93 MW-1 NA NA -
Inorganics
Ammonia 50 220,000 301/417 4/4/95 MW-3 3,000
10,000
EMEG (I) Child
EMEG (I) Child
158
135
Arsenic 4.5 63.7 4/9 12/1/93 MW-1 0.02d
3
10
CREG
EMEG (C) Child
EMEG (C) Adult
4
4
2
Barium 76.7 852 7/9 12/1/93 MW-3D 700
2,000
RMEG Child
RMEG Adult
1
0
Beryllium 2.1 2.1 1/8 12/1/93 MW-S1 0.008
4
50
CREG
MCL
RMEG Child
1
0
0
Cadmium, Dissolved 0.6 52 31/355 10/28/96 MW-1 5 MCL 24
Cadmium, Total 0.7 10 10/87 10/3/90 MW-1 5 MCL 5
Iron 291 117,000 9/9 12/1/93 MW-3D 10,000 RFD -
Iron, Dissolved 6 190,000 378/435 1/27/95 MW-5 NA NA -
Lead, Dissolved 2 518 22/315 10/28/96 MW-1 15 EPA Action Level 2
Lead, Total 2 150 27/129 6/29/90
7/2/90
MW-21S
MW-31
15 EPA Action Level 7
Magnesium 2,380 53,800 9/9 12/1/93 MW-3D NA NA -
Manganese 33.6 9,250 8/9 12/1/93 MW-1 50
200
RMEG Child
RMEG Adult
-
Manganese, Dissolved 5 24,000 342/434 1/5/94 MW-14S NA NA -
Phosphorous 200 7,600 13/15 7/2/91 MW-14D 0.1 LTHA 13
Phosphorous, Total 10 116,000 354/381 4/2/92 MW-33 0.1 LTHA 354
Thallium 24.5 44 2/9 12/1/93 MW-3D 0.4 LTHA 2
Vanadium 7.3 70.4 5/9 12/1/93 MW-S1 30
100
EMEG (I) Child
EMEG (I) Adult
1
0
Nitrate 20 18,200 220/417 10/28/96 MW-2 10,000
20,000
60,000
MCL
RMEG Child
RMEG Adult
10
0
0

ppb = parts per billion
CLHA = Child Longterm Health Advisory, drinking water (EPA)
EMEG (C) = Chronic Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
EMEG (I) = Intermediate Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
LTHA = Longterm Health Advisory
MCL = Maximum Contaminant Level for Drinking Water (EPA)
MCLG = Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for Drinking Water (EPA)
NA = Not Available (No comparison values reported by ATSDR or EPA
RMEG = Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
a Comparison Value of 1,4-dichlorobenzene
b MCL for tetrachloroethylene is 2 ppb
c MCL for vinyl chloride is 5 ppb
d MCL for arsenic is 5 ppb


Table 3.

Yaworski Landfill - Surface Water Data
Chemical Detected Concentration Detection Frequency Date of Maximum Concentration Location of Maximum Concentration Comparison Value (ppb) Comparison Value Reference Number of Samples Detected Above Comparison Value
Minimum (ppb) Maximum (ppb)
Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds
bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate 13 13 1/34 11/29/93 SW-12 3
200
700
CREG
RMEG Child
RMEG Adult
1
0
0
Inorganics
Cadmium, Total 0.6 8 4/5 10/3/90 SW-2 5 MCL 1
Iron 308 36,800 18/18 12/1/93 SW-16 11000 RBC -
Iron, Dissolved 20 768 97/99 1/29/97 SW-5 NA NA -
Lead, Total 0.64 29.9 23/33 12/1/93 SW-14 15 EPA Action Level 2
Magnesium 1,680 14,500 18/18 12/1/93 SW-10 NA NA -
Manganese 51.6 589 18/18 12/1/93 SW-16 500
2000
RMEG Child
RMEG Adult
-
Mercury 2.1 2.1 1/28 12/1/93 SW-16 2 MCL 1
Phosphorous, Total 25 100 4/5 10/3/90 SW-5 0.1 LTHA 4
Vanadium 25.1 25.1 1/27 12/1/93 SW-16 30
100
EMEG (I) Child
EMEG (I) Adult
0
0
Zinc 4.7 170 17/28 12/1/93 SW-16 2,000 LTHA 0
Nitrate 65 19,000 93/94 10/28/96 SW-2 10,000
20,000
60,000
MCL
RMEG Child
RMEG Adult
6
0
0

ppb = parts per billion
CLHA = Child Long-term Health Advisory, drinking water (EPA)
EMEG (C) = Chronic Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
EMEG (I) = Intermediate Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
LTHA = Long-term Health Advisory
MCL = Maximum Contaminant Level for Drinking Water (EPA)
MCLG = Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for Drinking Water (EPA)
NA = Not Available (No comparison values reported by ATSDR or EPA)
REG. = Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide


Table 4.

