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Petitioned Public Health Assessment
Soil Pathway Evaluation,
Isla de Vieques Bombing Range,
Vieques, Puerto Rico

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February 7, 2003
Prepared by:

Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

TABLES

Table 1.

2000 U.S. Census Data for Vieques
Parameter Number of Residents Percent of Total Residents
Total residents 9,106 100%
Men 4,512 50%
Women 4,594 50%
Women of childbearing age (15-44) 1,701 19%
Children (age 6 and under) 1,001 11%
Elderly (age 65 and over) 1,263 14%

Source: US Bureau of the Census 2000

Notes:

According to the 2000 census data, 2,366 families lived on Vieques.
The 2000 census data include residents living on Navy lands and in the residential area.

Table 2.

Ranges and Averages of the Chemicals Detected in Soil on Vieques, Sediments on the Mainland of Puerto Rico, and Soil on the United States
Chemical Vieques Puerto Rico United States
Range
(ppm)
Average
(ppm)
Range
(ppm)
Average
(ppm)
Range
(ppm)
Average
(ppm)
Metals
Aluminum 660-39,000 16,000 NS NS 700->100,000 72,000
Antimony* 0.56-3.3 1.21 1-4.1 1.4 <1-8.8 0.66
Arsenic* 0.96-36 8.91 1-22 2.95 <0.1-97 7.2
Barium 10-3,000 594 20-5,000 617 10-5,000 580
Beryllium 0.075-2 0.394 1 1 <1-15 0.92
Bismuth 15 15 1.9 1.9 NS NS
Boron 10-100 11.6 10-500 12.9 <20-300 33
Cadmium* 0.37-3.4 1.6 0.05-0.95 0.139 NS NS
Chromium 3-700 58.2 10-5,000 681 1-2,000 54
Cobalt 0.35-32 12.8 5-1,500 31.4 <3-70 9.1
Copper 2.1-1,500 72.6 10-7,000 80 <1-700 25
Gold 0.06-0.46 0.223 0.002-13 0.0846 NS NS
Iron 1,000-150,000 45,600 7,000-200,000 55,500 100->100,000 26,000
Lanthanum 30-50 40 50 50 <30-200 37
Lead 0.52-1,000 17.1 10-1,000 20.9 <10-700 19
Manganese* 30-5,000 1,220 70-5,000 1,040 <2-7,000 550
Mercury 0.0041-0.12 0.0275 NS NS <0.01-4.6 0.09
Molybdenum* 5-7 5.2 0.1-20 2.08 <3-15 0.97
Nickel 0.75-150 18 5-5,000 97.7 <5-700 19
Niobium ND ND 20 20 <10-100 11
Scandium 5-30 16.3 5-70 22.7 <5-50 8.9
Selenium 0.52-2.1 1.23 NS NS <0.1-4.3 0.39
Silver* 0.5-1.5 0.742 0.1-30 0.903 NS NS
Strontium* 100-700 254 100-5,000 238 <5-3,000 240
Thallium ND ND NS NS NS NS
Thorium ND ND ND ND 2.2-31 9.4
Tin 4.6-30 12.6 10-300 27.1 <0.1-10 1.3
Titanium 200-15,000 3,740 500-30,000 4,660 70-20,000 2,900
Tungsten 50 50 ND ND NS NS
Vanadium 3.6-500 162 30-1,500 250 <7-500 80
Yttrium* 10-50 23 10-70 21 <10-200 25
Zinc 2.4-3,000 78.5 6-700 113 <5-2,900 60
Zirconium 10-300 85.3 10-1,000 83.8 <20-2,000 230
Inorganics
Ammonia 0.37-3 1.49 NS NS NS NS
Ammonium perchlorate 0.123 0.123 NS NS NS NS
Calcium* 500-200,000 26,400 500-200,000 15,200 100-320,000 24,000
Cyanide 0.06-0.1 0.075 NS NS NS NS
Magnesium 1,000-30,000 11,700 500-100,000 12,700 50->100,000 9,000
Nitrate and nitrite 0.04-10.6 2.63 NS NS NS NS
Potassium 426-3,700 1650 NS NS 50-63,000 15,000
Sodium 113-411 220 2,000-50,000 14,900 <500-100,000 12,000
Organic Compounds
Acetone 0.04-0.091 0.068 NS NS NS NS
Benzene 0.0007 0.0007 NS NS NS NS
2-Butanone 0.014-0.032 0.025 NS NS NS NS
Carbazole 0.0011 0.0011 NS NS NS NS
Carbon disulfide 0.0014 0.0014 NS NS NS NS
Methylene chloride 0.0012-0.0023 0.0019 NS NS NS NS
Toluene 0.0006-0.0007 0.00067 NS NS NS NS
Xylene 0.0007-0.0015 0.00097 NS NS NS NS
Explosives
Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) 0.35-0.42a 0.385a NS NS NS NS
Cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) 0.003-2.8b 0.411b NS NS NS NS
2-amino-4,6-Dinitrotoluene 0.62a 0.62a NS NS NS NS
Nitroglycerin 1.6-19c 8.1c NS NS NS NS
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) 0.0004-13d 2.85d NS NS NS NS

