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References

DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide)
Chemical Technical Summary for Public Health
and Public Safety Professionals

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Atlanta, Georgia
December 6, 2004

Abdel-Rahman A, Shetty AK, Abou-Donia MB. 2001. Subchronic dermal application of N,N-diethyl m-toluamide (DEET) and permethrin to adult rats, alone or in combination, causes diffuse neuronal cell death and cytoskeletal abnormalities in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and Purkinje neuron loss in the cerebellum. Exp Neurol 172(1):153-71.

Abou-Donia MB, Abdel-Rahman AA, Markwiese-Foerch B, Jensen KF, Swartzwelder S, Wilson W. 1997. Stress with exposure to pyridostigmine bromide (PB), DEET and permethrin increases rat blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Annual Meeting of the Professional Research Scientists on Experimental Biology 97, New Orleans, LA, USA, April 6-9, 1997. FASEB Journal; 11 (3). A627.

Abou-Donia MB, Goldstein LB, Dechovskaia A, Bullman S, Jones KH, Herrick EA, Abdel-Rahman AA, Khan WA. 2001. Effects of daily dermal application of DEET and permethrin, alone and in combination, on sensorimotor performance, blood-brain barrier, and blood-testis barrier in rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A 6;62(7):523-41.

Abou-Donia MB, Wilmarth KR, Jensen KF, Oehme FW, Kurt TL.1996a: Neurotoxicity resulting from coexposure to pyridostigmine bromide, DEET, and permethrin: implications of Gulf War chemical exposures. J Toxicol Environ Health 48(1):35-56.

Abou-Donia MB, Wilmarth KR, Abdel-Rahman AA, Jensen KF, Oehme FW, Kurt TL 1996b. Increased neurotoxicity following concurrent exposure to pyridostigmine bromide, DEET, and chlorpyrifos. Fundam Appl Toxicol 34 (2):201-222.

Abu-Qare AW, Abou-Donia MB. 2001a. Combined exposure to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) and permethrin-induced release of rat brain mitochondrial cytochrome c. J Toxicol Environ Health A 63(4):243-52.

Abu-Qare AW, Abou-Donia MB. 2001b. DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) alone and in combination with permethrin increased urinary excretion of 6-beta-hydroxycortisol in rats, a marker of hepatic CYP3A induction. J Toxicol Environ Health A 64 (5):373-84.

Abu-Qare A, Abou-Donia M. 2000. Increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in rat urine following a single dermal dose of DEET (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide), and permethrin, alone and in combination. Toxicol Lett 117 (3):151-60.

Abu-Qare AW, Suliman HB, Abou-Donia MB. 2001. Induction of urinary excretion of 3-nitrotyrosine, a marker of oxidative stress, following administration of pyridostigmine bromide, DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) and permethrin, alone and in combination in rats. Toxicol Lett 121(2):127-34.

Amichai B, Lazarov A, Halevy S. 1994. Contact dermatitis from diethyltoluamide. Contact Dermatitis 30 (3):188.

Anon. 1984. Teratological evaluation of rat fetuses after prenatal exposure to industrial chemicals. Intox Laboratories, Inc. Redfield, AR. Contract No. 200-84-2720, 212 pgs. (Unpublished Study)

Angerhofer RA, Weeks MH. 1981. Effect of dermal applications of N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (m-DEET) on the embryonic development of rabbits. Report (USAEHA 75-51-0034-7; AD-A094778).

Baynes RE, Halling KB, Riviere JE 1997. The influence of diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) on the percutaneous absorption of permethrin and carbaryl. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 144 (2):332-339

Bell JW, Veltri JC, Page BC. 2002. Human exposures to N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide insect repellents reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers, 1993-1997. Int J Toxicol 21:341-352.

Blomquist L, Thorsell W. 1977. Distribution and fate of the insect repellent 14C-N,-N-diethyl-m-toluamide in the animal body. II. Distribution and excretion after cutaneous application. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 41(3):235-243.

Blomquist L, Stroeman L, Thorsell W. 1975. Distribution and fate of the insect repellent 14-C-N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in the animal body: I. Distribution and excretion after injection into mice. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 37 (2):131-133.

Briassoulis G, Narlioglou M, Hatzis T. 2001. Toxic encephalopathy associated with use of DEET insect repellents: a case analysis of its toxicity in children. Human and Experimental Toxicology 20:8-14.

Brini CM, Tremblay GC. 1991. Reversible inhibition of the urea cycle and gluconeogenesis by N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 179 (3):1264-1268.

Brown M, Hebert AA. 1997. Insect repellents: an overview. J Amer Acad Dermatol 36:243-249.

CDC. 1989. Epidemiological notes and reports seizures temporally associated with use of DEET insect repellent - New York and Connecticut. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR): October 6, 1989/38(39):678-680.

Chaney L, Rockhold R, Wineman R, Hume A. 1998. Effects of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) on pyridostigmine bromide PB-induced inhibition of total cholinesterase activity. Annual Meeting of the Professional Research Scientists on Experimental Biology 98, Part 1, San Francisco, CA, USA, April 18-22, 1998. FASEB Journal 12 (4). A462.

Chaney LA, Rockhold RW, Wineman RW, Hume AS. 1999. Anticonvulsant-resistant seizures following pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Toxicol Sci 49 (2):306-11.

Chaney LA, Wineman RW, Rockhold RW, Hume AS. 2000. Acute effects of an insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, on cholinesterase inhibition induced by pyridostigmine bromide in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 165(2):107-14.

Constantino L, Iley J. 1999. Microsomal metabolism of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET, DET): The extended network of metabolites. Xenobiotica 29 (4):409-416.

Dorman DC, Buck WB, Trammel HL, Jones RD, Beasley VR. 1990. Fenvalerate/N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) toxicosis in two cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 196(1):100-2.

Edwards DL, Johnson CE. 1987. Insect-repellent-induced toxic encephalopathy in a child. Clin Pharm. 6(6):496-8.

EPA. 1999. Environmental Protection Agency. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): DEET. (Includes RED Facts: DEET Fact Sheet). Washington, DC. Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances. Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I).

Feldmann RJ, Maibach HI. 1970. Absorption of some organic compounds through the skin in man. J Invest Derm 54: 399-404.

Fradin MS. 1998. Mosquitoes and mosquito repellents: a clinician's guide. Ann Intern Med 128(11):931-40.

Fraser AD, MacNeil A, Theriault M, Morzycki W. 1995. Analysis of diethyltoluamide (DEET) following intentional oral ingestion of Muscol. J Anal Toxicol 19 (3):197-199.

Hall JG, McLaughlin JF, Stamm S. 1975. Coarctation of the aorta in male cousins with similar maternal environmental exposure to insect repellent and insecticides. Pediatrics 55:425-427.

Hampers L, Oker E, Leikin J. 1999. Topical use of DEET insect repellent as a cause of severe encephalopathy in a healthy adult male. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 37 (5):665.

Hardell L, Nasman A, Ohlson C-G, Fredrickson M. 1998. Case-control study on risk factors for testicular cancer. Inter J Oncol. 13 (6):1299-1303.

Harvey JG. 1987. Topical hazard evaluation of three DEET (diethyl methyl toluamide) products (N,N'-diethyl-m-toluamide). June-December 1986. Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I). US NTIS AD Rep. AD-A082, 131/4: 27 pp.

Heick HMC, Shipman RT, Norman MG, James W. 1980. Reye-like syndrome associated with use of insect repellent in a presumed heterozygote for ornithine carbamoyl transferase deficiency. J Pediatr 97(3):471-473.

Heick HM, Peterson RG, Dalpe-Scott M, Qureshi IA. 1988. Insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, effect on ammonia metabolism. Pediatrics 82(3):373-6.

Hoy JB, Cornell JA, Karlix JL, Schmidt CJ, Tebbett IR, van Haaren F. 2000a. Interactions of pyridostigmine bromide, DEET and permethrin alter locomotor behavior of rats. Vet Hum Toxicol 42(2):65-71.

Hoy JB, Cornell JA, Karlix JL, Tebbett IR, van Haaren F. 2000b. Repeated coadministrations of pyridostigmine bromide, DEET, and permethrin alter locomotor behavior of rats. Vet Hum Toxicol 42(2):72-6.

HSDB. 2001. Hazardous substances databank: DEET. National Library of Medicine, National Toxicology Program, Bethesda, MD. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/, accessed March 23, 2004.

Kellner TP, Hanes MA, Fruin JT. 1982. Primary eye irritation potential of the insect repellents CHF1and m-DEET. Govt. Reports Announcements and Index (GRA&I). Issue 7.

Koren G, Matsui D, Bailey B. 2003. DEET-based insect repellents: safety implications for children and pregnant and lactating women. Canadian Med Assn J. 169 (3): 209-212.

Kuhlmann RS, Cameron RH, Kolesari GL, Wu A. 1981. N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide embryonic sensitivity. 21st Annual Meeting of the Teratology Society, Stanford, CA, USA. June 21-25, 1981. Teratology 23 (2). 48A.

Lamberg SI, Mulrennan JA. 1969. Bullous reaction to diethyltoluamide. Arch Dermatol (100): 582-586.

Leach GJ, Russell RD, Houpt JT. 1988. Some Cardiovascular Effects of the Insect Repellent N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). J Toxicol Environ Health 25 (2): 217-225.

Lebowitz H, Young R, Kidwell J, McGowan J, Langloss J, Brusick D. 1983. N,N diethyltoluamide does not affect sperm number, viability and head morphology in male rats treated dermally. Drug Chem Toxicol 6 (4). 379-396.

McCain WC, Lee R, Johnson MS, Whaley JE, Ferguson JW, Beall P, Leach G. 1997. Acute oral toxicity study of pyridostigmine bromide, permethrin, and DEET in the laboratory rat. J Toxicol Environ Health 50 (2): 113-124.

McGready R, Hamilton KA, Simpson JA, Cho,T Luxemburger C, Looareesuwan S, White NJ. 2001. Safety of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in pregnancy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65:285-289, 2001.

McKinlay JR, Ross V, Barrett TL. 1998. Vesiculobullous reaction to diethyltoluamide revisited. Cutis 62(1): 44.

Metker LM. 1996. Acute toxicity of a repellent mixture of DEET and AI3-3722O. Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I), Issue 06.

Michael AG, Grant GS. 1974. Toxicity of the repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-metatoluamide) to Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard). Mosquito News 34(1): 32-35.

Moody RP, Nadeau B, Chu I. 1995. In vitro dermal absorption of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in rat, guinea pig, and human skin. In Vitro Toxicology 8(3): 263-275.

Mount ME, Moller G, Cook J, Holstege DM, Richardson ER, Ardans A.L. 1991. Clinical illness associated with a commercial tick and flea product in dogs and cats. Vet Hum Toxicol 33(1):19-27.

Olson CT. 1999. Assessment of subchronic neurobehavioral and neuropathologic effects in rats following low-level Sarin exposures. Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I) 14.

Osimitz TG, Grothaus RH. 1995. The present safety assessment of DEET. J Am Mosquito Control Assn. 11(2):274-278

Osimitz TG, Murphy JV. 1997. Neurological effects associated with use of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 35 (5): 435-441.

Palmer JS. 1969. Toxicologic effects of aerosols of N,N-diethyl-m-toluene (DEET) applied on skin of horses. Am J Vet Res. 30 (11).

Petrucci N, Sardini S. 2000. Severe neurotoxic reaction associated with oral ingestion of low-dose diethyltoluamide-containing insect repellent in a child. Pediatr Emerg Care 16(5):341-2.

Pronczuk de Garbino J, Laborde A, Fogel de Korc E. 1983. Toxicity of an insect repellent: N,N-diethyltoluamide. Vet Human Toxicol 25 (6): 422-423.

Proniuk S, Liederer BM, Dixon SE, Rein JA, Kallen MA, Blanchard J. 2002. Topical formulation studies with DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) and cyclodextrins. J Pharm Sci 91(1):101-10.

Qiu H, Jun HW, Tao I. 1997. Pharmacokinetics of insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in beagle dogs following intravenous and topical routes of administration. J Pharm Sci 86:514-516, 1997.

Qiu H, Jun HW, McCall JW. 1998. Pharmacokinetics, formulation, and safety of insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET): A review. J Am Mosquito Control Assn 14 (1):12-27.

Reifenrath WG, Robinson PB. 1982. In vitro skin evaporation and penetration characteristics of mosquito repellents. J Pharm Sci 71:1014-1018.

Rej R, Loux M, Copeland W. 1990. Effect of diethyltoluamide on human ornithine carbomolytranaferase. Clin chem. 36:1143.

Reuveni H, Yagupsky P. 1982. Diethyltoluamide-containing insect repellent: adverse effects in worldwide use. Arch Dermatol 118:582-583.

Riviere JE, Monteiro-Riviere NA, Baynes RE. 2001. Percutaneous Absorption of Chemical Mixture Relevant to the Gulf War. Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I). Issue 24.

Robbins PJ, Cherniack MB. 1986. Review of the biodistribution and toxicity of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). J Toxicol Environ Health 18:502-525.

Sauers LJ, Pulliam FR, Fruin JT. 1982a. The mutagenic potential of: (E)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-methyl-1(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl)quinoline 1,2,3,4,-tetrahydro-6-methyl-1-(3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl)quinoline 50% DEET, 25% Dow Corning 200 Fluid, in Isopropanol. Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I). Issue 7.

Sauers LJ, Pulliam FR, Fruin JT. 1982b. The mutagenic potential of: triethylene glycol monohexyl ether 3-(N-n-butyl-N-acetyl) aminopropionic acid ethyl ester proprietary compound RH-398 N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide N(n-hexyl) Glutarimide. Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I). Issue 7.

Schaefer C, Peters PWJ. 1992. Intrauterine diethyltoluamide exposure and fetal outcome. Reprod Toxicol 6 (2):175-176.

Schoenig GP, Hartnagel RE Jr, Schardein JL, Vorhees CV. 1993. Neurotoxicity evaluation of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in rats. Fundam Appl Toxicol 21 (3):355-365.

Schoenig GP, Neeper-Bradley TL, Fisher LC, Hartnagel RE Jr. 1994. Teratologic evaluations of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in rats and rabbits. Fundam Appl Toxicol 23 (1):63-69.

Schoenig GP, Hartnagel RE, Osimitz TG, Llanso S. 1996. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in the rat. Drug Metab Dispos 24:156-163.

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Smallwood AW, DeBord KE, Lowry LK. 1992. N,N'-Diethyl-m-toluamide (m-DET): Analysis of an insect repellent in human urine and serum by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Anal Toxicol 16 (1):10-13.

Snodgrass HL, Harvey JG. 1996. Acute toxicity of a mixture of the insect repellents DEET and AI3-3722O. Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I) 5.

Snyder JW, Poe RO, Stubbins JF, Garrettson LK. 1986. Acute manic psychosis following the dermal application of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in an adult. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 24(5):429-439.

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