Yaworski Landfill Site - Private Well Data
Chemical Detected Concentration Detection Frequency Date of Maximum Concentration Location of Maximum Concentration Comparison Value (ppb) Comparison Value Reference Number of Samples Detected Above Comparison Value
Minimum (ppb) Maximum (ppb)
Volatile Organic Compounds
1,1-Dichloroethene a 0.7 0.9 2/146 3/13/92 DW-17C 0.06
90
300
CREG
EMEG (C) Child
EMEG (C) Adult
2
0
0
Methylene Chloride 19 19 1/49 3/17/92 DW-16 5
600
2,000
CREG
EMEG (C) Child
EMEG (C) Adult
1
0
0
Tetrachloroethylene b 0.22 1.5 9/135 3/17/92 DW-17A 0.7
100
400
CREG
REG. Child
REG. Adult
5
0
0
Vinyl Chloride c 0.8 1.6 2/116 3/17/92 DW-17A 0.2
0.7
EMEG (C) Child
EMEG (C) Adult
2
Inorganics
Cadmium, Total 2 10 3/165 7/2/90 DW-19 5 MCL 1
Lead, Total 1 210 50/126 7/3/90 DW-15 15 EPA Action Level 4
Magnesium 1,410 16,700 10/10 12/1/93 DW-17E NA NA -
Manganese, Dissolved 10 1,030 43/136 1/6/92 DW-14 500
2000
REG. Child
REG. Adult
-
Phosphorous, Total 13,000 13,000 1/1 10/5/95 DW-17 0.1 LTHA 1
Thallium 5.4 5.4 1/10 12/1/93 DW-17A 2 MCL 1
Nitrate 100 23,000 150/160 10/28/96 DW-19 10,000
20,000
60,000
MCL
REG. Child
REG. Adult
16
1

ppb= parts per billion
EMEG (C) = Chronic Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
EMEG (I) = Intermediate Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
LTHA = Long-term Health Advisory
MCL = Maximum Contaminant Level for Drinking Water (EPA)
MCLG =Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for Drinking Water (EPA)
NA = Not Applicable (No comparison values reported by ATSDR or EPA)
REG. = Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
bMCL for tetrachloroethylene is 5 pp
aMCL for 1,1-dichloroethene is 7 ppb
cMCL for vinyl chloride is 2 ppb


Table 5.

Potential Exposure Pathway - ON SITE
Medium Exposure Route Time of Exposure Exposure Activities Estimated Exposed* Chemicals Public Health Concern
Total Children (<18 yrs)
Groundwater Ingestion, Dermal Future Use of Groundwater as a potable water source 50 unknown Volatile Organic Compounds Yes


Table 5.

Potential Exposure Pathway - OFF SITE
Medium Exposure Route Time of Exposure Exposure Activities Estimated Number Exposed* Chemicals Public Health Concern
Total Children (<18 yrs)
Groundwater Ingestion, Dermal Future Use of Groundwater as a potable water source 50 unknown Volatile Organic Compounds Yes


APPENDIX C: ATSDR'S COMPARISON VALUES

ATSDR comparison values are media-specific concentrations that are considered to be "safe"under default conditions of exposure. They are used as screening values in the preliminaryidentification of "contaminants of concern" at a site. The latter is, perhaps, an unfortunate termsince the word "concern" may be misinterpreted as an implication of "hazard". As ATSDR usesthe phrase, however, a "contaminant of concern" is merely a site-specific chemical substance thatthe health assessor has selected for further evaluation of potential health effects.

Generally, a chemical is selected as a contaminant of concern because its maximumconcentration in air, water, or soil at the site exceeds one of ATSDR's comparison values. However, it cannot be emphasized strongly enough that comparison values are not thresholds oftoxicity. While concentrations at or below the relevant comparison value may reasonably beconsidered safe, it does not automatically follow that any environmental concentration thatexceeds a comparison value would be expected to produce adverse health effects. Indeed, thewhole purpose behind highly conservative, health-based standards and guidelines is to enablehealth professionals to recognize and resolve potential public health problems before theybecome actual health hazards. The probability that adverse health outcomes will actually occuras a result of exposure to environmental contaminants depends on site specific conditions andindividual lifestyle and genetic factors that affect the route, magnitude, and duration of actualexposure, and not on environmental concentrations alone.

