PETITIONED HEALTH CONSULTATION
GROUNDWATER PATHWAY EVALUATION
BRUNSWICK WOOD PRESERVING
BRUNSWICK, GLYNN COUNTY, GEORGIA
TABLE 1: Maximum Contaminant Concentration in On-Site Monitoring Wells
On-Site Monitoring Wells
|Lead||ND||ND||ND||45||ND||ND||89||15 (Action Level)|
Key: MCL = EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level; ND = Not detected above the minimum quantitation limit.
|Notes:||(1)||The minimum quantitation limits used for pentachlorophenol (20 ppb for wells 1, 2, 4 and 5 and 400 ppb for wells 3 and 6) exceed the MCL (1 ppb).|
|(2)||The minimum quantitation limits used for benzo(a)pyrene (10 ppb for wells 1, 2, 4, and 5 and 200 ppb for wells 3 and 6) exceed the MCL (0.2 ppb).|
|Monitoring Well Locations|
|1 = North of the surface impoundment in wooded area. |
2 = Between the surface impoundment and CCA area, southern most monitoring well.
3 = North of CCA area and west of surface impoundment.
4 = Northernmost monitoring well, west edge of the Lagoon.
|6 = Along the north edge of site (along Perry Lane). |
7 = Along Perry Land Road.
8 = Near the southern of the site.
TABLE 2: Maximum Contaminant Concentrations in Private Wells
|Private Wells|| |
or MCL (ppb)
|Maximum Contaminant Concentration (ppb)||Number of Detections/ Number of Samples|
Key: MCL = EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level; RMEG = Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide; ND = Not detected above the minimum quantitation limit.
|(1)||With the exception of two samples, the minimum quantitation limit used for pentachlorophenol (20 ppb) exceeds the MCL (1 ppb).|
The minimum quantitation limit used for benzo(a)pyrene (10 ppb) exceeds the MCL (0.2 ppb).
|Figure 1: Area Map|
Figure 2: Site Map
Figure 3: Groundwater Monitoring Well Locations
Figure 4: Private Potable Well Locations
|APPENDIX A: Wood Preserving Constituents|
APPENDIX B: Public Health Conclusion Categories
APPENDIX C: List of Acronyms
APPENDIX D: Glossary
The wood preserving constituents used during plant operations included creosote and pentachlorophenol. The following isa summary of these wood preserving compounds.
Creosote and PAHs
The type of creosote used for wood preserving is a complex mixture of many chemicals created by high-temperaturetreatment of coal; it is also known as coal tar creosote. The primary way that creosote contaminates groundwater is throughwastewater effluent leaching from unlined settling ponds at wood treatment facilities. Although approximately 300chemicals have been identified in creosote, the major constituents of health concern are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) and phenols. PAHs typically represent 85 percent of a creosote mixture while phenols represent 2 percent to 17percent (ATSDR, 1990).
Because creosote consists primarily of PAHs, the fate of the mixture often parallels that of PAHs. PAHs are formed duringthe incomplete burning of coal, oil, wood, or other organic substances. More than 100 PAHs exist and most are ubiquitousin air and soil. While PAHs do not dissolve readily in water, some PAHs may contaminate groundwater. Their mobility ingroundwater correlates roughly to their molecular weight. Lower molecular weight PAHs or light PAHs (e.g.,acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and naphthalene) tend to volatilize from water and exhibit moderate ability toadsorb to soils (which may hinder their solubility and movement in water). Heavy PAHs (e.g., chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene,and benzo(b)fluoranthene) do not readily volatilize from water and have a stronger tendency to adsorb to carbon in soils,thus impeding movement within groundwater (ATSDR, 1993b). Unlike PAHs, phenols may percolate readily throughsoils to the underlying groundwater.
Pentachlorophenol is another man-made substance used for wood preserving that does not occur naturally in theenvironment. Impure pentachlorophenol, the form typically found at hazardous waste sites, exists as dark gray to browndust, beads, or flakes. Like creosote, the pentachlorophenol found in groundwater is most likely the result of waste leakingfrom unlined storage lagoons at former wood preserving facilities. Although pentachlorophenol can leach through soils tocontaminate groundwater, certain conditions (e.g., acidic soil) may encourage adsorption of pentachlorophenol to soil andreduce the potential for leaching to groundwater (ATSDR, 1992b).
Although metals such as arsenic and chromium are chemicals associated with the CCA wood preserving activity. Althoughmetals can attach strongly to soil and sediment, they often dissolve in water or release from industrial discharges and movedeeper in the soil to the underlying groundwater (ATSDR, 1993c, 1993d).
Dioxins and Furans
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) are common impurities intechnical grade pentachlorophenol. PCDDs and PCDFs are classes of compounds that are loosely referred to as dioxins andfurans, respectively. The more than two hundred possible dioxin and furan isomers belong to one of eight differenthomologue categories or series.(1) The potency of these isomers varies with structure, with the maximumpotency belonging to isomers containing chlorine in the 2,3,7,8-lateral ring positions. Currentevidence indicates that the most toxic dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD).
APPENDIX B: ATSDR Public Health Hazard Conclusion Categories
No Public Health Hazard
Sites for which data indicate no current or past exposure or no potential for exposure and therefore no health hazard.
No Apparent Public Health Hazard
Sites where human exposure to contaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, but the exposure is below alevel of health hazard.
Potential/Indeterminate Public Health Hazard
Sites for which no conclusions about public health hazard can be made because data are lacking.
Public Health Hazard
Sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.
Urgent Public Health Hazard
Sites that pose a serious risk to the public health as the result of short-term exposures to hazardous substances.
APPENDIX C: List of Acronyms
|ATSDR||Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry|
|BWP||Brunswick Wood Preserving|
|CBEP||Community Based Environmental Project|
|CCA||Chromated copper arsenate|
|EPA||U.S. Environmental Protection Agency|
|EPD||Georgia's Environmental Protection Division|
|EDS||EPA's Environmental Services Division|
|GADNR||Georgia's Department of Natural Resources|
|MCL||EPA's Maximum Contaminant Level|
|MQL||Minimum Quantitation Limit|
|NPL||National Priorities List|
|PAH||Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon|
|PHA||Public Health Assessment|
|ppb||parts per billion|
|ppm||parts per million|
|RMEG||Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide|
|VOCs||Volatile organic compounds|
APPENDIX D: Glossary
A permeable rock stratum below that earth's surface through which groundwater moves. Theaquifer generally is capable of producing water for a well.
Any substance that may produce cancer.
Estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adverse healtheffects, given a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. The comparison valuesare calculated from the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.
The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example,sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.
Any substance or material that enters a system (the environment, human body, food, etc.) where itis not normally found.
A minimum concentration that must be accurately and precisely measured by the laboratoryand/or specified in the quality assurance plan.
The amount of a substance to which a person is exposed. Dose often takes body weight intoaccount.
The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective,environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of lifeof people living and working near the contamination.
Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through theskin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).
Water beneath the surface of the ground in a saturated zone.
A response to a specific question or request for information pertaining to a hazardous substanceor facility (which includes waste sites). It often contains a time-critical element that necessitates arapid response; therefore, it is a more limited response than an assessment.
The science of encompassing the behavior of water as it occurs beneath the ground surface.
Swallowing (such as eating or drinking) chemicals that have gotten in or on food, drinks, utensils,cigarettes, or hands. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributedthroughout the body.
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can containcontaminants.
Petitioned Public Health Consultation
A public health consultation conducted at the request of a member of the public. When a petitionis received, a team of environmental and health scientists is assigned to gather information toascertain, using standard public health criteria, whether there is a reasonable basis for conductinga public health consultation. Once ATSDR confirms that a public health consultation is needed,the petitioned health consultation process is essentially the same as the public health consultationprocess.
The condition where valid information, usually analytical environmental data, indicates thepresence of contaminant(s) of a public health concern in one or more environmental mediacontacting humans (i.e., air, drinking water, soil, food chain, surface water), and there is evidencethat some of those persons have an identified route(s) of exposure (i.e., drinking contaminatedwater, breathing contaminated air, having contact with contaminated soil, or eating contaminatedfood).
In risk assessment, the probability that something will cause injury, combined with the potentialseverity of that injury.
Route of Exposure
The way in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion)and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be foundin water.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Substances containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen,oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easily become vapors orgases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paint thinners, lacquerthinner, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids).
1 A homologue is a group of structurally related chemicals that have the same degree of chlorination. There are eight homologues ofdioxins, monochlorinated through octachlorinated. An isomer is a substance that belongs to the same homologue class.