Principles of Pediatric Environmental Health
CE Original Date: February 15, 2012
CE Expiration Date: February 15, 2014
Download Printer-Friendly version [PDF - 1.91 MB]
|Previous Section||Next Section|
[AAP] American Academy of Pediatrics. 1997. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 100:1035-1039.
[AAP] American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Drugs. 2001. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 108(3):776-89.
[AAP] American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Environmental Health. 2003. Pediatric Environmental Health, 2nd ed. Etzel RA, Balk SJ, editors. Elk Grove Village IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.
Ahlborg G and Hemminki K. 1995. Reproductive effects of chemical exposures in health professionals. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 37: 957-961.
Aksglaede L, Anders J, Leffers H, Skakkebsek NE, Anderson A. 2006. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogeneous estrogens. Human Reproduction Update 12(4) 341-349.
Alarcon WA, Calvert GM, Blondell JM, Mehler LN, Sievert J, Propeck M, et al. 2005. Acute illnesses associated with pesticide exposure at schools. Journal of the American Medical Association 294(4):455-465.
Anderson LM, Diwan BA, Fear NT, Roman E. 2000. Critical windows of exposure for children's health: cancer in human epidemiological studies and neoplasms in experimental animal models. Environ Health Perspect 108 (suppl 3):573-94.
[ATSDR] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1997b. A cohort study of current and previous residents of the Silver Valley: assessment of lead exposure and health outcomes. Atlanta GA: US Department of Health and Human Services.
[ATSDR] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2001a. Summary report for the ATSDR soil-pica workshop, June 2000. Atlanta GA: US Department of Health and Human Services.
[ATSDR] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2007b. Case studies in nitrate/nitrite toxicity. Atlanta GA: US Department of Health and Human Services.
[ATSDR] Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. 2005. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual. Atlanta GA [updated 2012 January 30; accessed 2012 January 30]. Available from: URL at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/hac/PHAManual/toc.html
Autrup H. 1993. Transplacental transfer of genotoxins and transplacental carcinogenesis. Env Heal Persp 101 (Suppl 2):33.-38.
Avery AA. 1999. Infantile methemoglobinemia: reexamining the role of drinking water nitrates. Environ Health Perspect 107:583-6.
Bearer CF. 1995a. How are children different from adults? Environ Health Perspect 103(suppl 6):7-12.
Bearer CF. 1995b. Environmental health hazards: how children are different from adults. Future Child 5(2):11-26.
Belanger K, Beckett W, Triche E, Bracken MB, Holford T, Ren P et al. 2003. Symptoms of wheeze and persistent cough in the first year of life: associations with indoor allergens, air contaminants, and maternal history of asthma. Am J Epidemiol 158:195-202.
Binder S, Sokal D, Maughan D. 1987. Estimating soil ingestion: the use of tracer elements in estimating the amount of soil ingested by young children. Arch Environ Heal 41:341-345.
[CDC] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993. Lead poisoning associated with use of traditional ethnic remedies-California, 1991-1992. MMWR 42(27):521-4.
[CDC] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Lead poisoning associated with use of traditional ethnic remedies. MMWR 51(31):684-6.
[CDC] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Blood mercury levels in young children and childbearing aged women-United States 1999-2002. MMWR 53(43): 1018-1020.
[CDC - NCEH] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Center for Environmental Health - Healthy Homes - Environmental Justice. Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Program - Environmental Justice - Frequently Asked Question. Atlanta GA [updated 2011 August 26; accessed 2011 October 01]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyHomes/EJ/faq_eng.htm
[CEHN] Children's Environmental Health Network. Training manual on pediatric environmental health: putting it into practice. San Francisco CA [updated 1999 June; accessed 2008 August 21]. Available from: http://www.cehn.org/resources/training_manual
Clemens PC, Neumann RS. 1989. The Wolff-Chaikoff effect: hypothyroidism due to iodine application. Arch Dermatol 125:705.