Screening values based on non-cancer effects are obtained by dividing NOAELs or LOAELsdetermined in animal or (less often) human studies by cumulative safety margins (variouslycalled safety factors, uncertainty factors, and modifying factors) that typically range from 10 to1,000 or more. By contrast, cancer-based screening values are usually derived by linearextrapolation from animal data obtained at high doses, because human cancer incidence data forvery low levels of exposure simply do not exist, and probably never will. In neither case can theresulting screening values (i.e., EMEGs or CREGs) be used to make realistic predictions ofhealth risk associated with low-level exposures in humans.

Listed and described below are the various comparison values that ATSDR uses to select chemicals for further evaluation, along with the abbreviations for the most common units of measure.

CREG =

Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides
MRL = Minimal Risk Level
IMRL = Intermediate Risk Level
CMRL = Chronic Risk Level
EMEG = Environmental Media Evaluation Guides
aEMEG = Environmental Media Evaluation Guide based on acute Minimal Risk Level
IEMEG = Intermediate Environmental Media Evaluation Guides

RMEG =

Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
RfD = Reference Dose
RfC = Reference Dose Concentration
EPAIII = EPA Region III
DWEL = Drinking Water Equivalent Level
CLHA = Child Longer-Term Health Advisory
LTHA = Drinking Water Lifetime Health Advisory
MCL = Maximum Contaminant Level
MCLG = Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (µg/L)
MCLA = Maximum Contaminant Level Action
NAAQS = National Ambient Air Quality Standards
PEL = Permissible Exposure Limit (OSHA)
REL = Recommended Exposure Limits (NIOSH)
TLV = Threshold Limit Value (ACGIH)
FDA = Food and Drug Administration
ppm = parts per million, e.g., mg/L or mg/kg
Ppm = parts per billion, e.g., µg/L or µg/kg
kg = kilogram (1,000 grams)
mg = milligram (0.001 grams)
µg = microgram (0.000001 grams)
L = liter
m3 = cubic meter (used in reference to a volume of air equal to 1,000 liters)

Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs) are estimated contaminant concentrations in water, soil, or air that would be expected to cause no more than one excess cancer in a million persons exposed over a lifetime. CREGs are calculated from EPA's cancer slope factors.

Minimal Risk Levels (MRL) are estimates of daily human exposure to a chemical (i.e., dosesexpressed in mg/kg/day) that are unlikely to be associated with any appreciable risk ofdeleterious non-cancer effects over a specified duration of exposure. MRLs are derived for acute(< 14 days), intermediate (15-364 days), and chronic (>365 days) exposures, and are published inATSDR's Toxicological Profiles for specific chemicals.

Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs) are concentrations of a contaminant inwater, soil, or air that are unlikely to be associated with any appreciable risk of deleterious non-cancer effects over a specified duration of exposure. AMBAGIOUS are derived from ATSDRminimal risk levels by factoring in default body weights and ingestion rates. SeparateAMBAGIOUS are computed for acute (< 14 days), intermediate (15-364 days), and chronic (> 365days) exposures.

Intermediate Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (IEMEG) are media-specificconcentrations that correspond to a minimal risk level, factoring in body weight and ingestionrates for intermediate exposures (i.e., >14 days and <1 year).

Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide (RMEG) is the concentration of a contaminant in air,water or soil that corresponds to EPA's RfD of RfC for that contaminant when default values forbody weight and intake rates are taken into account.

EPA's Reference Dose (RfD) is an estimate of the daily exposure to a contaminant unlikely tocause non-carcinogenic adverse health effects over a lifetime of exposure. Like ATSDR's MRL,EPA's RfD is a dose expressed in mg/kg/day.

Reference Concentrations (RfC) is a concentration in air expected to be associated with nodeleterious health effects over a lifetime of exposure, assuming default body weights andinhalation rates.

Environmental Protection Agency Region III (EPAIII) values are similar to ATSDR'sAMBAGIOUS in that they are risk-based concentrations (RBCs) derived for carcinogens andnon-carcinogens from RfDs and Cancer Slope Factors, respectively, assuming default values forbody weight, exposure duration and frequency, etc. Unlike AMBAGIOUS, however, they areavailable for fish, as well as for water, soil, and air.