a - HMX and 2-amino-4,6-Dinitrotoluene were only detected on the LIA.
b - RDX was detected on the LIA, near Bahia de la Chiva, and near Bahia Tapon.
c - Nitroglycerin was detected on the LIA and in the North Coast Conservation Zone.
d - TNT was detected on the LIA and near Bahia de la Chiva.

Sources:
CH2MHILL 2000a
Lai 1978
Learned et al. 1973
PMC 1998
Hoffsommer and Glover 1978
Marsh 1992
Shacklette and Boerngen 1984

† Average concentrations were calculated using detected values only.
* Averages are significantly different between Vieques and Puerto Rico, p <0.05.
ND = not detected
NS = not sampled

Table 3.

Ranges and Averages for Chemicals Detected in Sediment on the Former NASD Compared to the Mainland of Puerto Rico
Chemical Former NASD Mainland of Puerto Rico
Range(ppm) Average
(ppm)
Range
(ppm)
Average
(ppm)
Metals
Aluminum 2,600-10,000 5,867 NS NS
Antimony 0.59-0.59 0.61 1-4.1 1.4
Arsenic ND ND 1-22 2.95
Barium 6.9-69 28 20-5,000 617
Beryllium 0.17-0.24 0.16 1 1
Cadmium ND ND 0.05-0.95 0.139
Chromium 2.3-7.8 4.5 10-5,000 681
Cobalt 0.96-4.7 2.5 5-1,500 31.4
Copper 3.3-26 14 10-7,000 80
Iron 2,300-14,000 7,300 7,000-200,000 55,500
Lead 0.56-8.0 4.4 10-1,000 20.9
Manganese 24-350 118 70-5,000 1,040
Mercury 0.013-0.052 0.014 NS NS
Nickel 0.5-4.1 1.7 5-5,000 97.7
Selenium 0.78-1.1 1.1 NS NS
Silver ND ND 0.1-30 0.903
Thallium ND ND NS NS
Vanadium 7.2-40 21 30-1,500 250
Zinc 4.9-48 22 6-700 113
Inorganics
Calcium 8,900-160,000 79,483 500-200,000 15,200
Magnesium 2,200-14,000 8,317 500-100,000 12,700
Potassium 1,300-5,200 2,867 NS NS
Sodium 7,800-67,000 22,217 2,000-50,000 14,900

Sources:

CH2MHILL 2001
Marsh 1992

† Average concentrations were calculated using detected values only.
ND = not detected
NS = not sampled

Table 4.

Ranges and Averages for Chemicals Detected in Soil at the LIA Compared to the Remainder of Vieques
Chemical Live Impact Area Remainder of Vieques §
Range
(ppm)
Average
(ppm)
Range
(ppm)
Average
(ppm)
Metals
Aluminum 660-31,000 16,200 2,100-19,000 10,500
Antimony 0.56-3.3 1.14 ND ND
Arsenic 1-20 7.87 0.96-6.7 3.45
Barium 10-360 105 26-3,000 656
Beryllium 0.075-0.48 0.241 0.12-2 0.547
Bismuth ND ND 15 15
Boron* 10-50 15.7 10-100 11.3
Cadmium 0.37-3.4 1.71 ND ND
Chromium 7.2-120 37.8 3-700 60.8
Cobalt 0.35-32 14.6 1.4-30 12.7
Copper 2.1-120 39.1 5-1,500 76.8
Gold ND ND 0.06-0.46 0.22
Iron 1,000-70,000 33,500 5,000-150,000 46,900
Lanthanum ND ND 30-50 40
Lead 0.52-33 8.49 1.2-1,000 18.1
Manganese 36-1,500 723 30-5,000 1,280
Mercury 0.0041-0.086 0.0216 0.0089-0.069 0.0268
Molybdenum ND ND 5-7 5.2
Nickel 0.75-75 15.9 2.4-150 16.2
Scandium 5-30 12.5 5-30 16.4
Selenium 0.52-2.1 1.23 ND ND
Silver ND ND 0.5-1.5 0.742
Strontium 100-300 156 100-700 256
Tin 4.6-5 4.87 10-30 14.3
Titanium 300-5,000 1,650 200-15,000 3,820
Tungsten ND ND 50 50
Vanadium 3.6-300 106 7.3-500 168
Yttrium 10-30 20.8 10-50 23
Zinc 2.4-180 47.5 5-3,000 81.1
Zirconium 10-150 59 10-300 86.3
Inorganics
Ammonia 0.37-3 1.18 NS NS
Ammonia perchlorate ND ND 0.123 0.123
Calcium* 3,000-200,000 114,000 500-200,000 22,800
Cyanide 0.06-0.1 0.075 NS NS
Magnesium 3,000-15,000 9,000 1,000-30,000 11,900
Nitrate and nitrite 0.04-10.6 3.12 NS NS
Explosives
Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) 0.35-0.42 0.385 ND ND
Cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) 0.003-2.8 0.527 0.003-0.0037a 0.00335a
2-amino-4,6-Dinitrotoluene 0.62 0.62 ND ND
Nitroglycerin 1.6-3.6 2.6 19b 19b
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) 0.0004-13 3.42 0.006c 0.006c

a - RDX was detected near Bahia de la Chiva and Bahia Tapon.
b - Nitroglycerin was detected in the North Coast Conservation Zone.
c - TNT was detected near Bahia de la Chiva.

Sources:

CH2MHILL 2000a
Hoffsommer and Glover 1978
Lai 1978 PMC 1998
Learned et al. 1973
Marsh 1992

§ Does not include detections from the Punta Este Conservation Zone.
† Average concentrations were calculated using detected values only.
* Averages are significantly different between the LIA and the remainder of Vieques, p <0.05.
ND = not detected
NS = not sampled

Table 5.

Comparison of Tl Geologic Units Within the LIA and Outside the LIA
Chemical Live Impact Area Remainder of Vieques §
Range
(ppm)
Average
(ppm)
Range
(ppm)
Average
(ppm)
Metals
Antimony 0.56-1.3 0.83 ND ND
Arsenic 3.5-18 8.97 ND ND
Barium 15-360 93.2 70-200 155
Beryllium 0.075-0.39 0.24 1.0-2.0 1.5
Boron 10-30 14.5 10-30 17.2
Cadmium 0.37-2.6 1.65 ND ND
Chromium 7.2-100 34.2 30-150 56.7
Cobalt* 2.9-25 14.6 5-10 6.8
Copper 5-120 40.7 5-50 20.9
Iron 5,000-70,000 30,700 7,000-70,000 27,100
Lanthanum ND ND 50 50
Lead 0.97-33 9.79 10-20 13.3
Manganese 70-1,500 673 50-1,500 639
Nickel 3.5-34 12.9 5-50 16.4
Scandium 5-30 11.1 7-20 13.4
Strontium 100-200 138 200-200 200
Tin 4.6-5.0 4.9 10 10
Titanium 300-3,000 1,000 700-7,000 2,200
Vanadium 20-300 106 15-200 84.4
Yttrium 10-30 17.9 10-30 22.5
Zinc 8-81 37.9 9-46 23.3
Zirconium 10-70 41.5 10-200 80
Inorganics
Calcium 50,000-200,000 149,000 10,000-200,000 157,000
Magnesium 3,000-15,000 8,100 7,000-7,000 7,000