Committee on the Health and Safety. Implications of Child Labor, Institute of Medicine. 1998. Protecting youth at work. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Cook DG, Strachan DP. 1999. Health effects of passive smoking: summary of effects of parental smoking on the respiratory health of children and implications for research. Thorax 54:357-66.
Crain EF, Weiss KB, Bijur PE, Hersh M, Westbrook L, Stein REK. 1994. An estimate of the prevalence of asthma and wheezing among inner-city children. Pediatrics 94:356-362.
Cresteil T. 1998. Onset of xenobiotic metabolism in children: toxicological implications. Food Addit Contam 15 (Suppl) 45-51.
Cunningham J, Dockery DW, Speizer FE. 1996. Race, asthma, and persistent wheeze in Philadelphia school children. Am J Pub Health 86:1406-1409.
Davis DL, Webster P, Stainthorpe H, Chilton J, Jones L, Doi R. 2007. Declines in sex ratio at birth and fetal deaths in Japan, and in U.S. whites but not African Americans. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(6):941-946.
DeBaun MR, Gurney JG. 2001. Environmental exposure and cancer in children: a conceptual framework for the pediatrician. Ped Clin N Am 48(5):1215-1222.
DeVita R, Olivieri A, Spinelli A, Grollino MG, Padovani L, Tarroni G et al. 2000. Health status and internal radiocontamination assessment in children exposed to the fallout of the Chernobyl accident. Arch Environ Health 55(3):181-6.
Dietert RR, Etzel RA, Chen D, Halonen M, Holladay SD, Jarabek AM et al. 2000. Workshop to identify critical windows of exposure for children's health: immune and respiratory systems work group summary. Env Heal Persp 108 (suppl 3):483-90.
Dourson M, Chernly G, Schuenplein R. 2002. Differential sensitivity of children and adults to chemical toxicity II. Risk and Regulation. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 35(3): 448-467.
Ek CJ, Wong A, Liddelow SA, Johansson PA, Dziegielewska K, Saunders NR. 2010. Efflux mechanisms at the developing brain barriers ABC-transporters in the fetal and postnatal rate. Toxicology Letters 197: 51-59.
[EPA] Environmental Protection Agency. 1996. Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Washington DC [updated 2011 Sep 09; accessed 2008 August]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/regulating/laws/fqpa
[EPA] Environmental Protection Agency. 2011. Office of Environmental Justice. Washington DC [updated 2011 November 01; accessed 2011 December 15]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/environmentaljustice/ [accessed 2011 December 15]
[EPA] Environmental Protection Agency. 2011. Environmental justice. Washington DC [updated 2012 February 27; accessed 2012 February 27]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/environmentaljustice
Etzel RA. 2001. Indoor air pollutants in homes and schools. Ped Clin N Am 48(5):1153-66.
Etzel RA. 2003. How environmental exposures influence the development and exacerbation of asthma. Pediatrics 112(1):233-239.
Executive Order 12898. February 11, 1994. Federal actions to address environmental justice in minority and low income population. Federal Register 59 (32).
Faustman EM, Silbernagel SM, Fenske RA, Burbacher TM, Ponce RA. 2000. Mechanisms underlying children's susceptibility to environmental toxicants. Environmental Health Perspectives 108: Suppl 1:13-21.
Fear NT, Roman E, Reeves G, Pannett B. 1998. Childhood cancer and paternal employment in agriculture: The role of pesticides. Br J Cancer 77(5):825-9.
Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Gilliland F, Vora H, Thomas D, Berhane K et al. 2004. The effect of air pollution on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age. N Engl J Med 351:1057-67.
Gaultier C. 1985. Breathing and sleep during growth: physiology and pathology. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 21:55-112.
Ginsberg G, Hattis D, Sonawane B, Russ A, Banasti P, Kozlak M, et al. 2002. Evaluation of child/adult pharmacokinetics differences from a database derived from the therapeutic drug literature. Toxicol Sci 66:185-200.
Gitterman BA, Bearer CF. 2001. A developmental approach to pediatric environmental health. Ped Clin N Am 48(5):1071-84.
Goldman RH. 2005. Occupational and environmental risks to reproduction in females, UpToDate.
Gomez I, Marshall T, Tsai P, Shao Y, Guo YL. 2002. Number of boys born to men exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. Lancet 360:143-144.
Greaves WW, Soden K. 2003. Reproductive Hazards. A practical approach to occupational and environmental medicine. R. J. McCunney, editor. Philadelphia PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. p. 279-294.
Guzelian PS, Henry CJ, Olin SS, editors. 1992. Similarities and differences between children and adults: implications for risk assessment. Washington DC: ILSI Press.
Health Canada. 2002. Division of childhood and adolescence. Natural and built environments. Ottawa, Canada. [updated 2012 January 04; accessed 2012 January 20]. Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Hertz-Picciotto I, Jusko TA, Willman EJ, Baker R, Keller JA, Teplin SW. 2008. A cohort study of in utero polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures in relation to secondary sex ratio. Environmental Health 7:37.
Hood E. 2005. Dwelling disparities: how poor housing leads to poor health. Environ Health Perspect 113(5):A31-7.
Hudson PJ, Vogt RL, Brondum J, Witherell L, Myers G, Paschal DC. 1987. Elemental mercury exposure among children of thermometer plant workers. Pediatrics 79:935-8.
Hwang Y, Bornschein R, Grote J, Menrath W, Rode S. 1997. Urinary arsenic excretion as a biomarker of arsenic exposure in children. Archives of Environmental Health 52(2): 139-147.
[ILO] International Labour Office. 2002. Every child counts-new global estimates on child labour. Geneva, Switzerland International Labour Office [accessed 2011 December 10]. Available from: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/simpoc/index.htm
Irani S, Mahashur A.1986. A survey of Bhopal children affected by methyl isocyanate gas. J Post Grad Med 32: 195.
Joseph CLM, Foxman B, Leickly FE, Peterson E, Ownby D. 1996. Prevalence of possible undiagnosed asthma and associated morbidity among urban school children. J Pediatr 129:735-42.
Kazakov, Demidchik, Astakhova. 1992. Letter to the editor. Nature 359.
Karmaus W, DeKoning EP, Kruse H, Witten J, Osius N. 2001. Early childhood determinants of organochlorine concentrations in school-aged children. Pediatr Res 50:331-6.
Kearns GL, Abdel-Rahman SM, Alander SW, Blowey DL, Leeder JS, Kauffman RE. 2003. Developmental pharmacology-drug disposition, action, and therapy in infants and children. N Engl J Med 349:1157-1167.
Knight S, Junkins EP, Lightfood AC, Cazier CF, Olson LM. 2000. Injuries sustained by students in shop class. Pediatrics 106:10-13.
Landrigan PJ, Schechter CB, Lipton JM, Fahs MC, Schwartz J. 2002. Environmental pollutants and disease in American children: morbidity, mortality, and costs for lead poisoning, asthma, cancer and developmental disabilities. Environ Health Perspect 110(7):721-728.
Landrigan, PJ, Sonawane B, Mattison D, McCally M, Garg A. 2002. Chemical contaminants in breast milk and their impacts on children's health: an overview. Environ Health Perspect 110(6):A313-5.
Landrigan PJ, Lioy PJ, Thurston G, Berkowitz F, Chen LC, Chillrud SN, et al. 2004a. Health and environmental consequences of the world trade center disaster. Environ Health Perspect 112(6):731-9.
Landrigan PJ, Kimmel CA, Correa A, Eskenazi B. 2004b. Children's Health and the Environment: public health issues and challenges for risk assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives 112:257-265.
Lemasters GK, Perreault SD, Hales BF, Hatch M, Hirshfield AN, Hughes CL, et al. 2000. Workshop to identify critical windows of exposure for children's health: reproductive health in children and adolescents work group summary. Environ Health Perspect 108 (suppl 3):505-9.
Mahaffey, KR. 2005. Mercury exposure: medical and public health issues. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association 116:127-154.