Drinking Water Equivalent Levels (DWEL) are based on EPA's oral RfD and representcorresponding concentrations of a substance in drinking water that are estimated to havenegligible deleterious effects in humans over a lifetime of exposure, at an intake rate of 2 L/day,and assuming that drinking water is the sole source of exposure to the contaminant. Similar toATSDR's RMEG for drinking water.

Child Longer-Term Health Advisories (CLHAs) are contaminant concentrations in water thatthe Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) deems protective of public health (taking intoconsideration the availability and economics of water treatment technology) over a period ofabout 7 years, using a child's weight (10 Kg) and ingestion rate (1 L/day).

Lifetime Health Advisories (LTHA) are calculated from the DWEL and represent theconcentration of a substance in drinking water estimated to have negligible deleterious effects inhumans over a lifetime of 70 years, assuming 2 L/day water consumption for a 70-kg adult, andtaking into account other sources of exposure. In the absence of chemical-specific data, theassumed fraction of total intake from drinking water is 20%. Lifetime HAs are not derived forcompounds which are potentially carcinogenic for humans.

Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) represent contaminant concentrations in drinkingwater that EPA deems protective of public health (considering the availability and economics ofwater treatment technology) over a lifetime (70 years) at an exposure rate of 2 liters of water perday.

Maximum Contaminant Level Goals (MCLGs) are drinking water health goals set at levels atwhich no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons occurs, allowing for anadequate margin of safety. Such levels consider the possible impact of synergistic effects, long-term and multi-stage exposures, and the existence of more susceptible groups in the population. When there is no safe threshold for a contaminant, the MCLG should be set at zero.

Maximum Contaminant Level Action (MCLA) are levels set by EPA under Superfund thattrigger a regulatory response when the contaminant concentration exceeds this value.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are established by the EPA, as mandatedin the Clean Air Act, for six criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogendioxide, ozone, particulate, and lead). NAAQS are classified as either primary, which defininglevels deemed protective of public health, or secondary, which in some instances establishinglower levels to prevent adverse effects on vegetation, property, or other elements of theenvironment.

Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) are air standards developed by the Occupational Safetyand Health Administration for the workplace. They are time-weighted average concentrations ofcontaminants considered safe for healthy workers over the course of an 8-hr workday and a 40-hrworkweek. A PEL may be exceeded for brief periods, but the sum of the exposure levelsaveraged over 8 hours must be equal to or below the PEL.

Recommended Exposure Limits (RELs) are established by the National Institute forOccupational Safety and Health and are similar to OSHA's PELs. They are time-weightedaverage concentrations for the workplace deemed to be safe for up to 10 hours/day, for 40-hours/week.

Threshold Limit Values (TLV) are established by the American Conference of GovernmentalIndustrial Hygienists (ACGIH). The TLV is the time-weighted average concentrations for anormal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek, to which nearly all workers may be repeatedlyexposed, day after day, without adverse effect. Many of ACGIH's TLVs were adopted by OSHAfor use as PELs. TLVs and PELs, which were designed to protect healthy workers, are usuallymuch higher than the health-based values of ATSDR and EPA, which were designed to protectthe health of the general population, including the very young and the elderly. Although theATSDR does not base any of its community health decisions on TLVs or PELs, it sometimescites such values in Public Health Assessments merely as a means of putting concentrations ofsite-specific contaminants into a meaningful perspective for the reader.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended concentration levels for certainsubstances in food, including fish. Levels above the FDA levels mean the food may be unsafefor human consumption.


COMPARISON VALUE REFERENCES

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Health assessment guidance manual.Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1992 Oct.

  2. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Pocket guide to chemical hazards.Washington D. C: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1994 Jun.

  3. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. New interim region IV guidance for toxicityEquivalent factors methodology for carcinogenic PAHs. Washington, D. C: 1992 Feb.

APPENDIX D: PUBLIC COMMENTS

ATSDR released the Yaworski Waste Lagoon Superfund Site and the Yaworski Landfill PublicHealth Assessment for review and comment from January 26 through March 12, 2001.Suggested editorial changes have been made within the text, where appropriate. No writtencomments were received by the community during this period and the document has beenfinalized.



Table of Contents

  
 
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341
Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888-232-6348

A-Z Index

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #