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References

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51. McDonald AD, McDonald JC, Armstrong B, Cherry NB, Cote R, LaVoie J, et al. Fetal death and work in pregnancy. Brit J Ind Med 1988;45:148-57.

52. 52. Olsen J, Rachootin P. Organic solvents as possible risk factors of low birthweight. J Occup Med 1983;25:854-5.

53. 53. Pharoah POD, Alberman E, Doyle P, et al. Outcome of pregnancy among women in anaesthetic practice. Lancet 1977;1:34-6.

54. 54. Savitz DA, Whelan EA, Kleckner RA. Effect of parents' occupational exposures on risk of stillbirth, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age infants. Am J Epidemiol 1989;129:1201-18.

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56. Vaughan TI, Daling JR, Starzyk PM. Fetal death and maternal occupation. J Occup Med 1984;26:676-78.

57. 57. Eskenazi B, Guendelman S, Elkin EP. A preliminary study of reproductive outcomes of female maquiladora workers in Tijuana, Mexico. Am J Ind Med 1993; 24:667-76.

58. 58. Olsen J, Hemminki K, Ahlborg G et al. Low birthweight, congenital malformations, and spontaneous abortions among dry cleaning workers in Scandinavia. Scand J Work Environ Health 1990;16:163-8.

59. 59. Sieber WK, Sundin DS, Frazier TM, Robinson CF. Development, use, and availability of a job exposure matrix based on national occupational hazard survey data. Am J Ind Med 1991;20:163-74.

60. Joffe M. Biases in research on reproduction and women's work. Int J Epidemiol 1985;14(1):118-23.

61. 61. Goldman LR, Paigen B. Low birth weight, prematurity and birth defects in children living near the hazardous waste site, Love Canal. Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials 1985;2(2):209-23.

62. 62. Vianna NJ, Polan AK. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents. Science 1984;226:1217-19.

63. 63. New Jersey Department of Health. The Lipari landfill birth weight study: a twenty-five year trend analysis. New Jersey Department of Health. Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1994.

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68. 68. Lagakos SW, Wessen BJ, Zelen M. An analysis of contaminated well water and health effects in Woburn, Massachusetts. J Am Stat Assoc 1986;81(395):583-96.

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70. 70. Bove FJ, Fulcomer MC, Klotz JB, Esmart J, Dufficy EM, Savrin JE. Public drinking water contamination and birth outcomes. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141:850-62.

71. 1Both 1,1-DCE and 1,2-DCE were included in the same exposure category.

72. 71. Kramer MD, CF Lynch, P Isacson, JW Hanson. The association of waterborne chloroform with intrauterine growth retardation. Epidemiology 1992;3:407-13.

73. 72. Taskinen HK. Effects of parental occupational exposures on spontaneous abortion and congenital malformations. Scand J Work Environ Health 1990; 16:297-314.

74. 73. Goldberg SJ, Lebowitz MD, Graver EJ, Hicks S. An association of human congenital cardiac malformations and drinking water contaminants. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16:155-64.

75. 74. Tabacova S, Balabaeva L. Environmental pollutants in relation to complications of pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 1993;Suppl 2:27-31.

76. 2Odds ratios were not reported by the authors in the study. For the purposes of this discussion, odds ratios and exact confidence limits were computed using EpiInfo. For computational purposes, one count was added to each cell for arterial hypertension and nephropathy because there were no nonexposed cases in either of these groups.

77. 75. Williams RL, Creasy RK, Cunningham GC, Hawes WE, Norris FD, Tashiro M. Fetal growth and perinatal viability in California. Obstet Gynecol 1982; 59:624-31.

78. 76. Rothman K. Modern epidemiology. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1986:153-256.

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83. Pearce N. Analytical implications of epidemiological concepts of interaction. Int J Epidemiol 1989;18:976-980.

84. Greenland S. Basic problems in interaction assessment. Environ Health Perspect 1993;101(Suppl 4):59-66.

85. Kline. Conception to birth, p.247.

86. 84. Dejmek J, Selevan SG, Benes I, Sram RJ. Impact of SO2 and NOx on the intrauterine growth and birth weight. Poster presented at the 8th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, August 1996.

87. Chen W-J, Body RL, Mottet NK. Some effects of continuous low-dose congenital exposure to methylmercury on organ growth in the rat fetus. Teratology 1979;20:31-6.

88. 86. Selevan SG, Lemasters GK. The dose-response fallacy in human reproductive studies of toxic exposures. J Occup Med 1987;451-4.

89. NCHS. Vital Statistics of the United States 1985. Volume II Mortality Part A. Table 3-2 Fetal Deaths and Fetal Death Ratios by Color: United States, 1942-1985. Hyattsville: US Department of Health and Human Services,Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, 1990.

90. 88. David RJ. Population based intrauterine growth curves from computerized birth certificates. Southern Med J 1983;76:1401-6.

91. The baseline SGA rate in unexposed mothers who had no history of fetal death but had previously had a pregnancy was 7.8%, which was much closer to the rates of 8.5 for unexposed mothers with one previous fetal death and 6.7 for unexposed mothers with two or more previous fetal deaths.

92. Kline. Conception to birth, pp. 259-94.

93. Bianco A, Stoen J, Lynch L, Lapinski R, Berkowitz G, Berkowitz RL. Pregnancy outcome at age 40 and older.

94. Prysak M, Lorenz RP, Kisly A. Pregnancy outcome in nulliparous women 35 years and older. Obstet Gynecol 1995;85:65-70.

95. Savitz DA, Zhang J. Pregnancy-induced hypertension in North Carolina, 1988 and 1989. Am J Public Health 1992;82:675-9.

96. Backe B. Maternal smoking and age. Effect on birthweight and risk for small-for-gestational age births. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1993;72:172-6.

97. Fox SH, Koepsell TD, Daling JR. Birth weight and smoking during pregnancy--effect modification by maternal age. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:1008-15.

98. Wen SW, Goldenberg RL, Cutter GR, et al. Smoking, maternal age, fetal growth, and gestational age at delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;162:53-8.

99. Fichtner RR, Sullivan KM Zyrkowski CL, et al. Racial/ethnic differences in smoking, other risk factors, and low birth weight among low-income pregnant women, 1978-1988. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 1990;39:13-21.

100. Pharoah POD, Chamberlain G. Birth weight before and after a spontaneous abortion. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1980;87:275-80.

101. Zielhuis GA, Gijsen R, van der Gulden JWJ. Menstrual disorders among dry-cleaning workers. [letter] Scand J Work Environ Health 1989;15:238.

102. van der Gulden JWJ, Zielhuis GA. Reproductive hazards related to perchloroethylene: a review. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1989;235-42.

103. Swaab DF, Boer GJ, Boer K, Dogterom J, Van Leeuwen FW, Visser M. Fetal neuroendocrine mechanisms in development and parturition. Prog Brain Res 1978; 48:277-90.

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107. Kyrklund T, Alling C, Kjellstrand P, Haglid K. Fatty acid composition of ethanolamine phosphoglycerides in different areas of the gerbil brain after chronic exposure to trichloroethylene. Neurochem Pathol 1985;3:151-8.

108. Kyrklund T, Kjellstrand P, Haglid KG. Fatty acid changes in rat brain ethanolamine phosphoglycerides during and following chronic exposure to trichloroethylene. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1986;85:145-53.

109. Death Count, 0 to 364 days, all races, both genders, 1979-1992, by age-gender, the United States. CDC WONDER. Compressed Mortality Data 1979-1992.

110. Askrog VF, Harvald B. Teratogen effekt of inhalations-anestetika. Nordisk Medicin 1970; 16:490-500. English summary reported in: Cohen EN, Bellville JW, Brown BW Jr. Anesthesia, pregnancy, and miscarriage. Anesthesiology 1971; 35:343-7.

111. Cohen EN, Bellville JW, Brown BW Jr. Anesthesia, pregnancy, and miscarriage. Anesthesiology 1971; 35:343-7.

112. Dewailly E, Bruneau S, Ayotte P, et al. Health status at birth of Inuit newborn prenatally exposed to organochlorines. Chemosphere 1993;27:359-66.

113. Rylander L, Stromberg U, Hagmar L. Decreased birth weight among infants born to women with a high dietary intake of fish contaminated with persistent organochlorine compounds. Scand J Work Environ Health 1995;21:368-75.

114. Yen YY, Lan SJ, Yang CY, et al. Follow-up study of intrauterine growth of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1994;53:633-41.

115. Karmaus W, Wolf N. Reduced birthweight and length in the offspring of females exposed to PCDFs, PCP, and lindane. Environ Health Perspect 1995;103:1120-5.

116. Hopper K, Clark GC. Workshop on perinatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds. IV. Role of biomarkers. Environ Health Perspect 1995;103(Suppl 2):161-7.

117. 114. Hulley SB, Cummings SR. Designing clinical research: an epidemiologic approach. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1988:91-2.

118. 115. Maclure M, Willett WC. Misinterpretation and misuse of the kappa statistic. Am J Epidemiol 1987;126:161-9.

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