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PETITIONED PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

YAWORSKI LANDFILL
(ALIASES: YAWORSKI DUMP AND PACKER ROAD LANDFILL)
CANTERBURY, WINDHAM COUNTY, CONNECTICUT


CONCLUSIONS

1. Limited environmental data were available for ATSDR to evaluate on-site contamination at the Yaworski Landfill and potential off-site emissions. Only on-site soil gas data were available for review and the landfill has an incomplete documented history of the type, amount, and location of waste deposited for 37 years prior to 1987. While people may not be exposed to the concentration of volatile organic compounds detected in these samples, the potential exists for exposure to gases released during leaks, excavation activity, or when the gas is not effectively burned off. While the collection of ambient air data on-site and within residential basements would not identify past exposures that have occurred, it would further identify contaminants that may be emitted near the recycling area, site perimeter, and in residential basements due to soil gas migration.

2. Landfill soil gas sampling data obtained in 1994 demonstrated that non-methane organic compounds were detected at high levels on site at the bulky waste, closed, and former "active" sections of the landfill.

3. Methane gas was detected in soil gas samples collected in 1994 at the closed and former "active" sections of the landfill and may represent a hazard to on-site workers and persons who frequent the recycling area. The highest concentration of methane gas was detected at the former "active" section at 63% by volume and may represent a fire hazard. Potential exists for the migration of methane to basements and other confined spaces within residences adjacent to the landfill.

4. Landfill air sampling data were obtained from on-site soil gas core samples and riser pipe stacks in 1995 to 1996 and used for modeling potential off-site emissions. Twenty-three of the thirty contaminants detected were identified as contaminants of concern to be sampled for in ambient air on and off site.

5. The highest concentration of landfill soil gas detected at the former "active" section of the landfill were closest to the recycling area and near residential areas along Packer Road. Previous sampling indicated that soil gas was reported to be migrating toward the residential area The potential exists for intermittent off-site emissions from leaks and excavation activities occurring on the landfill as well as migration of soil gas to off site residences located near the landfill.

6. Air modeling results predicted that landfill emissions would not adversely impact the health of residents within a one-half mile area. However the model was based on limited environmental data (one sampling period, limited meteorological data, and no landfill pressure measurements to determine gas emission fluctuations). In addition, the same contaminants were not sampled for during both the gas core sampling and the stack sampling events.

7. The model used the middle of the former "active" landfill as the source of maximum exposure instead of the area (north and northeast section near the recycling area and closest to Packer Road) where the highest levels of contamination was detected by on-site sampling.

8. Due to limitations in the sampling, analysis, and modeling described above, these predicted landfill emissions may not represent a realistic evaluation of potential maximum exposures received by on-site workers, residents who may frequent the site for recycling activities, and residents who live near the landfill.

9. The Yaworski Landfill site is classified as a potential health hazard to workers and people using the recycling area on site due to high levels of volatile organic compounds measured in soil gas samples on site and the concentration of methane above safe levels. Since no ambient air data were available for review, ATSDR could not evaluate the potential health hazard for off-site emissions to residential areas along Packer Road.


RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Conduct on-site perimeter air sampling at the former "active" landfill for methane and non-methane organic compounds to determine whether residents and workers are potentially exposed through inhalation of contaminants released from the landfill. In particular, air sampling should be conducted at the perimeter where the highest concentrations of methane and non-methane organic compounds were detected, closest to the recycling area and off-site residential areas.

2. Monitor for methane in the basements of residences adjacent to the landfill until the soil migration of methane is better characterized.

3. Conduct continuous air sampling on-site in areas where excavation activities are occurring and at the perimeter to monitor for potential off-site emissions.

4. Establish action levels for air monitoring equipment and if the action level is exceeded, employ a work slow-down or shut-down procedure to prevent off-site exposures.

5. Establish a site safety plan for the Yaworski Landfill that provides for worker safety, monitoring and sampling plans, and to include a contingency plan for emergency situations.

6. Properly maintain the existing landfill caps and gas collection and venting systems on site.


PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

Actions Completed

1. Site visits and meetings with the community, state and local health and government agencies.

2. Release of ATSDR Public Health Assessment (1988) evaluating the Yaworski Lagoon.

3. Release of ATSDR Health Consultation (1994) evaluating Yaworski Landfill and Lagoon)

4. Release of ATSDR Health Assessment (1998) evaluating the Gallup's Quarry site.

Actions Planned

1. ATSDR will review air sampling data that become available in the future.

Site Team/Authors

Adele M. Childress, PhD, MSPH
Environmental Health Scientist
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Exposure Investigations and Consultation Branch

Frank Schnell, PhD, DABT
Toxicologist
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Exposure Investigations and Consultation Branch


REFERENCES

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Atlanta: U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service. Health Assessment for the Yaworski Lagoon, Canterbury, Windham County, Connecticut. April 5, 1988.

  2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Atlanta: U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service. Site Review and Update. Yaworski Waste Lagoon, Canterbury, Windham County, Connecticut. September 30, 1993.

  3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Atlanta: U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service. Health Consultation. Yaworski Landfill and Lagoon, Canterbury, Windham County, Connecticut. Prepared by the Connecticut Department of Public Health and Addiction Services, Environmental Epidemiology and Occupational Health. Under a Cooperative Agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. March 16, 1994.

  4. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Atlanta: U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service. Petitioned Public Health Assessment. Gallup's Quarry, Plainfield, Windham County, Connecticut. September 30, 1998.

  5. Roy Weston Inc., Final Site Inspection Prioritization Report for Packer Landfill, Canterbury, CT. July 12, 1994.

  6. NUS Corporation. 19 Crosby Drive, Bedford Massachusetts 01730. Final Screening Site Inspection Packer Road Landfill, Canterbury, CT. August 14, 1991. TDD. No. F1-8910-07.

  7. Fuss and O'Neill Inc. Consulting Engineers. 146 Hartford Road, Manchester CT, 06040-5921. Letter dated January 27, 1995 sent to Administrative Enforcement, Department of Environmental Protection, State of Connecticut. 79 Elm Street, Hartford, CT, 06106. Consent order No. 1318A.

  8. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Atlanta: U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service. Review and comments of proposed air impact study, "Air Impact Scope of Study", Yaworski Inc. June 1994. Record of Activity, September 28, 1994.

  9. Fuss and O'Neill Inc. Consulting Engineers. 146 Hartford Road, Manchester CT, 06040-5921. Air Impact Scope of Study. Yaworski Inc, Canterbury CT, June 1994, revised October 24, 1994.

  10. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Atlanta: U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service. Review and comments of air sampling plan for excavation activities conducted at the Yaworski Landfill-Closure Plan. Record of Activity. July 20, 1996.

  11. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Atlanta: U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service. Consultation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Air Management Bureau, regarding air issues at the Yaworski Landfill site. Record of Activity. December 19, 1996.

  12. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Atlanta: U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service. Review and comments of the Yaworski Landfill gas sampling results November-December 1994. Record of Activity, April 18, 1996.

  13. U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Transportation. CHRIS Hazardous Chemical Data. U.S. Coast Guard. Washington, D.C. 1985. Volume 2.

  14. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45240 (513-742-2020).

  15. Odor Thresholds for Chemicals with Established Occupational Health Standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2700 Prosperity Avenue, Suite 250. Fairfax Virginia, 1997

  16. Pelt, R., et al. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Control Technology Center. Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711. User's Manual. Landfill Air Emissions Estimation Model. Version 1.1. September 1997. EPA Contract Nos. 68-D1-0117 and 68-D3-0033.

  17. Anchor Engineering Services, Inc. 75 Nutmeg Lane, Glastonburg, CT, 06033. Letter dated June 27, 1997 sent to Quinebaug Valley Regional Resources, LLC. 133 Packer Road, Canterbury CT, 06331. Decomposition Gas Monitoring Results, Yaworski MSW Landfill, Canterbury, CT.

  18. Environmental Research Institute, University of Connecticut. Letter date January 21, 1997, sent to Air Management Bureau, Department of Environmental Protection, State of Connecticut. 79 Elm Street, Hartford, CT, 06106. Landfill gas results.

  19. Catalano,J. and J. Sankar. Estimation of Air Emissions and Ambient Air Impacts of Non-methane Organic Compounds (NMOC) for the Yaworski Landfill, Canterbury, Connecticut. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Air Management Bureau. Memorandum dated June 5, 1998.

  20. Sitamraju S. Sankar. University of Hartford, College of Engineering. Estimation of Landfill Air Emissions and Dispersion Modeling. Masters of Science Engineering Thesis. August 29, 1997.

  21. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Atlanta: U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service. Review of procedures provided in the non-methane organic emissions and dispersion modeling of the Yaworski Landfill. AROA September 20, 1998.


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