Sources:

CH2MHILL 2000a
Learned et al. 1973
Marsh 1992
PMC 1998

§ Does not include detections from the Punta Este Conservation Zone.
† Average concentrations were calculated using detected values only.
* Averages are significantly different between the Tl geologic units in the LIA compared to Tl geologic units in the remainder of Vieques, p <0.05.
ND = not detected
NS = not sampled

Table 6.

Comparison of Kv Geologic Units Within the LIA and Outside the LIA
Chemical Live Impact Area Remainder of Vieques §
Range
(ppm)
Average
(ppm)
Range
(ppm)
Average
(ppm)
Metals
Aluminum 660-28,000 15,300 2,100-19,000 11,600
Antimony 3.3 3.3 ND ND
Arsenic 1-20 5.9 2.4-6.7 4.4
Barium 10-300 127 26-2,000 386
Beryllium 0.09-0.48 0.24 0.12-0.48 0.31
Boron 10-50 18 10-100 12.4
Cadmium 0.98-3.4 2.0 ND ND
Chromium 7.2-120 44.3 11-700 73.6
Cobalt 0.35-32 14.6 1.4-30 15.7
Copper 2.1-72 36.1 5-1,000 80.1
Gold ND ND 0.15 0.15
Iron 1,000-70,000 38,800 5,000-100,000 55,600
Lanthanum ND ND 30 30
Lead 0.52-11 6.1 2.6-1,000 27.6
Manganese 36-1,500 816 70-5,000 1,410
Mercury 0.004-0.074 0.020 0.009-0.069 0.027
Molybdenum ND ND 5-7 5.29
Nickel 0.75-75 21.5 2.4-150 24
Scandium 5-20 15 7-30 19.3
Selenium 0.72-2.1 1.4 ND ND
Silver ND ND 0.5-1.5 0.74
Strontium 300 300 100-700 195
Tin ND ND 10-20 15
Titanium 700-5,000 2,940 2,000-7,000 4,640
Tungsten ND ND 50 50
Vanadium 3.6-300 108 7.3-500 202
Yttrium 15-30 25 10-50 26.1
Zinc 2.4-180 62 11-3,000 142
Zirconium 50-150 94 20-300 95.9
Inorganics
Calcium* 3,000-200,000 44,600 500-70,000 15,500
Magnesium 7,000-15,000 10,800 1,500-30,000 14,800
Explosives
Nitroglycerin ND ND 19 19
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) 4.1 4.1 ND ND

Sources:

CH2MHILL 2000a
Learned et al. 1973
Marsh 1992
PMC 1998

§ Does not include detections from the Punta Este Conservation Zone.
† Average concentrations were calculated using detected values only.
* Averages are significantly different between the Tl geologic units in the LIA compared to Tl geologic units in the remainder of Vieques, p <0.05.
ND = not detected
NS = not sampled

Table 7.