Mancini AJ. 2004. Skin. Pediatrics 113 (4 Supplement):1114-1110.
Marino LR. 1991. Development of gastric secretory function. In: Polin RA, Fox WW, editors. Fetal and neonatal physiology. Philadelphia PA: WB Saunders. p. 1041.
Mehta PS, Mehta AS, Mehta SJ, Makhijani AB. 1990. Bhopal tragedy's health effects. A review of methyl isocyanate toxicity. JAMA 264 (21):2781-2787.
Mocarelli P, Gerthoux PM, Ferrari E, Patterson DG Jr, Kiescak SM, Brambilla P et al. 2000. Paternal concentrations of dioxin and sex ratio of offspring. Lancet 355:1858-1863.
Nadakavukaren A. 2000. Our global environment: a health perspective. Prospect Heights IL: Waveland Press.
Nebert DW, Gonzalez FJ. 1987. P450 genes: structure, evolution, and regulation. Annu Rev Biochem 56:945-93.
[NIH] National Institute of Health. 2004. Obesity and the built environment. Washington DC [accessed 2011 December 15]. Available from: Available at: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/rfa-es-04-003.html
[NIOSH] National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH alert: Preventing death, injuries and illnesses of young workers. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2003-128: 25. Cincinnati OH [updated 2003 July; accessed 2008 August]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh
[NIOSH] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1999. The Effects of Workplace Hazards on Female Reproductive Health. DHHS (NIOSH) publication no. 99-104.
[NRC] National Research Council. 1993a. Pesticides in the diets of infants and children. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
[NRC] National Research Council. 1993b. Measuring lead exposure in infants, children, and other sensitive populations. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Osorio AM, Windham GC. 2004. Male reproductive toxicology. Current Occupational & Environmental Medicine. J. LaDou, editor. New York NY: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill: p. 414-427.
[ORISE] Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. 2010. The medical aspects of radiation incidents. Washington DC: US Department of Energy.
Pagoda J and Preston-Martin S. 1997. Household pesticides and risk of pediatric brain tumors. Environ Health Perspectives 105(11): 1214-1220.
Paulson JA, editor. 2001. Children's environmental health. Ped Clin N Am 48(5).
Partsch CJ, Sippell WG. 2001. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of precocious puberty. Effects of exogenous estrogens. Human Reproduction Update 7(3):292-301.
Paustenbach K, Finley B, Long T. 1997. The critical role of house dust in understanding the hazards posed by contaminated soils. International Journal of Toxicology 16(4-5): 339-362.
Pitot HC, Dragan YP. 1996. Chemical carcinogenesis. Casaretts and Doull's toxicology, the basic science of poisons. Klaassen CD, editor. New York NY: McGraw Hill. p.255.
Pope C, Liu J. 1997. Age-related differences in sensitivity to organophosphate pesticides. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 4(3-4): 309-314.
Pronczuk J, Akre J, Moy G, Vallenas C. 2002. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(6):A349-351.
Quang L and Woolf A. 2000. Children's unique vulnerabilities to environmental exposures. Environ Epi Tox 2: 79-90.
Renwick AG. 1998. Toxicokinetics in infants and children in relation to the ADI and TDI. Food Addit Contam 15 (Suppl):17-35.
Rice D, Barone S Jr. 2000. Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models. Environ Health Perspect 108 (suppl 3):511-33.
Rogan WJ, Gladen BC, Guo Y, Hsu C. 1999. Sex ratio after exposure to dioxin-like chemicals in Taiwan. Lancet 353:206-7.
Ryan JJ, Amirova Z, Carrier G. 2002. Sex ratios of children of Russian pesticide producers exposed to dioxin. Environ Health Perspect 110:A699-A701.
Salam MT, Li Y-F, Langholz B, Gilliland FD. 2004. Early-life environmental risk factors for asthma: findings from the children's health study. Environ Health Perspect 112:760-765.
Saunders NR, EK C, Halgood M, Dziegielewska K. 2008. Barriers in the brain: a renaissance? Trends in Neuroscience 31(6):279-86.
