Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content

Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Including Insecticides and Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents
Literature Cited

Course: WB 1098
CE Original Date: October 16, 2007
CE Renewal Date: October 16, 2010
CE Expiration Date: October 16, 2012
Download Printer-Friendly version [PDF - 1.88 MB]

Previous Section Table of Contents


The literature cited in this Case Study in Environmental Medicine is listed below:

  1. Leikin JB, Thomas RG, Walter FG, Klein R, Meislin HW. A review of nerve agent exposure for the critical care physician. Critical Care Medicine. Oct 2002;30(10):2346-2354.
  2. Auf der Heide E. The importance of evidence-based disaster planning. Annals of Emergency Medicine. January 2006;47(1):(forthcoming).
  3. Auf der Heide E. Principles of hospital disaster planning. In: Hogan D, Burstein JL, eds. Disaster medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002:57-89.
  4. Auf der Heide E. Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation and Coordination. St. Louis: CV Mosby; 1989.
  5. Yokoyama K, Araki S, Murata K, et al. Chronic neurobehavioral and central and autonomic nervous system effects of Tokyo subway sarin poisoning. Journal of Physiology, Paris. Jun-Aug 1998;92(3-4):317-323.
  6. Besser R, Vogt T, Gutmann L. Pancuronium improves the neuromuscular transmission defect of human organophosphate intoxication. Neurology. 1990;40(8):1275-1277.
  7. U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA Best Practices for Hospital-Based First Receivers of Victims from Mass Casualty Incidents Involving the Release of Hazardous Substances. Internet]. January; Accessed August 18, 2005.
  8. Geller R, Singleton K, Tarantino M, Drenzek C, Toomey K, et al. Nosocomial poisoning associated with emergency department treatment of organophosphate toxicity --- Georgia, 2000. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 5 Jan 2001;49(51):1156-1158.
  9. Murakami H. Underground: The Tokyo gas attack and the Japanese psyche. New York: Vintage International; 2000.
  10. Lambert B. HAZ-MAT incident at Good Sam. Washington State Chapter American College of Emergency Physicians Reporter. Fall 1996.
  11. Nozaki H, Aikawa N. Sarin poisoning in Tokyo subway [letter; comment] [see comments]. Lancet. 1995;345(8962):1446-1447.
  12. Morita H, Yanagisawa N, Nakajima T, et al. Sarin poisoning in Matsumoto, Japan. Lancet. Jul. 29 1995;346:290-293.
  13. Lavoie FW, Coomes T, Cisek JE, Fulkerson L. Emergency department external decontamination for hazardous chemical exposure. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. 1992;34(1):61-64.
  14. Trutt J, Oster N. Hazardous materials events at a New York City trauma center. Annals of Emergency Medicine. Oct. 1999;34(4, Part 2):S54.
  15. Horton DK, Berkowitz Z, Kaye WE. Secondary contamination of ED personnel from hazardous materials events, 1995-2001. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. May 2003;21(3):199-204.
  16. Carlton FB, Simpson WM, Haddad LM. Pesticides. In: Haddad LM, Shannon MW, Winchester JF, eds. Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 1998:836-845.
  17. Somani SM, Husain K. Low-level nerve agent toxicity under normal and stressful conditions. In: Somani SM, Romano JAJ, eds. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicity at Low Levels. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001:83-120.
  18. Erdman AR. Pesticides. In: Dart RC, ed. Medical Toxicology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004:1475-1496.
  19. Ecobichon DJ. Toxic effects of pesticides. In: Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J, eds. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1996:643-689.
  20. Marrs TC, Dewhurst I. Toxicology of pesticides. In: Ballantyne B, Marrs TC, Syversen T, eds. General and Applied Toxicology. London: Macmillan Reference, Ltd; 2000:1993-2012.
  21. Tareg AB, B SJ, Walter FG. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. In: B SJ, Krieger GR, eds. Clinical environmental health and toxic exposures. Second ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001:1046-1057.
  22. Hack JB, Hoffman RS. General management of poisoned patients. In: Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, eds. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2004:1015-1022.
  23. Clark RF. Insecticides: organic phosphorus compounds and carbamates. In: Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, Lewin NA, Howland MA, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS, eds. Goldfrank's Toxicological Emergencies. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002:1346-1360.
  24. Jamal GA. Neurological syndromes of organophosphorus compounds. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev. 1997;16(3):133-170.
  25. Clegg DJ, van Gemert M. Expert panel report of human studies on chlorpyrifos and/or other organophosphate exposures. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 1999;2(3):257-279.
  26. Jokanovic M, Stukalov PV, Kosanovic M. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy. Current Drug Targets - CNS  & Neurological Disorders. Dec 2002;1(6):593-602.
  27. Abou-Donia MB. Organophosphorus ester-induced chronic neurotoxicity. Archives of Environmental Health. Aug 2003;58(8):484-497.
  28. du Toit P, Muller F, van Tonder W, Ungerer M. Experience with the intensive care management of organophosphate insecticide poisoning. South African Medical Journal. 1981;60:227-229.
  29. Okumura T, Takasu N, Ishimatsu S, et al. Report on 640 victims of the Tokyo Subway sarin attack. Annals of Emergency Medicine. August 1996;28(2):129-135.
  30. Reigart JR, Roberts JR. Recognition and management of pesticide poisoning. Fifth ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; 1999.
  31. Sidell FR. Nerve Agents. In: Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR, eds. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Falls Church, Virginia: Office of The Surgeon General, United States Army; 1997:129-179.
  32. Gershon S, Shaw F. Psychiatric sequelae of chronic exposure to organophosphates. Lancet. 1961;1:1371-1374.
  33. Lotti M. Central neurotoxicity and behavioral effects of anticholinesterases. In: Ballantyne B, Marrs TC, eds. Clinical and experimental toxicology of organophosphates and carbamate. London: Butterworth's; 1992:75-83.
  34. Guyton AC, Hall JE. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2006.
  35. Taylor P. Agents acting at the neuromuscular junction and autonomic ganglia. In: Goodman LS, Gilman A, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, eds. Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.; 2001:193-213.
  36. Schenker MB, Louie S, Mehler LN, Albertson TE. Pesticides. In: Rom WN, ed. Environmental & Occupational Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott - Raven; 1998:1157-1172.
  37. Hoffman BB, Taylor P. Neurotransmission: the autonomic and somatic motor nervous systems. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Gilman AG, eds. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001:115-153.
  38. Mailman RB, Lawler CP. Toxicant-receptor interactions: fundamental principles. In: Hodgson E, Smart RC, eds. Introduction to Biochemical Toxicology. New York: Wiley-Interscience; 2001:277-.
  39. Robey WC, III, Meggs WJ. Insecticides, herbicides, rodenticides. In: Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS, eds. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 6th ed. New York: Mc Graw-Hill; 2004:1134-1143.
  40. Romano JAJ, McDonough JH, Sheridan R. Health effects of low-level exposure to nerve agents. In: Somani SM, Romano JAJ, eds. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicity at Low Levels. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001:1-24.
  41. Sofer S, Tal A, Shahak E. Carbamate and organophosphate poisoning in early childhood. Pediatric Emergency Care. 1989;5:222-225.
  42. Zwiener RJ, Ginsburg CM. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning in infants and children. Pediatrics. 1988;81(1):121-126.
  43. Goswamy R, Chaudhuri A, Mahashur A. Study of respiratory failure in organophosphate and carbamate poisoning. Heart and Lung. 1994;23:466-472.
  44. Hirshberg A, Lerman Y. Clinical problems in organophosphate insecticide poisoning: the use of a computerized information system. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 1984;4:S209-S214.
  45. Midtling JE, Barnett PG, Coye MJ, et al. Clinical management of field worker organophosphate poisoning. West J Med. 1985;142(4):514-518.
  46. Hayes M, van der Westhuizen N, Gelfand M. Organophosphate poisoning in Rhodesia. A study of the clinical features and management of 105 patients. Southern Medical Journal. 1978;54:230-234.
  47. Nouira S, Abroug F, al e. Prognostic value of serum cholinesterase in organophosphate poisoning. Chest. 1994;106:1811-1814.
  48. Singh S, Batra Y, Singh S, Wig N, Sharma B. Is atropine alone sufficient in acute severe organophosphorus poisoning?: experience of a North West Indian Hospital. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1995;33:628-630.
  49. Tsachalinas D, Logaras G, Paradelis A. Observations on two hundred forty six cases of acute poisoning with parathion in Greece. European Journal of Toxicology. 1971;4:222-225.
  50. Besser R, Gutmann L. Intoxication with organophosphorus compounds. In: De Wolff F, ed. Intoxications of the Nervous System, Part I. Vol 20. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.; 1994:151-210.
  51. Namba T, Nolte CT, Jackrel J, Grob D. Poisoning due to organophosphate insecticides: Acute and chronic manifestations. American Journal of Medicine. Apr 1971;50:475-492.
  52. Durham W, Hayes W, Jr. Organic phosphorous poisoning and its therapy. Archives of Environmental Health. 1962;5:21-47.
  53. Wiener SW, Hoffman RS. Nerve agents: a comprehensive review. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine. Jan-Feb 2004;19(1):22-37.
  54. Suzuki J, Kohno T, Tsukagosi M, Furuhata T, Yamazaki K. Eighteen cases exposed to sarin in Matsumoto, Japan [see comments]. Internal Medicine. 1997;36(7):466-470.
  55. Hayes AL, Wise RA, Weir FW. Assessment of occupational exposure to organophosphates in pest control operators. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1980;41(8):568-575.
  56. Gaon M, Werne J. Report of a study of mild exposures to GB at Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, CO: US Army Medical Department; 1955.
  57. Perrone J, Henretig F, Sims M, Beers M, Grippi MA. A role for ipratropium in chemical terrorism preparedness. Academic Emergency Medicine. Mar 2003;10(3):290.
  58. Wyckoff D, Davies J, Barquet A, Davis J. Diagnostic and therapeutic problems of parathion poisonings. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1968;68:875-882.
  59. Holland MG. Insecticides: organochlorines, pyrethrins, and DEET. In: Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, Lewin NA, Howland MA, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS, eds. Goldrank's Toxicological Emergencies. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002:1366-1378.
  60. Taylor P. Anticholinesterase agents. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Gilman AG, eds. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001:175-191.
  61. Kassa J. Review of oximes in the antidotal treatment of poisoning by organophosphorus nerve agents. Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology. 2002;40(6):803-816.
  62. Karalliedde L. Organophosphorus poisoning and anaesthesia. Anaesthesia. Nov 1999;54(11):1073-1088.
  63. Karalliedde L. Cholinesterase estimations revisited: the clinical relevance. European Journal of Anaesthesiology. May 2002;19(5):313-316.
  64. Watson WA, Litovitz TL, Rodgers GCJ, et al. 2004 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System Washington, D.C.: American Association of Poison Control Centers 2004.
  65. Jaga K, Dharmani C. Sources of exposure to and public health implications of organophosphate pesticides. Pan American Journal of Public Health. Sep 2003;14(3):171-185.
  66. Greenberg MI, Cone DC, Roberts JR. Material safety data sheet: a useful resource for the emergency physician. Annals of Emergency Medicine. March 1996;27(3):347-352.
  67. Wessels D, Barr DB, Mendola P. Use of biomarkers to indicate exposure of children to organophosphate pesticides: implications for a longitudinal study of children's environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives. Dec 2003;111(16):1939-1946.
  68. Ray D. Organophosphorus Esters: An Evaluation of Chronic Neurotoxic Effects. Leicester (U.K.): Institute for Environment and Health; 1998.
  69. Minton NA, Murray VS. A review of organophosphate poisoning. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp. 1988;3(5):350-375.
  70. Mortensen M. Management of acute childhood poisoning caused by selected insecticides and herbicides. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 1986;33:421-424.
  71. Abu-Qare AW, Abou-Donia MB. Sarin: health effects, metabolism, and methods of analysis. Food & Chemical Toxicology. Oct 2002;40(10):1327-1333.
  72. Namba T. Cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus compounds and its clinical effects. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1971;44(1):289-307.
  73. Karalliedde L, Senanayake N. Organophosphorus insecticide poisoning.[see comment]. British Journal of Anaesthesia. Dec 1989;63(6):736-750.
  74. Hammond BB, Merritt NL, Anderson MJ. Malathion overdose: When one patient creates a departmental hazard. Journal of Emergency Medical Services. November-December 1989;15(6):463-465.
  75. Okumura T, Suzuki K, Ishimatsu S, Takasu N, Fuiji C, Kohama A. Lessons learned from the Tokyo Subway Sarin attack [abstract]. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine. July-September 2000;15(Supplement 2):S32.
  76. McMullen MJ. Chemical decontamination [letter]. Annals of Emergency Medicine. February 1996;27(2):270-271.
  77. Levitin HW, Siegelson HJ, Dickinson S, et al. Decontamination of mass casualties --- re-evaluating existing dogma. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. July-September 2003;18(3):200-207.
  78. Hurst CG. Decontamination. In: Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR, eds. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Falls Church, Virginia: Office of The Surgeon General, United States Army; 1997:351-359.
  79. Trapp R. The Detoxification and Natural Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents. Stockholm: International Peace Research Institute; 1985.
  80. van Hooidonk C, Ceulen B, Bock J, van Genderen J. CW agents and the skin: penetration and decontamination. Paper presented at: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Protection Against Chemical Warfare Agents, 1983; Stockholm.
  81. Finkelstein Y, Kushnir A, Raikhlin-Eisenkraft B, Taitelman U. Antidotal therapy of severe acute organophosphate poisoning: a multihospital study. Neurotoxicology & Teratology. 1989;11:593-596.
  82. De Wilde V, Vogelaers D, Colardyn F. Prompt recovery from severe cholinesterase-inhibitor poisoning--remarks on classification and therapy of organophosphate poisoning. Klinische Wochenschrift. 1990;68:615-618.
  83. Aaron C, Howland MA. Insecticides: organophosphates and carbamates. In: Goldfrank LR, Weisman RS, Flomenbaum NE, Howland MA, Lewin NA, Hoffman RS, eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange; 1994:1105-1116.
  84. Fernández M. Atropine. In: Dart RC, ed. Medical Toxicology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004:163-165.
  85. Billups NF, Billups SM. American Drug Index 2003. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons; 2002.
  86. Geller R. Antidote availability:  Reformulation of bulk atropine for nerve agent casualties. Paper presented at: National Disaster Medical System Conference, 1999; Atlanta.
  87. Kozak RJ, Siegel S, Kuzma J. Rapid atropine synthesis for the treatment of massive nerve agent exposure. Annals of Emergency Medicine. May 2003;41(5):685-688.
  88. Schier JG, Ravikumar PR, Nelson LS, Heller MB, Howland MA, Hoffman RS. Preparing for chemical terrorism: Stability of injectable atropine sulfate. Academic Emergency Medicine. April 2004;11(4):329-334.
  89. American Heart Association. Management of Cardiac Arrest. Circulation. 2005(112):58-66.
  90. Newmark J. Treatment for nerve agent poisoning. Archives of Neurology. May 2004;61(5):649-652.
  91. American Heart Association. Pediatric advanced life support. Circulation. 2005(112):167-187.
  92. Willems JL. Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides: Analysis of 53 human cases with regard to management and drug treatment. Acta Medicinalia Militaria Belgica. Vol. 1981;133(3):7-14.
  93. LeBlanc F, Bensen B, Gilg A. A severe organophosphate poisoning requiring the use of an atropine drip. Journal of Clinical Toxicology. 1986;24:69-76.
  94. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Talk Paper: FDA Approves Pediatric Doses of Atropen. Internet]. June 20, 2003; Accessed November 4, 2005.
  95. Hopmann G, Wanke H. Maximum-dose atropine treatment in severe organophosphate poisoning [abstract]. Journal of the American Medical Association. Feb. 10 1975;231(6):670-671.
  96. Golsousidis H, Kokkas V. Use of 19,590 mg of atropine during 24 days of treatment after a case of unusually severe parathion poisoning. Human Toxicology. 1985;4:339-340.
  97. Amitai Y, Almog S, Singer R, Hammer R, Bentur Y, Danon YL. Atropine poisoning in children during the Persian Gulf crisis. Journal of the American Medical Association. Aug. 5 1992;268(5):630-632.
  98. Sidell FR. Soman and sarin: clinical manifestations and treatment of accidental poisoning by organophosphates. Clinical Toxicology. 1974;7(1):1-17.
  99. Balali-Mood M, Shariat M. Treatment of organophosphate poisoning. Experience of nerve agents and acute pesticide poisoning on the effects of oximes. Journal of Physiology, Paris. Oct-Dec 1998;92(5-6):375-378.
  100. Howland MA, Aaron C. Antidotes in depth: Pralidoxime. In: Goldfrank LR, Weisman RS, Flomenbaum NE, Howland MA, Lewin NA, Hoffman RS, eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange; 1994:1117-1119.
  101. Howland MA. Antidotes in depth: pralidoxime. In: Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, Lewin NA, Howland MA, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS, eds. Goldfrank's Toxicological Emergencies. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002:1361-1365.
  102. Dawson RM. Oximes in treatment of carbamate poisoning [letter; comment]. Veterinary Record. 1994;134(26):687.
  103. Harris LW, Talbot BG, Lennox WJ, Anderson DR. The relationship between oxime-induced reactivation of carbamylated acetylcholinesterase and antidotal efficacy against carbamate intoxication. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology. Mar 15 1989;98(1):128-133.
  104. Natoff IL, Reiff B. Effect of oximes on the acute toxicity of anticholinesterase carbamates. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology. 1973;25(4):569-575.
  105. O'Leary JF, Kunkel AM, Jones AH. Efficacy and limitations of oxime-atropine treatment of organophosphorus anticholinesterase poisoning. Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics. Apr 1961;132:50-57.
  106. Brachfeld J, Zavon MR. Organic phosphate (phosdrin) intoxication. Report of a case and the results of treatment with 2-PAM [letter]. Archives of Environmental Health. Dec 1965;11(6):859-862.
  107. Funckes A. Treatment of severe parathion poisoning with 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM). Archives of Environmental Health. 1960;1:404-406.
  108. Buckley NA, Karalliedde L, Dawson A, Senanayake N, Eddleston M. Where is the evidence for treatments used in pesticide poisoning? Is clinical toxicology fiddling while the developing world burns? Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology. 2004;42(1):113-116.
  109. Lotti M, Becker CE. Treatment of acute organophosphate poisoning: evidence of a direct effect on central nervous system by 2-PAM (pyridine-2-aldoxime methyl chloride). Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology. Apr 1982;19(2):121-127.
  110. Quinby GE, Clappison GB. Parathion poisoning. A near fatal pediatric case treated with 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM). Archives of Environmental Health. November 1961;3:538-542.
  111. Hayes WJ, Laws ER. Diagnosis and treatment of poisoning. In: Hayes WJ, Laws ER, eds. Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Vol 1. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc.; 1991:388-403.
  112. Xue SZ, Ding XJ, Ding Y. Clinical observation and comparison of the effectiveness of several oxime cholinesterase reactivators. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 1985;11 Suppl 4:46-48.
