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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

JASPER CREOSOTING COMPANY INCORPORATED
JASPER, JASPER COUNTY, TEXAS


APPENDICES

APPENDIX A.

Acronyms and Abbreviations
g/kg Micrograms per Kilogram
g/L Micrograms per Liter
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1990
CREG Carcinogenic Risk Evaluation Guide
EMEG Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
ESI Expanded Site Inspection
HAC Health Assessment Comparison Value
HOD Health Outcome Data
kg Kilogram
LOAEL Lowest Observable Adverse Effects Level
MCL Maximum Contaminant Level
mg/kg Milligrams per Kilogram
MRL Minimal Risk Level
NOAEL No Observable Adverse Effects Level
NPL National Priorities List
PAHs Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
ppm Parts per Million
QA/QC Quality Assurance/Quality Control
RfD Reference Dose
RI/FS Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study
RMEG Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
SARA 1986 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
Semi-VOCs Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds
TCDD 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
TDH Texas Department of Health
TDWR Texas Department of Water Resources
TNRCC Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission


APPENDIX B - Figures

Company Location
Figure 1. Company Location

Demographics and Population Distribution
Figure 2. Demographics and Population Distribution

Source 1 and Source 2 Location Map
Figure 3. Source 1 and Source 2 Location Map

Facility Map and Sample Locations
Figure 4. Facility Map and Sample Locations


APPENDIX C - Tables

Appendix C.

Table 1. Jasper Creosoting Company NPL Site Soil Analysis, (February 1993)
Constituent Background SB-2 SB-1 SB-D1 SB-3 SB-5 HAC Value
Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (mg/kg)
Benzo(a)anthracene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Chrysene
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
Pentachlorophenol
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
17
16
48
15
23
22
4.9 J
16
570 D
44
14
53
17
24
70
5.2 J
14
620 D

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

0.170 J
0.092 J
0.500
0.360
ND
0.150 J
0.079 J
0.270 J
19D
na
0.1 CREG
na
na
na
na
na
na
6.0 CREG
Pesticides (mg/kg)
Endrin ketone
Heptachlor epoxide
0.0014 J
0.092 Pn
0.290 DJPn
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
na
0.08 CREG
Dioxins/Furans - 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQs)1 (g/kg)
2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents 0.0002 0.66 1.0 - 0.76 0.05
ND: Not detected, na: Not applicable, D: Analyte found through dilution, J: Analyte found, estimated, P: Greater than 25% difference between twoCRC columns, n: not attributed to site. 1 World Health Organization Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEQs) from: Environmental Health Perspectives,106:12, December 1998.

Appendix C.

Table 2. Jasper Creosoting Company NPL Site Sediment Analysis, (February 1993)
Constituent Background SED-1 SED-2 SED-3 SED-4 SED-5 SED-6 HAC Value
Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (mg/kg)
Benzo(a)anthracene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Chrysene
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
5.5
3.3
8.3 D
1.3
3.4
5.2
0.53
1.3
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
13.0 J
7.6 J
11.0 J
4.5 J
11.0 J
20.0
ND
5.2 J
4.1
1.9
11.0
8.7
ND
2.6
2.1
9.3
0.06 J
0.061 J
0.16 J
0.28 J
0.12 J
0.086 J
ND
0.27 J
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
na
0.1 CREG
na
na
na
na
na
na
Pesticides (mg/kg)
Aldrin 0.059P 0.0089P ND 0.001JP ND ND 0.04 CREG
Dioxins/Furans - 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQs)1 (g/kg)
2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents 0.036 - 0.21 - - - 0.05
ND: Not detected, na: Not applicable, D: Analyte found through dilution, J: Analyte found, estimated, P: Greater than 25% difference between twoCRC columns, n: not attributed to site. 1 World Health Organization Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEQs) from: Environmental Health Perspectives,106:12, December 1998.

Appendix C.

Table 3. Jasper Creosoting Company NPL Site Groundwater Analysis, (February 1993)
Constituent Background GW-4 GW-1 GW-2 GW-3 HAC Value
Volatile Organic Compounds (g/L)
Benzene ND ND ND 60 1.0 CREG
Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (g/L)
Benzo(a)anthracene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Chrysene
Pyrene
Fluoranthene
Acenaphthene
Fluorene
Naphthalene
Pentachlorophenol
Phenol
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
-
ND
340J
110J
120
120J
320J
1,400
2,400
2,600
2,100
12,000D
580J
2,600
na
0.005 CREG
na
na
0 CLHA
300 RMEGChild
400 RMEGChild
600 RMEGChild
400 RMEGChild
20 LTHA
0.3 CREG
4,000 LTHA
Metals (g/L)
Zinc ND ND ND 4,360 2,000 LTHA
ND: Not detected, na: Not applicable, D: Analyte found through dilution, J: Analyte found, estimated, P: Greater than 25% difference between twoCRC columns, n: not attributed to site, CLHA: Child Longer Term Health Advisory, drinking water (EPA); LTHA: Lifetime Health Advisory fordrinking water (EPA).


APPENDIX D - Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds

Both chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (CDDs) and chlorinated dibenzo-furans (CDFs) are thought toaffect human health through similar pathways. Consequently, in environmental studies, they oftenare treated together as dioxin-like compounds. Experimental studies have examined themseparately. Many studies have looked at how CDDs can affect human health [5].

The most extensively studied dioxin-like substance is 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin,commonly known as TCDD. TCDD is thought to be the most toxic of these compounds and thetoxicity of the other CDDs and CDFs is expressed in terms of toxic equivalents (TEQs) of TCDD. The TEQ of a specific dioxin-like compound is determined by multiplying its concentration by atoxicity equivalent factor (TEF), which represents its toxicity relative to TCDD. The total TEQ fora mixture of dioxin-like compounds is taken as the sum of the TEQs for each individual compoundin the mixture. A list of the TEFs established by the World Health Organization is provided below[6].

World Health Organization TEFs for Human Risk Assessment1
Congener Human TEF
2,3,7,8-TCDD
1,2,3,7,8-PentaCDD
1,2,3,4,7,8-HexaCDD
1,2,3,6,7,8-HexaCDD
1,2,3,7,8,9-HexaCDD
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDD
OctaCDD
1
1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.01
0.0001
2,3,7,8-TetraCDF
1,2,3,7,8-PentaCDF
2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF
1,2,3,4,7,8-HexaCDF
1,2,3,6,7,8-HexaCDF
1,2,3,7,8,9-HexaCDF
2,3,4,6,7,8-HexaCDF
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDF
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HeptaCDF
OctaCDF
0.1
0.05
0.5
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.01
0.01
0.0001
1 Martin Van den Berg et al. Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for Humans and Wildlife. Environmental Health Perspectives 106:775-792 (1998).


APPENDIX E - Toxicological Review

Dioxins/Dibenzofurans

Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) comprise a family of 75 different compounds commonlyreferred to as chlorinated dioxins. The CDD family is divided into eight groups of chemicals basedon the number of chlorine atoms in the compound. The group with one chlorine atom is called themono-chlorinated dioxin(s). The groups with two through eight chlorine atoms are called the di-,tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octa-chlorinated dioxin(s). The chlorine atoms can be attachedto the dioxin molecule in any of one to eight positions. The name of the CDD indicates both thenumber and position of chlorine atoms. For example, the CDD with four chlorine atoms attached atpositions 2, 3, 7, and 8 on the dioxin molecule is called 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or2,3,7,8-TCDD. Dioxin like compounds have varying harmful effects; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD isthe most researched of the compounds and appears to be the most toxic of the CDDs to mammals. Of the 75 CDDs, only seven are likely to have toxic properties similar to 2,3,4,7-TCDD [7].

In the pure form, CDDs are colorless solids or crystals. CDDs enter the environment as mixturescontaining a variety of individual components and impurities. In the environment they tend to beassociated with ash, soil, or any surface with a high organic content, such as plant leaves. In air andwater, a portion of CDDs may be found in the vapor or dissolved state, depending on the amount ofparticulate matter, temperature, and other environmental factors. 2,3,7,8-TCDD is odorless. Theodors of other CDDs are not known. CDDs are not known to occur naturally and, except for smallamounts for research purposes, they are not intentionally manufactured by industry [7].

Chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) are a family of chemicals containing one to eight chlorine atomsattached to the carbon atoms of the parent chemical, dibenzofuran. The CDF family contains 135individual compounds with varying harmful health and environmental effects. Of these 135compounds, those that contain chlorine atoms at the 2,3,7,8 positions on the dibenzofuran moleculeare the most toxic. There is no known use for these chemicals, other than for research anddevelopment purposes. These chemicals are not intentionally produced by industry. Most CDFs areproduced in very small amounts as impurities in certain products and processes using chlorinatedcompounds. Only a few of the 135 CDF compounds have been produced in large enough quantitiesso that their properties, such as color, smell, taste, and toxicity could be studied. The few CDFcompounds that have been produced in large enough quantities to be studied are colorless solids. They do not easily dissolve in water. CDFs are often found in association with CDDs, and havesimilar toxic effects [8].

CDDs are released into the air in emissions from municipal solid waste and industrial incinerators. Exhaust from vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel fuel also contains CDDs. Other sources ofCDDs in air include: emissions from oil- or coal-fired power plants, combustion products ofchlorinated compounds such as PCBs, and cigarette smoke. CDDs formed during combustionprocesses are associated with small particles in the air, such as ash. The larger particles will bedeposited close to the emission source, while very small particles may be transported longerdistances. Some of the lesser-chlorinated CDDs may vaporize from the particles (and soil or watersurfaces) and be transported long distances in the atmosphere. It has been estimated that 20 to 60%of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the air is in the vapor phase. Sunlight and atmospheric chemicals will breakdown a very small portion of the CDDs, but most CDDs will be deposited on land or water [7].

CDDs occur as contaminants in the manufacture of various chlorinated pesticides and herbicides.Releases to the environment have occurred during the use of these chemicals. Because CDDsremain in the environment for a long time, contamination from past pesticide and herbicide use maystill be of concern. In addition, improper storage of these pesticides and waste generated during theirproduction can lead to CDD contamination of soil and water [7].

CDDs are released in wastewater from pulp and paper mills that use chlorine in the bleachingprocess. CDDs also are released in very small amounts in wastewater from domestic and industrialwaste treatment plants. Some of the CDDs on or near the water surface will be broken down bysunlight. A very small portion of the total CDDs in water will evaporate to air. Because CDDs donot dissolve easily in water, most of the CDDs in water will attach strongly to small particles of soilor organic matter and eventually settle on the bottom. CDDs may also attach to microscopic plantsand animals (plankton) which are eaten by larger animals, that are in turn eaten by even largeranimals. Concentrations of chemicals such as the most toxic CDDs, which are difficult for theanimals to break down, usually increase at each step in the food chain. This process, calledbiomagnification, is the reason why undetectable levels of CDDs in water can result in measurableconcentrations in aquatic animals. The food chain is the main route by which CDD concentrationsbuild up in larger fish, although some fish accumulate CDDs by eating contaminated particlesdirectly off the bottom [7].

CDDs deposited on land bind strongly to the soil, and therefore are not likely to contaminategroundwater by moving deeper into the soil. However, the presence of other chemicals in the soilmay make it easier for CDDs to move through soil. The movement of chemical waste containingCDDs through soil has resulted in the contamination of groundwater. Soil erosion and surfacerunoff can also transport CDDs into surface waters. A very small amount of CDDs at the soilsurface will evaporate into air. Certain types of soil bacteria and fungi can break down CDDs, butthe processes are very slow. In fact, CDDs can exist in soil for many years. Plants take up only verysmall amounts of CDDs by their roots. Most of the CDDs found on the parts of plants above groundprobably come from air and dust and/or previous use of CDD-containing pesticides or herbicides. Animals, such as cattle, feeding on the plants may accumulate CDD in their bodies, a process knownas bioaccumulation [7].

CDFs can enter the environment from a number of sources. Accidental fires or breakdownsinvolving capacitors, transformers, and other electrical equipment that contain PCBs are known torelease high levels of CDFs formed by thermal degradation. CDFs are also produced as impuritiesduring the manufacture of several chlorinated chemicals and consumer products, such as woodtreatment chemicals, some metals, and paper products. When the wastewater, sludge, or solids fromthese processes are released into waterways or soil in dump sites, CDF contamination may result. CDFs also enter the environment from burning municipal and industrial waste incinerator exhaust,automobile exhaust, and the burning of coal, wood, or oil for home heating or production ofelectricity. Many of the chemicals or processes that produce CDFs are either being slowly phasedout or strictly controlled [8].

CDFs in air are present mostly as solid particles. Particulate CDFs present in air return to the landand water by settling, snow, and rainwater. Reacting with naturally present chemical agents calledhydroxyl radicals, some CDFs in the vapor phase atmosphere are destroyed. CDFs may remain inair for an average of more than 10 days depending on the specific compound. Once in the air, CDFscan be carried long distances. They have been found in air and waters and at the bottom of lakesand rivers in areas far away from where they were released into the environment. CDFs tend to stickto suspended and settled particles in lakes and rivers and can remain at the bottom of lakes andrivers for several years. Sediment acts as a medium where CDFs that are present in air and watereventually settle. CDFs can build up in fish, and the amount of CDFs in fish can be tens ofthousands times higher than the level in water. The CDFs in water can get into birds, humans andother animals that eat fish containing CDFs [8].

CDFs bind strongly to soil and are not likely to move from the surface soil into groundwater. Insome instances, CDFs from waste landfills may reach underground water. CDFs are more likely tomove from soil to water or other soils by erosion or flooding. The breakdown or loss of CDFs in soiloccurs over years, so CDFs remain in soil for years. Most CDFs found in plants are probablydeposited by air. Cattle that eat plants on which CDFs have been deposited will build up some ofthe CDFs in their bodies. Some of the CDFs will enter the milk and meat of the cattle [8].

Both CDDs and CDFs are thought to affect human health through similar pathways. Consequently,in environmental studies, they are often treated together as "dioxin-like" substance. Experimentalstudies have examined them separately. Many studies have looked at how CDDs can affect humanhealth. Most of these studies have examined workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD during themanufacture of chemicals and pesticides contaminated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Other studies havelooked at Vietnam veterans and Vietnamese populations exposed to Agent Orange and populationsexposed to accidental releases of 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Most of the human studies have manyshortcomings that make it difficult for scientists to establish a clear association between 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposure levels and health effects. A common problem with most of the human studies isthat people were exposed to a number of chemicals at the same time. In many of the studies, we donot know how much 2,3,7,8-TCDD people were exposed to or how long the exposure lasted. Inother studies, the people were examined many years after they were exposed and some of the effectsmay have not been present at the time of examination or 2,3,7,8-TCDD may not have caused theeffects observed. Some of the more recent studies have measured 2,3,7,8-TCDD levels in the bloodof exposed populations. The levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the blood can be used to estimate the extentof past exposure [7,8].

A number of effects have been observed in people exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The most commonhealth effect in people exposed to relatively large amounts of 2,3,7,8-TCDD is chloracne. Unlikecommon acne, chloracne is harder to cure and can be more disfiguring. In the most severe cases,lesions may last for many years after exposure. Changes in blood and urine that may indicate liverdamage have been observed in people. Alterations in the ability of the liver to metabolizehemoglobin, lipids, sugar, and protein have been reported in people exposed to relatively highconcentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Most of the effects were mild and reversible. However, in somepeople these effects may last for many years. Abnormal glucose tolerance tests and a slight increasein the risk of diabetes have been observed in some studies of people exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Wedo not have enough information to know if exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD will result in reproductive ordevelopmental effects in people [7].

The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that it is reasonable toexpect that 2,3,7,8-TCDD may cause cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer(IARC) has determined that 2,3,7,8-TCDD can cause cancer in people butthat it is not possible toclassify other CDDs as to their carcinogenicity to humans. The EPA has determined that 2,3,7,8-TCDD is a possible human carcinogen when considered alone and a probable human carcinogenwhen considered in association with phenoxyherbicides and/or chlorophenols. The EPA hasdetermined also that a mixture of hexa-CDDs is a probable human carcinogen [7].

Most of what we know about the health effects of CDFs comes from studies of accidental poisoningsin Japan and Taiwan in the 1960s and 1970s, where many people ate food cooked in contaminatedrice oil for several months. In both cases, the rice oil was contaminated with PCBs and CDFs. Theamounts of CDFs that these people accidentally ate were much higher than those found in a normaldiet. Skin and eye irritations, severe acne, darkened skin color, and swollen eyelids with dischargewere the most obvious health effects from CDF poisoning. However, these effects did not develop insome people until weeks or months after exposure and might not have occurred at all in otherpeople. CDFs also caused vomiting and diarrhea, anemia, frequent lung infections, numbness andother effects on the nervous system, and mild changes in the liver, but there was no reportedpermanent liver damage in the people who ate the CDFs. The children born to the poisoned mothershad acne and other skin irritations. Young children of these mothers also had some trouble learning,but it is unknown if this effect was permanent. It is difficult to determine if these health effects werecaused by CDFs alone, or the combination of CDFs and PCBs [8].

