1. David RJ. The quality and completeness of birthweight and gestational age data in computerized birth files. Am J Public Health 1980; 70:964-73.
2. Suthutroravuts, Hogue CJR, Guyer B, Anderka M, Oberle MW. Are preterm black infants larger than preterm white infants or are they more misclassified? J Biosoc Sci 1989;21:443-51.
4. Williams RL, Creasy RK, Cunningham GC, Hawes WE, Norris FD, Tashiro M. Fetal growth and perinatal viability in California. Obstet Gynecol 1982;59:624-31.
5. Watkins ML, Edmonds L, McClearn A, Mullins L, Mulinare J, Khoury M. The surveillance of birth defects: the usefulness of the revised US standard birth certificate. Am J Public Health 1996;86:731-4.
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program Procedure Manual. USDHHS, PHS, Atlanta, GA, June 1993:201 pp.
7. Sullivan LA. North Carolina Surveillance of Birth Defects. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, September 1989.
8. Meyer R. Birth Defects in North Carolina. N.C. Birth Defects Monitoring Program 1989-1993. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Raleigh, NC: August 1996:30 pp.
9. Kotelchuck M. An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposed Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index. Am J Public Health 1994;84:1414-20.
1. 1. National Research Council. Environmental epidemiology volume 1. Public health and hazardous wastes. Committee on Environmental Epidemiology, US National Research Council, Washington (DC): National Academy Press, 1991:60-100.
2. 2. HazDat [computer database]. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, March 1994.
3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Public Health Assessment. U.S. Marine Corps Camp Lejeune. Onslow County, North Carolina. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1997.
4. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ATSDR Record of Activity for meeting with Victor Melts, ABC One-Hour Cleaners. July 25, 1996.
5. 5. Barlow SM, Sullivan FM. Reproductive hazards of industrial chemicals. An evaluation of animal and human data. New York: Academic Press; 1982. p.3-8, 83-103, 230-8, 523-7, 566-82.
6. 6. Savitz DA, Harlow SD. Selection of reproductive health endpoints for environmental risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect 1991;90:159-64.
7. 7. Kleinman JC. Methodological issues in the analysis of vital statistics. In: Kiely M, editor. Reproductive and perinatal epidemiology. Boston: CRC Press; 1991, p.447-68.
8. 8. Vital Statistics of the United States 1989. Volume I-Natality. Hyattsville (MD): US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 1993. Report #: PHS 93-1100, Table 1-39.
9. 9. MacDorman MF, Rosenberg HM. Trends in infant mortality by cause of death and other characteristics, 1960-88. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 1993.
10. 10. Centers for Disease Control. Current trends--national birth weight-specific infant mortality. Surveillance: preliminary analysis--United States, 1980. MMWR 1986;35(17):269-73.
11. 11. Institute of Medicine. Committee to Study the Prevention of Low Birthweight. Preventing low birthweight. Washington (DC): National Academy Press, 1986.
12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in fertility and infant and maternal Health--United States, 1980-1988. MMWR. 1991;40:381-3, 389-90.
13. Feldman GB. Prospective risk of stillbirth. Obstet Gynecol 1992; 79:547-53.
14. Kline J, Stein Z, Susser M. Conception to birth. Epidemiology of prenatal development. Oxford University Press: New York, 1989, pp. 165-173, 208-18.
15. 15. Kochenour NK. Other causes of fetal death. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1987;30:312-21.
16. Lang JM, Lieberman E, Cohen A. A comparison of risk factors for preterm labor and term small-for-gestational- age birth. Epidemiology 1996;7:369-376.
17. 17. Morrison I, Olsen J. Weight-specific stillbirths and associated causes of death: an analysis of 765 stillbirths. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983;152:975.
18. Vital Statistics of the United States 1989. Volume II. Mortality. Hyattsville: US Department Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics, 1992, Report #: PHS 92-1102. Table 8-2.
19. Greb AE, Pauli RM, Kirby RS. Accuracy of fetal death reports: comparison with data from an independent stillbirth assessment program. Am J Pub Hlth 1987; 77:1202-1205.