  113. Eddleston M, Szinicz L, Eyer P, Buckley N. Oximes in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning: a systematic review of clinical trials. QJM. May 2002;95(5):275-283.
  114. Johnson MK, Vale JA, Marrs TC, Meredith TJ. Pralidoxime for organophosphorus poisoning.[comment]. Lancet. Jul 4 1992;340(8810):64.
  115. Worek F, Backer M, Thiermann H, et al. Reappraisal of indications and limitations of oxime therapy in organophosphate poisoning. Human & Experimental Toxicology. Aug 1997;16(8):466-472.
  116. de Silva HJ, Wijewickrema R, Senanayake N. Does pralidoxime affect outcome of management in acute organophosphorus poisoning?[see comment]. Lancet. May 9 1992;339(8802):1136-1138.
  117. Somani SM, Solana RP, Dube SN. Toxicodynamics of nerve agents. In: Somani SM, ed. Chemical Warfare Agents. San Diego (California): Academic Press, Inc.; 1992:67-123.
  118. Parker D, Dart R, McNally J. Critical deficiencies in the treatment of toxicologic emergencies: Antidote stocking in Arizona hospitals [abstract]. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. 1990;32(4):376.
  119. Dart RC, Stark Y, Fulton B, Koziol-McLain J, Lowenstein SR. Insufficient stocking of poisoning antidotes in hospital pharmacies. Journal of the American Medical Association. November 13 1996;276(18):1508-1510.
  120. Teresi WM, King WD. Survey of the stocking of poison antidotes in Alabama. Southern Medical Journal. 1999;92(12):1151-1156.
  121. Chyka PA, Conner HG. Availability of antidotes in rural and urban hospitals in Tennessee. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacists. May 15 1994;51:1346-1348.
  122. Woolf AD, Chrisanthus K. On-site availability of selected antidotes:  Results of a survey of Massachusetts hospitals. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 1997;15(1):62-66.
  123. Treat KN, Williams JM, Furbee PM, Manley WG, Russell FK, Stamper CDJ. Hospital preparedness for weapons of mass destruction incidents: an initial assessment. Annals of Emergency Medicine. Nov 2001;38(5):562-565.
  124. Kaji AH, Lewis RJ. Hospital disaster preparedness in Los Angeles County, California [abstract]. Annals of Emergency Medicine. October 2004;44(4):S33.
  125. Geller RJ, Lopez GP, Cutler S, Lin D, Gorman SE. Atropine availability as an antidote for nerve agent casualties: validated rapid reformulation of high-concentration atropine from bulk powder. Annals of Emergency Medicine. April 2003;41(4):453-456.
  126. Keim ME, Pesik N, Twum-Danso NAY. Lack of hospital preparedness for chemical terrorism in a major US city: 1996-2000. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. July-September 2003;18(3):193-199.
  127. Skolfield S, Lambert D, Tomassoni A, Wallace K. Inadequate regional antidote and medication supplies for poisoning emergencies [abstract]. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. 1997;35:490.
  128. American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. Position statement: ipecac syrup. Clinical Toxicology. 1997;35(7):699-709.
  129. American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. Position statement: gastric lavage. Clinical Toxicology. 1997;35(7):711-719.
  130. De Bleecker J, Van Den Neucker K, Colardyn F. Intermediate syndrome in organophosphorus poisoning: A prospective study. Critical Care Medicine. 1993;21:1706-1711.
  131. Kwong TC. Organophosphate pesticides: biochemistry and clinical toxicology. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Feb 2002;24(1):144-149.
  132. De Bleecker J, Willems J, Van Den Neucker K, De Reuck J, Vogelaers D. Prolonged toxicity with intermediate syndrome after combined parathion and methyl parathion poisoning. Journal of Clinical Toxicology. 1992;30:333-345.
  133. Karalliedde L, Wheeler H, Maclehose R, Murray V. Possible immediate and long-term health effects following exposure to chemical warfare agents. Public Health. Jul 2000;114(4):238-248.
  134. Leon SF, Pradilla AG, Gamboa N, Vesga E. Multiple system organ failure, intermediate syndrome, congenital myasthenic syndrome, and anticholinesterase treatment: the linkage is puzzling [letter; comment]. Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology. 1996;34(2):245-247.
  135. Leon SF, Pradilla G, Vesga E. Neurological effects of organophosphate pesticides.[comment]. BMJ. Sep 14 1996;313(7058):690-691.
  136. Khan S, Hemalatha R, Jeyaseelan L, Oommen A, Zachariah A. Neuroparalysis and oxime efficacy in organophosphate poisoning: a study of butyrylcholinesterase. Human & Experimental Toxicology. Apr 2001;20(4):169-174.
  137. Benson B, Tolo D, McIntire M. Is the intermediate syndrome in organophosphate poisoning the result of insufficient oxime therapy? Journal of Clinical Toxicology. 1992;30(3):347-349.
  138. Walker B, Jr., Nidiry J. Current concepts: organophosphate toxicity. Inhalation Toxicology. Sep 2002;14(9):975-990.
  139. Colosio C, Tiramani M, Maroni M. Neurobehavioral effects of pesticides: state of the art. Neurotoxicology. Aug 2003;24(4-5):577-591.
  140. Vale J. Are there long-term sequelae from a single acute organophosphorus insecticide exposure? [abstract]. Clinical Toxicology. 1999;37(9):367-368.
  141. Bateman D. Are there long-term sequelae from repeated low dose organophosphorus insecticide exposures? [abstract]. Clinical Toxicology. 1999;37(3):368-369.
  142. Boyer GS, Templin DW, Goring WP, et al. Discrepancies between patient recall and the medical record: potential impact on diagnosis and clinical assessment of chronic disease. Archives of Internal Medicine. 25 September 1995;155(17):1868-1872.
  143. Poisindex Editorial Staff. Organophosphates. POISINDEX® System [Subscription chemical data base] Accessed October 18, 2000.
  144. Daniels J OA, Savitz D. Pesticides and childhood cancer. Environ Health Perspect. 1997 1997;105(10):1069-1077.
  145. Daniels JL, Olshan AF, Teschke K, et al. Residential pesticide exposure and neuroblastoma.[see comment]. Epidemiology. Jan 2001;12(1):20-27.
  146. Nurminen T. Maternal Pesticide Exposure and Pregnancy Outcome. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 1995;37(8):935-940.
  147. Pagoda JM, Preston-Martin S. Household pesticides and risk of pediatric brain tumors. Environmental Health Perspectives. November 1997;105(11):1214-1220.
  148. Bullman TA, Mahan CM, Kang HK, Page WF. Mortality in US Army Gulf War veterans exposed to 1991 Khamisiyah chemical munitions destruction. American Journal of Public Health. August 2005;95(8):1382-1388.
  149. Arbuckle TE, Sever LE. Pesticide exposures and fetal death: a review of the epidemiologic literature. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. May 1998;28(3):229-270.
  150. Sever L. Reproductive and Development effects of Occupational pesticide exposure: The epidemiologic Evidence Occup Med. 1997 1997;12(2):305-325.
  151. Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, D OMC, Nelson V, Jackson RJ. Maternal pesticide exposure from multiple sources and selected congenital anomalies. Epidemiology. 1999;10(1):60-66.
  152. Bailey B. Organophosphate poisoning in pregnancy [letter]. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1997;29:299.
  153. Cecchine G, Golomb BA, Hilborne LH, Spektor DM, Anthony CR. A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illness. Vol 8: Pesticides. Santa Monica (California): Rand Corporation; 2000.
  154. Galloway T, Handy R. Immunotoxicity of organophosphorous pesticides. Ecotoxicology. Feb-Aug 2003;12(1-4):345-363.
Previous Section Table of Contents The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341
Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888-232-6348

A-Z Index

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #