Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Tetrachloroethylene Toxicity
Literature Cited

Course: WB 1110
CE Original Date: May 23, 2008
CE Renewal Date: May 23, 2011
CE Expiration Date: May 23, 2013
Download Printer-Friendly version [PDF - 360 KB]

Previous Section Table of Contents


  1. Abedin, Z., R. C. Cook, Jr., et al. (1980). "Cardiac toxicity of perchloroethylene (a dry cleaning agent)." Southern Medical Journal 73(8): 1081-3.
  2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1997.). "Toxicological profile for tetrachloroethylene. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services;."
  3. Aggazzotti, G., G. Fantuzzi, et al. (1994). "Indoor exposure to perchloroethylene (PCE) in individuals living with dry-cleaning workers." Science of the Total Environment 156(2): 133-7.
  4. Ahlborg, G., Jr. (1990). "Pregnancy outcome among women working in laundries and dry-cleaning shops using tetrachloroethylene." American Journal of Industrial Medicine 17(5): 567-75.
  5. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. (2001). "Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 7th ed."
  6. Aschengrau, A., C. Paulu, et al. (1998). "Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of breast cancer." Environmental Health Perspectives 106 Suppl 4: 947-53.
  7. Aschengrau, A., S. Rogers, et al. (2003). "Perchloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of breast cancer: additional results from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA." Environmental Health Perspectives 111(2): 167-73.
  8. Bagnell, P. C. and H. A. Ellenberger (1977). "Obstructive jaundice due to a chlorinated hydrocarbon in breast milk." Canadian Medical Association Journal 117(9): 1047-8.
  9. Blair, A. (1980). "Mortality among workers in the metal polishing and plating industry, 1951--1969." Journal of Occupational Medicine 22(3): 158-62.
  10. Blair, A., P. A. Stewart, et al. (1990). "Cancer and other causes of death among a cohort of dry cleaners." British Journal of Industrial Medicine 47(3): 162-8.
  11. Boulet, L. P. (1988). "Increases in airway responsiveness following acute exposure to respiratory irritants. Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome or occupational asthma?" Chest 94(3): 476-81.
  12. Bove, F. J., M. C. Fulcomer, et al. (1995). "Public drinking water contamination and birth outcomes.[see comment]." American Journal of Epidemiology 141(9): 850-62.
  13. Brautbar, N. and J. Williams, 2nd (2002). "Industrial solvents and liver toxicity: risk assessment, risk factors and mechanisms." International Journal of Hygiene & Environmental Health 205(6): 479-91.
  14. Brodkin, C. A., W. Daniell, et al. (1995). "Hepatic ultrasonic changes in workers exposed to perchloroethylene." Occupational & Environmental Medicine 52(10): 679-85.
  15. Brown, D. P. and S. D. Kaplan (1987). "Retrospective cohort mortality study of dry cleaner workers using perchloroethylene." Journal of Occupational Medicine 29(6): 535-41.
  16. Centers for Disease Control (1983). "Worker exposure to perchloroethylene in commercial dry-cleaning operations--United States." MMWR - Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 32(20): 269-71.
  17. Choi, Y. H., N. Kim, et al. (2003). "ARF requiring hemodialysis after accidental perchloroethylene ingestion." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 41(3): E11.
  18. Cohn P, K. J., Bove F, et al, (1994). "Drinking Water Contamination and the Incidence of Leukemia and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma." Environmental Health Perspectives 102(June-July): 556-61.
  19. Doyle, P., E. Roman, et al. (1997). "Spontaneous abortion in dry cleaning workers potentially exposed to perchloroethylene." Occupational & Environmental Medicine 54(12): 848-53.
  20. Ellenhorn, M. (1997). "Medical Toxicology: diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning." 2nd, Williams & Wilkins.
  21. Ellenhorn MJ, B. D. (1988). "Medical Toxicology: diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning." New York: Elsevier;: 986-988.
  22. Ewing, J. A. (1984). "Detecting alcoholism. The CAGE questionnaire." JAMA 252(14): 1905-7.
  23. Fredriksson, A., B. R. Danielsson, et al. (1993). "Altered behaviour in adult mice orally exposed to tri- and tetrachloroethylene as neonates." Toxicology Letters 66(1): 13-9.
  24. Garnier, R., J. Bedouin, et al. (1996). "Coin-operated dry cleaning machines may be responsible for acute tetrachloroethylene poisoning: report of 26 cases including one death." Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology 34(2): 191-7.
  25. Green, T., J. Odum, et al. (1990). "Perchloroethylene-induced rat kidney tumors: an investigation of the mechanisms involved and their relevance to humans." Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 103(1): 77-89.
  26. HAZARDTEXT (2005). "HAZARDTEXT - Hazard Management."
  27. HSDB (2005). "Tetrachloroethylene." Hazardous Substances Data Bank, .
  28. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1979). "IARC Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans." Some halogenated hydrocarbons, 20: 491-514.
  29. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1987). "IARC Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans,." Overall evaluations of carcigogenicity: An updating of IARC Monographs Suppl.7: 355-357.
  30. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1995). "IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans." Dry cleaning, some chlorinate solvents and other industrial chemicals 63: 159-221.
  31. Kjellstrand, P., B. Holmquist, et al. (1984). "Perchloroethylene: effects on body and organ weights and plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity in mice." Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 54(5): 414-24.
  32. Koppel, C., I. Arndt, et al. (1985). "Acute tetrachloroethylene poisoning--blood elimination kinetics during hyperventilation therapy." J Toxicol Clin Toxicol: 103-15, 1985.
  33. Lash, L. H. and J. C. Parker (2001). "Hepatic and renal toxicities associated with perchloroethylene." Pharmacological Reviews 53(2): 177-208.
  34. Lauwerys, R., J. Herbrand, et al. (1983). "Health surveillance of workers exposed to tetrachloroethylene in dry-cleaning shops." International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health. 52(1): 69-77.
  35. Levine, B., M. F. Fierro, et al. (1981). "A tetrachloroethylene fatality." Journal of Forensic Sciences 26(1): 206-9.
  36. Lynge, E. and L. Thygesen (1990). "Primary liver cancer among women in laundry and dry-cleaning work in Denmark." Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 16(2): 108-12.
  37. Materna, B. L. (1985). "Occupational exposure to perchloroethylene in the dry cleaning industry." American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 46(5): 268-73.
  38. Mundt, K. A., T. Birk, et al. (2003). "Critical review of the epidemiological literature on occupational exposure to perchloroethylene and cancer." International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health 76(7): 473-91.
  39. Mutti, A., R. Alinovi, et al. (1992). "Nephropathies and exposure to perchloroethylene in dry-cleaners." Lancet 340(8813): 189-93.
  40. National Toxicology Program (2001). "Report on carcinogens." 9th ed. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, NC.
  41. National Toxicology Program (2004). "Report on Carcinogens." 11th ed. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, NC.
  42. National Toxicology Program (NTP) (1986). "Toxicology and carcinogenicity of tetrachloroethylene(perchloroethylene) (CAS no. 127-18-4) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies)." National Institutes of Health Publ. no. 86-2567.
  43. Olsen, J., K. Hemminki, et al. (1990). "Low birthweight, congenital malformations, and spontaneous abortions among dry-cleaning workers in Scandinavia." Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 16(3): 163-8.
  44. Patel, R., N. Janakiraman, et al. (1977). "Pulmonary edema due to tetrachloroethylene." Environmental Health Perspectives. 21(Dec): 247-9.
  45. Paulu, C., A. Aschengrau, et al. (1999). "Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Massachusetts and the risk of colon-rectum, lung, and other cancers." Environmental Health Perspectives 107(4): 265-71.
  46. Reichert, D. (1983). "Biological actions and interactions of tetrachloroethylene." Mutation Research 123(3): 411-29.
  47. Schreiber, J. S. (1993). "Predicted infant exposure to tetrachloroethene in human breastmilk." Risk Analysis 13(5): 515-24.
  48. Seeber, A. (1989). "Neurobehavioral toxicity of long-term exposure to tetrachloroethylene." Neurotoxicology & Teratology 11(6): 579-83.
  49. Sheldon L, H. R., Zelon H, et al, (1985). ""Human Exposure Assessment to Environmental Chemicals - Nursing Mother's Study,"." (Final Report, Research Triangle Institue, Reseach Triangle Park, North Carolina)
  50. Solet, D. and T. G. Robins (1991). "Renal function in dry cleaning workers exposed to perchloroethylene." American Journal of Industrial Medicine 20(5): 601-14,.
  51. Solet, D., T. G. Robins, et al. (1990). "Perchloroethylene exposure assessment among dry cleaning workers." American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 51(10): 566-74.
  52. Sonnenfeld, N., I. Hertz-Picciotto, et al. (2001). "Tetrachloroethylene in drinking water and birth outcomes at the US Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina." American Journal of Epidemiology 154(10): 902-8.
  53. Stutz DR, U. S. (1992). "Hazardous materials injuries: a handbook for pre-hospital care." 3rd ed. Beltsville (MD): Bradford Communications Corp.: p. 286-7.
  54. Tichenor, B., L. Sparks, et al. (1990). "Emission of perchloroethylene from dry cleaned fabric." Atmospheric Environment 24A(5): 1219-1229.
  55. U.S. EPA (2005). "Technical Factsheet on: Tetrachloroethylene." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ground Water & Drinking Water. February 2005.
  56. US Environmental Protection Agency. (1985). "Health assessment document for tetrachloroethylene(perchloroethylene): final report. Washington: US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment. Report No. EPA/600/8-82/005F; NTIS Report No. PB85-249705."
  57. US Environmental Protection Agency. (1986). "Drinking water criteria document for tetrachloroethylene. (Final). Washington: US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Drinking Water. NTIS Report No. PB86-118114."
  58. US Environmental Protection Agency. (1991). "Response to issues and data submission on the carcinogenicity of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene). Washington, D.C. EOA/600/6-91/002F."
  59. van der Gulden, J. W. and G. A. Zielhuis (1989). "Reproductive hazards related to perchloroethylene. A review." Int Arch Occup Environ Health: 235-42, 1989.
  60. Verplanke, A. J., M. H. Leummens, et al. (1999). "Occupational exposure to tetrachloroethene and its effects on the kidneys." Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine 41(1): 11-6.
  61. Volkel, W., M. Friedewald, et al. (1998). "Biotransformation of perchloroethene: dose-dependent excretion of trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and N-acetyl-S-(trichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine in rats and humans after inhalation." Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 153(1): 20-7.
Previous Section Table of Contents The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO

A-Z Index

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #