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Taking a Pediatric Exposure History
Literature Cited

Course: WB 1905
CE Original Date: June 3, 2011
CE Renewal Date: June 3, 2013
CE Expiration Date: June 3, 2015
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References

[AAP] American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Environmental Health. 2003. Pediatric Environmental Health, 2nd Edition. Etzel, RA, Balk, SJ, editors. Elk Grove Village, IL: AAP.

[AAP] American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Environmental Health. 2005. Lead exposure in children: prevention, detection, and management. Pediatrics 116(4):1036–1046.

[ATSDR] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2001. Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents (MHMI). Atlanta, GA: US. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.

[ATSDR] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2001a. Summary report for the ATSDR soil-pica workshop, June 2000. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services.

[ATSDR] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2007. Case studies in environmental medicine: lead toxicity. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services.

Anto J, Sunyer J, Rodriquez-Roison R, Suarez-Cervera M, Vazquez L, et al. 1989. Community outbreaks of asthma associated with inhalation of soybean dust. New England Journal of Medicine 320(17):1097–1102.

Anto JM, Sunyer J, Reed CE, Sabria J, Martinez F, Morell F, et al. 1993. Preventing asthma epidemics due to soybeans by dust-control measures. New England Journal of Medicine 329(24):1760–1763.

Binder S, Sokal D, Maughan D. 1986.Estimating soil ingestion: the use of tracer elements in estimating the amount of soil ingested by young children. Archives of Environmental Health 41:341–345.

[CDC - NCEH] Centers for Disease Control—National Center for Environmental Health. Preventing lead poisoning in young children. Atlanta GA [updated 2005 August; accessed 2008 June 11]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/publications/PrimaryPreventionDocument.pdf [PDF - 2.6 MB].

[CDC – NCEH] Centers for Disease Control—National Center for Environmental Health. 2009. Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. [Accessed 2010 December 7.] Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/pdf/FourthReport.pdf [PDF - 6.36 MB]

[CEHN] Children’s Environmental Health Network. 2006. Training manual on Pediatric Environmental Health: Putting It Into Practice. Accessed on September 22, 2008 at http://www.cehn.org/resources/training_manual.

[EPA] Environmental Protection Agency. 2003. Sources of indoor air pollution—basic information—carbon monoxide. Washington DC [updated 2008 May 27; accessed 2008 June 11]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/co.html.

Ernst A, Zibrak JD. 1998. Carbon monoxide poisoning. New England Journal of Medicine 339(22):1603–1608.

Galvez MP, Peters R, Graber N, Forman J. 2007.Effective risk communication in children’s environmental health: lessons learned from 9/11. Pediatric Clinics in North America 54:33–46.

Government of Alberta. August 2007. Carbon monoxide at the work site. Workplace Health and Safety. Workplace Health and Safety Bulletin. [Accessed 2008.] Available from: http://employment.alberta.ca/documents/WHS/WHS-PUB_ch031.pdf [PDF - 182 KB]

Guidotti TL, Ragain L. 2007. Protecting children from toxic exposure: three strategies. Pediatric Clinics of North America 54:227–235.

Hoffman HE, Buka I, Phillips S. 2007. Medical laboratory investigation of children’s environmental health. Pediatric Clinics of North America 54:399–415.

Jusko T, Henderson C, Lanphear B, Cory-Slechta D, Parsons P, Canfield R. 2008. Blood lead concentrations < 10 µg/dL and child intelligence at 6 years of age. Environmental Health Perspectives 116(2):243–248.

Karr CJ, Solomon GM, Brock-Utne AC. 2007. Health effects of common home, lawn, and garden pesticides. Pediatric Clinics of North America 54:63–80.

Kilpatrick N, Frumkin H, Trowbridge J, Escoffery C, Geller R, Rubin L, et al. 2002. The environmental history in pediatric practice: a study of pediatricians’ attitudes, beliefs, and practices. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(8):823–827.

Knight S, Junkins EP, Lightfood AC, Cazier CF, Olson LM. 2000. Injuries sustained by students in shop class. Pediatrics. 106:10–13.

Kwon OY, Chung SP, Ha YR, Yoo IS, Kim SW. 2004. Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning. Emergency Medicine Journal 21(2):250–251.

March of Dimes. 2008. Preconception Health Care. White Plains NY [Accessed September 22, 2008]. Available from: http://www.marchofdimes.com/.

[NIOSH] National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH alert: preventing death, injuries and illnesses of young workers. Cincinnati OH [updated 2003 July; accessed 2008 June 11] Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-128/pdfs/2003128.pdf [PDF - 811 KB]

Office of Surgeon General. 2001. The Surgeon General’s call to action to promote sexual health and responsible sexual behavior. Rockville MD [Accessed 2008 September 22]. Available from: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov

Piantadosi CA. 2002. Carbon monoxide poisoning. New England Journal of Medicine 347(14):1054–1055.

Sanborn M, Abelsohn A, Campbell M, Weir M. 2002. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 3. Lead exposure. Canadian Medical Association Journal 166(10):1287–1292.

Sanborn M, Cole D, Abelsohn A, Weir E. 2002. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 4. Pesticides. Canadian Medical Association 166(11):1431–1436.

Sattler B, Afzal B, Condon M, Belka E, McKee T. 2003. Children’s health and the environment: environmentally health homes and communities. Medscape: Ejournal. Available from: http://www.medscape.com/viewprogram/2660_pnt

Schreiber JS. 2001. Parents worried about breast milk contaminants: what is best for baby? Pediatric Clinics of North America 48(5):1113–1128.

Selevan SG, Kimmel CA, Mendola P. 2000. Identifying critical windows of exposure for children’s health. Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (Suppl 3):451–457.

Thom SR. 2002. Hyperbaric-oxygen therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. New England Journal of Medicine 347(14):1105–1106.

Weaver LK, Hopkins RO, Chan KJ, Churchill S, Elliott CG, Clemmer P, et al. 2002. Hyperbaric oxygen for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. New England Journal of Medicine 347(14):1057–1067.

Weitzman M, Gortmaker SL, Sobol AM, Perrin JM. 1992. Recent trends in the prevalence and severity of childhood asthma. Journal of the American Medical Association 268:2673–2677.

Woolf AD, Goldman R, Bellinger DC. 2007. Update on the clinical management of childhood lead poisoning. Pediatric Clinics of North America 54:271–294.

Additional Suggested Reading

Pediatric environmental medicine

[AAP] American Academy of Pediatrics. 1997. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 100:1035–1039.

[AAP] American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. 2001. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 108(3):776–789.

Anderson LM, Diwan BA, Fear NT, Roman E. 2000. Critical windows of exposure for children's health: cancer in human epidemiological studies and neoplasms in experimental animal models. Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (suppl 3):573–594.

Avery AA. 1999. Infantile methemoglobinemia: reexamining the role of drinking water nitrates. Environmental Health Perspectives 107:583–586.

Bearer CF. 1995a. Environmental health hazards: how children are different from adults. Future Child 5(2):11–26.

Braue EH, Boardman CH, Hurst CG. 2008. Decontamination of chemical casualties. In: Medical Aspects of Chemical Warfard. S.D. Tourinsky, editor. Washington, DC, Office of the Surgeon General, United States Army: 527–557.

Committee on Environmental Health 2004. Ambient air pollution: health hazards to children. Pediatrics 114(6):1699–1707.

Committee on the Health and Safety Implications of Child Labor, Institute of Medicine. 1998. Protecting youth at work. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Cook DG, Strachan DP. 1999. Health effects of passive smoking: summary of effects of parental smoking on the respiratory health of children and implications for research. Thorax 54:357–366.

DeBaun MR, Gurney JG. 2001. Environmental exposure and cancer in children: a conceptual framework for the pediatrician. Pediatric Clinics of North America 48(5):1215–1222.

Delfino RJ. 2002. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research. Environmental Health Perspectives 110 Suppl 4:573–589.

Dietert RR, Etzel RA, Chen D, Halonen M, Holladay SD, Jarabek AM, et al. 2000. Workshop to identify critical windows of exposure for children’s health: immune and respiratory systems work group summary. Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (suppl 3):483–490.

Etzel RA. 2003. How environmental exposures influence the development and exacerbation of asthma. Pediatrics 112(1):233–239.

Etzel RA. 2001. Indoor air pollutants in homes and schools. Pediatric Clinics of North America 48(5):1153–1166.

Gitterman BA, Bearer CF. 2001. A developmental approach to pediatric environmental health. Pediatric Clinics of North America 48(5):1071–1084.

Guzelian PS, Henry CJ, Olin SS, editors. 1992. Similarities & Differences Between Children and Adults: Implications for Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.

Hudson PJ, Vogt RL, Brondum J, Witherell L, Myers G, Paschal DC. 1987. Elemental mercury exposure among children of thermometer plant workers. Pediatrics 79:935–938.

Hwang YH, Bornschein RL, Grote J, Menrath W, Roda S. 1997. Urinary arsenic excretion as a biomarker of arsenic exposure in children. Archives of Environmental Health 52:139–147.v

[IOM] Institute of Medicine. 2000. Clearing the air: asthma and indoor air exposures. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

[IOM] Institute of Medicine. 2004. Damp indoor spaces and health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Landrigan PJ, Lioy PJ, Thurston G, Berkowitz G, Chen LC, Chillrud SN, et al. 2004. Health and environmental consequences of the world trade center disaster. Environmental Health Perspectives 112(6):731–739.

Landrigan PJ, Kimmel CA, Correa A, Eskenai B. 2004. Children's health and the environment: public health issues and challenges for risk assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives 112:257–265.

Lemasters GK, Perreault SD, Hales BF, Hatch M, Hirshfield AN, Hughes CL, et al. 2000. Workshop to identify critical windows of exposure for children’s health: reproductive health in children and adolescents work group summary. Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (suppl 3):505–509.

McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, London SF, Islam SF, Islam T, et al. 2002. Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: a cohort study. Lancet 359(9304):386–391.

[NRC] National Research Council. 1993a. Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

[NRC] National Research Council. 1993b. Measuring lead exposure in infants, children, and other sensitive populations. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

Paulson JA, Gitterman, BA, editors. 2007. Children’s health and the environment, Part 1. Pediatric Clinics of North America 54(1):1–212.

Paulson JA, Gitterman BA, editors. 2007. Children’s health and the environment, Part 1. Pediatric Clinics of North America 54(2):213–424.

Pediatric Clinics of North America. Pediatric clinics of North America homepage. Philadelphia PA [accessed 2008 June 11]. Available from http://www.pediatric.theclinics.com/.

Pope CN, Liu J. 1997. Age-related differences in sensitivity to organophosphorus pesticides. Environmental Toxicology Pharmacology 4: 309–314.

Quang LS, Woolf AD. 2000. Children’s unique vulnerabilities to environmental exposures. Environmental Epidemiology and Toxicology 2:79–90.

Rice D, Barone S Jr. 2000. Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models. Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (suppl 3):511–533.

Salam MT, Li Y-F, Langholz B, Gilliland FD. 2004. Early-life environmental risk factors for asthma: findings from the children’s health study. Environmental Heath Perspectives 112:760–765.

Scheuplein R, Chamley G, Dourson M. 2002. Differential sensitivity of children and adults to chemical toxicity. I. Biological toxicity. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology33:429–447.

Solomon GM, Weiss PM. 2002. Chemical contaminants in breast milk: time trends and regional variability. Environmental Health Perspectives 100:A339–347.

Weiss B. 2000. Vulnerability of children and the developing brain to neurotoxic hazards. Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (Suppl 3):375–381.

Weitzman M, Gortmaker SL, Sobol AM, Perrin JM. 1992. Recent trends in the prevalence and severity of childhood asthma. Journal of the American Medical Association 268:2673–2677.

Wolff MS. 1983. Occupationally derived chemicals in breast milk. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 4(1–2):259–281.

Woolf AD, Garg A, Alpert H, Lesko S. 2001. Adolescent workplace toxic exposures: a national study. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 155:704–710.

Ground water and drinking water

[EPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. Ground water & drinking water. [updated 2008 June 5, accessed 2008 June 11] Available from: http://www.epa.gov/safewater.

[EPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. 2003. Water on tap: what you need to know. EPA: 36.

Lead

[CDC] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children. Atlanta GA [updated 1991 October 01, accessed 2008 June 11] Available from: http://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/p0000029/p0000029.asp

[CDC - NCEH] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—National Center for Environmental Health. Facts on lead Atlanta GA [accessed 2008 June 11] Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/guide/1997/docs/factlead.htm.

[EPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. Lead hotline—the national lead information center. Washington DC [updated 2008 April 15, accessed 2008 June 11]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/lead/pubs/nlic.htm.

Shannon MW, Graef JW. 1992. Lead intoxication in infancy. Pediatrics 89:87–90.

Silbergeld EK. 1991. Lead in bone: implication for toxicology during pregnancy and lactation. Environmental Health Perspectives 91:63.

Walter SD, Yankel AJ, von Lindern IH. 1980. Age-specific risk factors for lead absorption in children. Archives of Environmental Health 35: 53–57.

Pesticides

[EPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA Office of Pesticides. EPA—pesticides homepage. Washington DC [updated 2008 Jun 11, accessed 2008 June 11]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/.

Fear NT, Roman E, Reeves G, Pannett B. 1998. Childhood cancer and paternal employment in agriculture: The role of pesticides. British Journal of Cancer 77(5):825–829.

Karmaus W, DeKoning EP, Kruse H, Witten J, Osius N. 2001. Childhood determinants of organochlorine concentrations in school-aged children. Pediatric Research 50:331–336.

Karr C, Solomon GM, Brock-Utne A. 2007. Health effects of common home, lawn, and garden pesticides. Pediatric Clinics of North America 54:63–80.

Pesticide Action Network North America. PAN pesticides database. San Francisco CA (updated 2008 April 22, accessed 2008 June 11). Available from: http://www.pesticideinfo.org/.

Pogoda JM, Preston-Martin S. 1997. Household pesticides and risk of pediatric brain tumors. Environmental Health Perspectives 105(11):1214–1220.

American Association of Poison Control Centers. American association of poison control centers homepage. Alexandria VA [accessed 2008 June 11] Available from: http://www.aapcc.org/DNN/.

Radon

[EPA] US Environmental Protection Agency. A citizen's guide to radon: The guide to protecting yourself and your family from radon. Washington DC [updated 2007 May, accessed 2008 June 11]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/radon/pubs/citguide.html.

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