Schettler T, Solomon GM et al. 1999. Generations at risk: reproductive health and the environment. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.
Schreiber JS. 2001. Parents worried about breast milk contaminants: what is best for baby? Ped Clin N Am 48(5):1113-1128.
Scheuplein R, Charnley G, Dourson M. 2002. Differential sensitivity of children and adults to chemical toxicity. I. Biological basis. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 35(3): 429-447.
Shannon M and Graef J. 1992. Lead intoxication in infancy. Pediatrics 89(1): 87-90.
Silbergeld EK. 1991. Lead in bone: implication for toxicology during pregnancy and lactation. Environ Health Perspect 91:63-70.
Solomon GM, Weiss PM. 2002. Chemical contaminants in breast milk: time trends and regional variability. Env Heal Persp 100:A33947.
Thomas PA, Brackbill R, Thalji L, DiGrande L, Campolucci S, Thorpe L, et al. 2008. Respiratory and other health effects reported in children exposed to the World Trade Center disaster of 11 September 2001. Environ Health Perspect 116(10): 1383-1390.
Thompson KM. 2004. Changes in children's exposure as a function of age and the relevance of age definitions for exposure and health risk assessment. Medscape General Medicine 6(3):2.
Tsai CE, Daood MJ, Lane RH, Hansen TW, Gruelymacher EM, Watchko JF. 2002. P-glycoprotein expression in mouse brains increases with maturation. Biol Neonate 81(1): 58-64.
University of Arizona Emergency Medicine Research Center. 2003. Advanced HAZMAT Life Support, provider manual, third edition. Tucson AZ: University of Arizona.
Waalkes M, Ward J, Liu J, Diwan B. 2003. Transplacental carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic in the drinking water: induction of hepatic, ovarian, pulmonary and adrenal tumors in mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 186(1): 7-17.
Wang RY, Needham LL, Barr DB. 2005. Effects of environmental agents on the attainment of puberty: considerations when assessing exposure to environmental chemicals in the national children's study. Environ Health Perspect 113(8):1100-1107.
Weaver VM, Davoli CT, Heller PJ, Fitzwilliam A, Peters HL, Sunyer J et al. 1996. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels. Environ Health Perspect 104:318-323.
Weitzman M, Gortmaker SL, Sobol AM, Perrin JM. 1992. Recent trends in the prevalence and severity of childhood asthma. JAMA 268:2673-2677.
Welch L. 2005. Pregnancy outcome, adverse. In preventing occupational disease and injury. Levy BS, Wagner GR, Rest KM, and Weeks JL, editors. Washington DC: American Public Health Association. p.413-420.
Whelan E, Piacitelli G, Gerwei B, Schnorr T, Mueller E, Gittleman J, et al. 1997. Elevated blood lead levels in children of construction workers. American Journal of Public Health 87(8):1352-1355.
Windham G and Osorio A. 2004. Female reproductive toxicology. In Current Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Edited by Joseph LaDou. McGraw Hill-Professional.
Woolf AD, Garg A, Alpert H, Lesko S. 2001. Adolescent workplace toxic exposures: a national study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 155:704-710.
Woolf AD, Woolf NT. 2005. Childhood lead poisoning in 2 families associated with spices used in food preparation. Pediatrics 116(2) e314-8.
[WHO] World Health Organization. 1994. Infant and Young Child Nutrition Resolution WHA 54.2. [updated 2001 May 18; accessed 2011 Dec 01]. Available from: http://www.who.int/gb/archive/pdf_files/WHA54/ea54r2.pdf [PDF - 22 KB].
[WHO] World Health Organization. 2006. Environmental Health Criteria 237. Principles for evaluating health risks in children associated with exposure to chemicals. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Yoshimura T, Kaneko S, Hayabuchi H. 2001. Sex ratio in offspring of those affected by dioxin and dioxin-like compounds: the Yusho, Seveso, and Yucheng incidents. Occup Environ Med 58:540-541.
|Previous Section||Next Section|