Ranges and Averages for Chemicals Detected in Soil at the LIA Compared to the Former NASD
Chemical Live Impact Area
(Tl geologic unit)
Former NASD
(KTd geologic unit)
Range
(ppm)
Average
(ppm)
Range
(ppm)
Average
(ppm)
Metals
Aluminum 3,400-31,000 16,416 6,900-18,000 11,346
Antimony 0.56-2.7 1.8 0.52-1.4 0.68
Arsenic 3.5-20 9.5 0.57-1.2 0.65
Barium* 13-360 88 20-190 84
Beryllium 0.075-0.41 0.24 0.13-0.27 0.17
Cadmium 0.37-2.6 1.6 ND ND
Chromium 7.2-53 23.6 2.2-52 13
Cobalt* 2.9-24 15 6.7-13 9.1
Copper 11-120 51 15-47 28
Iron* 5,200-52,000 33,263 14,000-28,000 20,692
Lead 0.81-33 9.2 1.1-5.7 3.2
Manganese* 160-1,500 778 290-1,200 626
Mercury 0.0044-0.086 0.02 0.0037-0.024 0.011
Nickel 3.5-34 14 1.3-18 5.1
Selenium 0.52-1.5 1.1 0.73-0.73 0.54
Thallium ND ND 0.45-0.46 0.39
Vanadium* 26-220 111 29-80 53
Zinc 14-81 55 23-53 36

Sources:

CH2MHILL 2000a
CH2MHILL 2001

*Inherently different between the Tl and KTd geologic units.
ND = not detected

Table 8.

Summary of Pathways Evaluated in this Public Health Assessment
Pathway Name Exposure Pathway Elements Comments
Potential Source of Contamination Environmental Media Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Exposed Population Time of Exposure
Exposures in the Residential Area Navy training activities at the LIA LIA Soil → Air → Residential Soil Residential Area
  • Incidental Ingestion
  • Dermal Contact
Residents and visitors of Vieques Past, current, and future The levels of metals and other chemicals detected on Vieques are too low to be of health concern for both adults and children.
Exposures in the LIA Navy training activities at the LIA LIA Soil LIA
  • Incidental Ingestion
  • Dermal Contact
Trespassers on the LIA April 1999 to May 2000 Neither adults nor children were exposed to harmful levels of chemicals present in the soil on the LIA.

Table 9.

Chemicals Detected in the Soil on Vieques
Chemical Chemical Concentration Range
(ppm)
Frequency of Detections Frequency above Comparison Values Comparison Value
(ppm)
Type of Comparison Value
Metals
Aluminum 660-39,000 43/43 0 100,000 I-EMEG-child
Antimony 0.56-3.3 10/457 0 20 RMEG-child
Arsenic 0.96-36 41/463 41
4
0.5
20
CREG
C-EMEG-child
Barium 10-3,000 463/463 0 4,000 RMEG-child
Beryllium 0.075-2 44/461 0 100 RMEG-child
Bismuth 15 1/420 NA NA NA
Boron 10-100 420/420 0 500 I-EMEG-child
Cadmium 0.37-31.3 28/459 2 10 C-EMEG-child
Chromium 3-700 402/463 10 200 RMEG-child (chromium VI)
Cobalt 0.35-32 444/463 0 4,700 RBC
Copper 2.1-1,500 463/463 0 3,100 RBC
Gold 0.06-0.46 3/420 NA NA NA
Iron 1,000-150,000 463/463 415 23,000 RBC
Lanthanum 30-50 2/420 NA NA NA
Lead 0.52-1,000 461/463 2 400 SSL
Manganese 30-5,000 463/463 1 3,000 RMEG-child
Mercury 0.0041-4.21 36/39 NA NA NA
Molybdenum 5-7 10/420 0 300 RMEG-child
Nickel 0.75-150 461/463 0 1,000 RMEG-child
Scandium 5-30 411/420 NA NA NA
Selenium 0.52-2.1 19/39 0 300 C-EMEG-child
Silver 0.5-1.5 14/459 0 300 RMEG-child
Strontium 100-700 359/420 0 30,000 RMEG-child
Tin 4.6-30 17/457 0 47,000 RBC
Titanium 200-15,000 420/420 0 310,000 RBC
Tungsten 50 2/420 NA NA NA
Vanadium 3.6-500 463/463 91 200 I-EMEG-child
Yttrium 10-50 411/420 NA NA NA
Zinc 2.4-3,000 444/445 0 20,000 C-EMEG-child
Zirconium 10-300 419/420 NA NA NA
Inorganics
Ammonia 0.37-50.1 9/9 0 20,000 I-EMEG-child
Ammonium perchlorate 0.123 1/37 NA NA NA
Calcium 500-200,000 424/424 NA NA NA
Cyanide 0.06-0.1 4/7 0 1,000 RMEG-child
Magnesium 1,000-30,000 424/424 NA NA NA
Nitrate and nitrite 0.04-50.8 9/9 0 80,000/5,000 RMEG-child (nitrate/nitrite)
Phosphorus 16-40.4 2/2 NA NA NA
Potassium 426-3,700 4/4 NA NA NA
Sodium 113-411 4/4 NA NA NA
Organic Compounds
Acetone 0.04-0.091 4/4 0 5,000 RMEG-child
Benzene 0.0007 1/4 0 10 CREG
2-Butanone 0.014-0.032 3/4 0 30,000 RMEG-child
Carbazole 0.011 1/4 0 32 RBC
Carbon disulfide 0.0014 1/4 0 5,000 RMEG-child
Methylene chloride 0.0012-0.0023 4/4 0 90 CREG
Toluene 0.0006-0.0007 3/4 0 1,000 I-EMEG-child
Xylene 0.0007-0.0015 3/4 0 10,000 I-EMEG-child
Explosives
Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) 0.35-0.42 2/69 0 3,000 I-EMEG-child
Cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) 0.003-2.8 15/81 0 6 CREG
2-amino-4,6-Dinitrotoluene 0.62 1/69 0 0.96 RBC
Nitroglycerin 1.6-3.6 3/69 0 46 RBC
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) 0.0004-13 10/81 0 20 CREG