20. Feldman GB. Prospective risk of stillbirth. Obstet Gynecol 1992; 79:547-53.
21. Little RE, Weinberg CR. Risk factors for antepartum and intrapartum stillbirth. Am J Epidem 1993; 137:1177-89.
22. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for tetrachloroethylene. Update. Draft for Public Comment. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1996.
23. 23. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene. Update. Draft for Public Comment. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1996.
24. Laham S. Studies on placental transfer. Trichloroethylene. Industrial Medicine 1970; 39:46-9.
25. Ghantous H, Danielsson BRG, Dencker L. Trichloroacetic acid accumulates in murine amniotic fluid after tri and tetrachloroethylene inhalation. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1986; 58:105-14.
26. Fisher JW, Whittaker TA, Taylor DH, Clewell HJ III, Andersen ME. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of the pregnant rat: a multi route exposure model for trichloroethylene and its metabolite, trichloroacetic acid. Toxicol and Applied Pharmacol 1989; 99:395-414.
27. Ikeda M. Metabolism of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in human subjects. Environ Health Perspect 1977; 21:239-45.
28. Rao HV, Brown DR. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic assessment of tetrachloroethylene in groundwater for a bathing and showering determination. Risk Analysis 1993; 13:37-49.
29. McKone TE, Bogen KT. Uncertainties in health-risk assessment: an integrated case study based on tetrachloroethylene in California groundwater. Regulatory Toxicology Pharmacology 1992; 15:86-103.
30. Allen BC, Fisher JW. Pharmacokinetic modeling of trichloroethylene and trichloroacetic acid in humans. Risk Analysis 1993; 13:71-86.
31. McKone TE. Human exposure to volatile organic compounds in household tap water: The indoor inhalation pathway. Environ Sci Technol 1987; 21:1194-1201.
32. Van der Gulden JWJ, Zielhuis GA. Reproductive hazards related to perchloroethylene. A review. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1989; 61:235-42.
33. Kyrklund T, Haglid K. Brain lipid composition in guinea pigs after intrauterine exposure to perchloroethylene. Pharmacology and Toxicology 1991;68:146-8.
34. Evain-Brion D. Hormonal regulation of fetal growth. Hormone Research 1994; 42:207-14.
35. Swaab DF, Boer GJ, Boer K, Dogterom J, van Leeuwen FW, Visser M. Fetal neuroendocrine mechanisms in development and parturition. Progress in Brain Research 1978; 48:277-90.
36. Nau H, Scott WJ. Weak acids may act as teratogens by accumulating in the basic milieu of the early mammalian embryo. Nature 1986; 323:276-8.
37. Smith MK, Randall JL, Read EJ, et al. Teratogenic activity of trichloroacetic acid in the rat. Teratology 1989; 40:445-51.
38. Fort DJ, Stover EL, Rayburn JR, Hull M, Bantle JA. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of trichloroethylene and detoxification metabolites using Xenopus. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 1993; 13:35-45.
39. Khoury MJ, Erickson JD, Cordero JF, McCarthy BJ. Congenital malformations and intrauterine growth retardation: a population study. Pediatrics 1988;82:83-90.
40. 40. Schwetz BA, Leong BKJ, Gehring PJ. The effect of maternally inhaled trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methyl chloroform, and methylene chloride on embryonal and fetal development in mice and rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1975;32:84-96.
41. 41. Manson JM, Murphy M, Richdale N, et al. Effects of oral exposure to trichloroethylene on female reproductive function. Toxicology 1984;32:229-42.
42. 42. Dawson BV, Johnson PD, Goldberg SJ, Ulreich JB. Cardiac teratogenesis of trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene in a mammalian model. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990; 16:1304-9.
43. Stein Z, Susser M, Saenger G, Marolla F. Famine and Human Development: the Dutch Hunger winter of 1944-45. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
44. Hertz-Picciotto I. Epidemiology and quantitative risk assessment: a bridge from science to policy. Am J Public Health 1995; 85:484-91.
45. 45. Clarke M, Mason ES. Leatherwork: a possible hazard to reproduction. BMJ 1985; 290:1235-7.
46. 46. Ericson A, Kallen B, Zetterstrom R et al. Delivery outcome of women working in laboratories during pregnancy. Arch Environ Health 1984;39:5-10.
47. 47. Eskenazi B, Bracken MB, Holford TR, Grady J. Exposure to organic solvents and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Am J Ind Med 1988;14:177-88.
48. 48. Lemasters GK, Samuels SJ, Morrison JA, Brooks SM. Reproductive effects in women exposed to solvents in 36 reinforced plastics companies. II. Lowered birth weight. J Occup Med 1989;31:115-23.
49. 49. McDonald AD, McDonald JC, Armstrong B, et al. Occupation and pregnancy outcome Br J Ind Med 1987;44:521-6.
50. 50. McDonald AD, McDonald JC. Outcome of pregnancy in leather workers. BMJ 1986; 292:979-81.
51. McDonald AD, McDonald JC, Armstrong B, Cherry NB, Cote R, LaVoie J, et al. Fetal death and work in pregnancy. Brit J Ind Med 1988;45:148-57.
52. 52. Olsen J, Rachootin P. Organic solvents as possible risk factors of low birthweight. J Occup Med 1983;25:854-5.
53. 53. Pharoah POD, Alberman E, Doyle P, et al. Outcome of pregnancy among women in anaesthetic practice. Lancet 1977;1:34-6.
54. 54. Savitz DA, Whelan EA, Kleckner RA. Effect of parents' occupational exposures on risk of stillbirth, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age infants. Am J Epidemiol 1989;129:1201-18.
55. 55. Windham GC, Shusterman D, Swan SH, Fenster L, Eskenazi B. Exposure to organic solvents and adverse pregnancy outcome. Am J Ind Med 1991;20:241-59.
56. Vaughan TI, Daling JR, Starzyk PM. Fetal death and maternal occupation. J Occup Med 1984;26:676-78.
57. 57. Eskenazi B, Guendelman S, Elkin EP. A preliminary study of reproductive outcomes of female maquiladora workers in Tijuana, Mexico. Am J Ind Med 1993; 24:667-76.
58. 58. Olsen J, Hemminki K, Ahlborg G et al. Low birthweight, congenital malformations, and spontaneous abortions among dry cleaning workers in Scandinavia. Scand J Work Environ Health 1990;16:163-8.
59. 59. Sieber WK, Sundin DS, Frazier TM, Robinson CF. Development, use, and availability of a job exposure matrix based on national occupational hazard survey data. Am J Ind Med 1991;20:163-74.
60. Joffe M. Biases in research on reproduction and women's work. Int J Epidemiol 1985;14(1):118-23.
61. 61. Goldman LR, Paigen B. Low birth weight, prematurity and birth defects in children living near the hazardous waste site, Love Canal. Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials 1985;2(2):209-23.
62. 62. Vianna NJ, Polan AK. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents. Science 1984;226:1217-19.
63. 63. New Jersey Department of Health. The Lipari landfill birth weight study: a twenty-five year trend analysis. New Jersey Department of Health. Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1994.
64. 64. Baker DB, Greenland S, Mendlein J, Harmon P. A health study of two communities near the Stringfellow waste disposal site. Arch Environ Health 1988;43(5):325-34.
65. 65. Shaw G, Shulman J, Frisch JD, Cummins SK, Harris JA. Congenital malformations and birthweight in areas with potential environmental contamination. Arch Environ Health 1992;47:147-54.
66. 66. Nailor MG, Tarlton F, Cassidy JJ (eds): Love Canal -- Public health time bomb. A special report to the governor and legislature, September 1978. Albany: New York State Department of Health, 1978.
67. 67. Khoury MJ, Holtzman NA. On the ability of birth defects monitoring to detect new teratogens. Am J Epidemiol 1987;126:136-43.
68. 68. Lagakos SW, Wessen BJ, Zelen M. An analysis of contaminated well water and health effects in Woburn, Massachusetts. J Am Stat Assoc 1986;81(395):583-96.
69. 69. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Final report of the Woburn environmental and birth study. Draft for Public Comment. July 1994. Volume 1.
70. 70. Bove FJ, Fulcomer MC, Klotz JB, Esmart J, Dufficy EM, Savrin JE. Public drinking water contamination and birth outcomes. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141:850-62.