There are no cancer studies in people or animals that ate or breathed CDFs. One study found thatCDFs alone did not cause skin cancer when they were applied to animal skin for several months. However, when researchers applied another carcinogen to the animals' skin before applying CDFs,skin cancer developed. Although skin cancer developed in these animals, DHHS, IARC, and EPAhave not classified the carcinogenicity of CDFs [8].

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of over 100 different chemicals that areformed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas, garbage, and other organic substanceslike tobacco and charbroiled meat. PAHs are usually found in soot as a mixture containing two ormore of these compounds [9].

Some PAHs are manufactured. Pure PAHs usually exist as colorless, white, or pale yellow-greensolids. PAHs are found in coal tar, crude oil, creosote, and roofing tar, but a few are used inmedicines or to make dyes, plastics, and pesticides [9].

PAHs enter the air mostly from volcanoes, forest fires, burning coal, and automobile exhaust. PAHscan occur in air attached to dust particles. Some PAH particles readily evaporate into the air fromsoil or surface waters. PAHs can break down by reacting with sunlight and other chemicals in the airover a period of days to weeks [9].

PAHs enter water through discharges from industrial wastewater treatment plants. Most PAHs donot dissolve easily in water. They stick to solid particles and settle to the bottoms of lakes or rivers. Some microorganisms can break down PAHs in soil or water after a period of weeks to months. Insoils, PAHs are most likely to stick tightly to particles; certain PAHs move through soil tocontaminate underground water. PAH content of plants and animals may be much higher than PAHcontent of soil or water in which they live [9].

Mice that were fed high levels of one PAH during pregnancy had difficulty reproducing and so didtheir offspring. These offspring also had higher rates of birth defects and lower body weights. It isnot known whether these effects occur in people [9].

Animal studies also have shown that, after both short- and long-term exposure, PAHs can causeharmful effects on the skin, body fluids, and ability to fight disease. These effects have not beenseen in people [9].

The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that some PAHs mayreasonably be expected to be carcinogens [9].

Some people who have breathed or touched mixtures of PAHs and other chemicals for long periodsof time have developed cancer. Some PAHs have caused cancer in laboratory animals when theybreathed air containing them (lung cancer), ingested them in food (stomach cancer), or had themapplied to their skin (skin cancer)[9].

Pentachlorophenol

Pentachlorophenol is a manufactured chemical not found naturally in the environment and was usedas a biocide and wood preservative. It was one of the most heavily used pesticides in the UnitedStates. Today only certified applicators can purchase and use pentachlorophenol. It is still used inindustry as a wood preservative for power line poles, railroad ties, cross arms, and fence posts. It isno longer found in wood preserving solutions or insecticides and herbicides sold for home andgarden use [10].

When pentachlorophenol enters the environment, it generally sticks to soil particles. Its movementin soils depends on the soil's acidity. Pentachlorophenol does not evaporate easily and can last forhours to days in air, soils, and surface waters. It does not easily dissolve in water. In soils andsurface waters, microorganisms can break down pentachlorophenol into other compounds. Sunlightalso breaks it down in surface waters and air. Some of the breakdown products may be harmful topeople. Pentachlorophenol may bioaccumulate in fish, but tissue levels are usually low becausepentachlorophenol breaks down in the body [10].

Short-term exposures to large amounts of pentachlorophenol or long-term exposure to low levels canharm the liver, kidneys, blood, lungs, nervous system, immune system, and gastrointestinal tract inhumans. Researchers have seen similar effects in animals. Impurities, such as CDDs and CDFs, incommercial pentachlorophenol may cause many, but not all, of its harmful effects. Direct contactwith pentachlorophenol can irritate the skin, eyes, and mouth, particularly when in a hot vapor phase[10].

We do not know whether pentachlorophenol causes birth defects in people. It caused a decrease inthe number of offspring born to animals that were exposed to it while they were pregnant [10].

IARC has classified pentachlorophenol as a possible human carcinogen. This conclusion is based onanimal studies that showed an increased risk of cancer in mice, specifically in the livers and adrenalglands. There is no good evidence that pentachlorophenol can cause cancer in people [10].



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