Note: A few tentatively identified compounds were reported from the sampling conducted at the former NASD for the airport expansion (PMC 1998). These chemicals are not included in this table because their identity and quantity are not certain. Carbazole was estimated to be present in a duplicate sample.

Abbreviations:

CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
C-EMEG = Chronic Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
I-EMEG = Intermediate Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
RBC = Risk-based Concentration
RMEG = Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
SSL = Soil Screening Level

Sources:

CH2MHILL and Baker 1999
CH2MHILL 2000a
Hoffsommer and Glover 1978
Lai 1978
Learned et al. 1973
Marsh 1992
PMC 1998
Garcia et al. 2000

Boldface = chemical was detected above the comparison value
NA = not available

Table 10.

Chemicals Detected on the LIA in Areas Where Protestors Lived (April 1999 to May 2000)
Chemical Chemical Concentration Range
(ppm)
Frequency of Detections Frequency above Comparison Values Comparison Value
(ppm)
Type of Comparison Value
Metals
Aluminum 660-15,000 5/5 0 100,000 I-EMEG-child
Arsenic 1.0-6.7 5/5 5
0
0.5
20
CREG
C-EMEG-child
Barium 10-1,100 6/6 0 4,000 RMEG-child
Beryllium 0.087-0.23 5/5 0 100 RMEG-child
Cadmium 2.3 1/5 0 10 C-EMEG-child
Chromium 7.2-27 5/5 0 200 RMEG-child (chromium VI)
Cobalt 0.35-13 5/5 0 4,700 RBC
Copper 2.1-501 6/6 0 3,100 RBC
Iron 1,000-67,900 7/7 3 23,000 RBC
Lead 0.52-31 5/5 0 400 SSL
Manganese 36-840 6/6 0 3,000 RMEG-child
Mercury 0.0041-0.017 4/5 NA NA NA
Nickel 0.75-13 5/5 0 1,000 RMEG-child
Selenium 1.3-1.48 2/6 0 300 C-EMEG-child
Vanadium 3.6-178 6/6 0 200 I-EMEG-child
Zinc 2.4-52 4/4 0 20,000 C-EMEG-child
Inorganics
Nitrate and nitrite 30.2 1/1 0 80,000/5,000 RMEG-child (nitrate/nitrite)
Phosphorus 16-40.4 2/2 NA NA NA
Explosives
Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) 0.42 1/5 0 3,000 I-EMEG-child
Cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) 0.29 1/5 0 6 CREG

Sources:

CH2MHILL 2000a
Garcia et al. 2000

Boldface = chemical was detected above the comparison value
NA = not available


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