71. 1Both 1,1-DCE and 1,2-DCE were included in the same exposure category.
72. 71. Kramer MD, CF Lynch, P Isacson, JW Hanson. The association of waterborne chloroform with intrauterine growth retardation. Epidemiology 1992;3:407-13.
73. 72. Taskinen HK. Effects of parental occupational exposures on spontaneous abortion and congenital malformations. Scand J Work Environ Health 1990; 16:297-314.
74. 73. Goldberg SJ, Lebowitz MD, Graver EJ, Hicks S. An association of human congenital cardiac malformations and drinking water contaminants. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16:155-64.
75. 74. Tabacova S, Balabaeva L. Environmental pollutants in relation to complications of pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 1993;Suppl 2:27-31.
76. 2Odds ratios were not reported by the authors in the study. For the purposes of this discussion, odds ratios and exact confidence limits were computed using EpiInfo. For computational purposes, one count was added to each cell for arterial hypertension and nephropathy because there were no nonexposed cases in either of these groups.
77. 75. Williams RL, Creasy RK, Cunningham GC, Hawes WE, Norris FD, Tashiro M. Fetal growth and perinatal viability in California. Obstet Gynecol 1982; 59:624-31.
78. 76. Rothman K. Modern epidemiology. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1986:153-256.
79. 77. "The FREQ Procedure" in SAS/STAT User's Guide, Version 6, Fourth Edition, Volume 1. North Carolina: SAS Institute, 1990:881-90.
80. 78. "The LOGISTIC Procedure" in SAS/STAT User's Guide, Version 6, Fourth Edition, Volume 2. North Carolina: SAS Institute, 1990:1071-126.
81. 79. Cytel Software Corporation. "On the Conservativeness of Exact Tests," in StatXact-Turbo. Statistical Software for Exact Nonparametric Inference. User Manual. Cambridge (MA) Cytel Software Corporation, 1992:C1-6.
82. 80. Breslow NE, Day NE. Statistical methods in cancer research. Volume 1. The analysis of case-control studies. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1980:138.
83. Pearce N. Analytical implications of epidemiological concepts of interaction. Int J Epidemiol 1989;18:976-980.
84. Greenland S. Basic problems in interaction assessment. Environ Health Perspect 1993;101(Suppl 4):59-66.
85. Kline. Conception to birth, p.247.
86. 84. Dejmek J, Selevan SG, Benes I, Sram RJ. Impact of SO2 and NOx on the intrauterine growth and birth weight. Poster presented at the 8th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, August 1996.
87. Chen W-J, Body RL, Mottet NK. Some effects of continuous low-dose congenital exposure to methylmercury on organ growth in the rat fetus. Teratology 1979;20:31-6.
88. 86. Selevan SG, Lemasters GK. The dose-response fallacy in human reproductive studies of toxic exposures. J Occup Med 1987;451-4.
89. NCHS. Vital Statistics of the United States 1985. Volume II Mortality Part A. Table 3-2 Fetal Deaths and Fetal Death Ratios by Color: United States, 1942-1985. Hyattsville: US Department of Health and Human Services,Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, 1990.
90. 88. David RJ. Population based intrauterine growth curves from computerized birth certificates. Southern Med J 1983;76:1401-6.
91. The baseline SGA rate in unexposed mothers who had no history of fetal death but had previously had a pregnancy was 7.8%, which was much closer to the rates of 8.5 for unexposed mothers with one previous fetal death and 6.7 for unexposed mothers with two or more previous fetal deaths.
92. Kline. Conception to birth, pp. 259-94.
93. Bianco A, Stoen J, Lynch L, Lapinski R, Berkowitz G, Berkowitz RL. Pregnancy outcome at age 40 and older.
94. Prysak M, Lorenz RP, Kisly A. Pregnancy outcome in nulliparous women 35 years and older. Obstet Gynecol 1995;85:65-70.
95. Savitz DA, Zhang J. Pregnancy-induced hypertension in North Carolina, 1988 and 1989. Am J Public Health 1992;82:675-9.
96. Backe B. Maternal smoking and age. Effect on birthweight and risk for small-for-gestational age births. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1993;72:172-6.
97. Fox SH, Koepsell TD, Daling JR. Birth weight and smoking during pregnancy--effect modification by maternal age. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:1008-15.
98. Wen SW, Goldenberg RL, Cutter GR, et al. Smoking, maternal age, fetal growth, and gestational age at delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;162:53-8.
99. Fichtner RR, Sullivan KM Zyrkowski CL, et al. Racial/ethnic differences in smoking, other risk factors, and low birth weight among low-income pregnant women, 1978-1988. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 1990;39:13-21.
100. Pharoah POD, Chamberlain G. Birth weight before and after a spontaneous abortion. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1980;87:275-80.
101. Zielhuis GA, Gijsen R, van der Gulden JWJ. Menstrual disorders among dry-cleaning workers. [letter] Scand J Work Environ Health 1989;15:238.
102. van der Gulden JWJ, Zielhuis GA. Reproductive hazards related to perchloroethylene: a review. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1989;235-42.
103. Swaab DF, Boer GJ, Boer K, Dogterom J, Van Leeuwen FW, Visser M. Fetal neuroendocrine mechanisms in development and parturition. Prog Brain Res 1978; 48:277-90.
104. Harlow SD, Ephross SA. Epidemiology of menstruation and its relevance to women's health. Epidemiologic Reviews 1995;17:265-86.
105. Stein ZA. A woman's age: childbearing and child rearing. Am J Epidemiol 1985;121:327-42.
106. 103. Copper RL, Goldenberg RL, Cliver SP, DuBard MB, Hoffman HJ, Davis RO. Anthropometric assessment of body size differences of full-term male and female infants. Obstet Gynecol 1993;81:161-4.
107. Kyrklund T, Alling C, Kjellstrand P, Haglid K. Fatty acid composition of ethanolamine phosphoglycerides in different areas of the gerbil brain after chronic exposure to trichloroethylene. Neurochem Pathol 1985;3:151-8.
108. Kyrklund T, Kjellstrand P, Haglid KG. Fatty acid changes in rat brain ethanolamine phosphoglycerides during and following chronic exposure to trichloroethylene. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1986;85:145-53.
109. Death Count, 0 to 364 days, all races, both genders, 1979-1992, by age-gender, the United States. CDC WONDER. Compressed Mortality Data 1979-1992.
110. Askrog VF, Harvald B. Teratogen effekt of inhalations-anestetika. Nordisk Medicin 1970; 16:490-500. English summary reported in: Cohen EN, Bellville JW, Brown BW Jr. Anesthesia, pregnancy, and miscarriage. Anesthesiology 1971; 35:343-7.
111. Cohen EN, Bellville JW, Brown BW Jr. Anesthesia, pregnancy, and miscarriage. Anesthesiology 1971; 35:343-7.
112. Dewailly E, Bruneau S, Ayotte P, et al. Health status at birth of Inuit newborn prenatally exposed to organochlorines. Chemosphere 1993;27:359-66.
113. Rylander L, Stromberg U, Hagmar L. Decreased birth weight among infants born to women with a high dietary intake of fish contaminated with persistent organochlorine compounds. Scand J Work Environ Health 1995;21:368-75.
114. Yen YY, Lan SJ, Yang CY, et al. Follow-up study of intrauterine growth of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1994;53:633-41.
115. Karmaus W, Wolf N. Reduced birthweight and length in the offspring of females exposed to PCDFs, PCP, and lindane. Environ Health Perspect 1995;103:1120-5.
116. Hopper K, Clark GC. Workshop on perinatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds. IV. Role of biomarkers. Environ Health Perspect 1995;103(Suppl 2):161-7.
117. 114. Hulley SB, Cummings SR. Designing clinical research: an epidemiologic approach. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1988:91-2.
118. 115. Maclure M, Willett WC. Misinterpretation and misuse of the kappa statistic. Am J Epidemiol 1987;126:161-9.
119. 116. The CORR Procedure. In: SAS user's guide: basics, version 5. Cary, North Carolina: SAS Institute, 1989:861-74.
Back to Table of Contents Top of Page