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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

FORT ORD
MARINA, MONTEREY COUNTY, CALIFORNIA


CONCLUSIONS

ATSDR has evaluated environmental routes of exposure using information collected during the remedial process. The following is a summary of the conclusions reached by ATSDR following this evaluation.

    1. Groundwater contamination from past activities at Fort Ord has not affected and will not affect the drinking water supply of Seaside, California. Seaside draws its groundwater supply from a different groundwater basin than Fort Ord.

    2. There are no detections of groundwater contaminants at levels of health concern in the presently "active" drinking waters well on Fort Ord. The water at Fort Ord is safe to drink. Because the drinking water wells currently in use at Fort Ord are located far from the sources of contamination, drilled to deeper aquifers that are not likely to be contaminated, and monitored regularly, Fort Ord's drinking water supply should be safe to drink in the future.

    3. The water supplied by drinking water wells presently used by Marina is safe to drink. Further, because Marina's drinking water wells are drilled to deep aquifers and the quality of the water is monitored regularly, Marina's water should be safe to drink in the future.

    4. Because the concentration of contamination detected in the past in Fort Ord and Marina drinking water wells was low and the duration was not over a lifetime (70-years), those exposures will not likely result in adverse health effects.

    5. ATSDR reviewed the procedures used to inventory and locate UXO/OE sites and the process and procedures that have been or are being used to cleanup those areas. Those methods and actions are protective of public health and safety. However, people who trespass into areas of known or suspected UXO/OE may put themselves at risk.

    6. There has been no evidence of disposal of CAIS kits at Fort Ord. If, in the future, CAIS kits are found on site, they contain such a small quantity of dilute agent that any adverse human health effects are unlikely. If remediation or construction workers were exposed to an accidental release of CAIS kit contents in an area of limited ventilation, some short-term adverse health effects might result.

    7. The available data indicates that water discharged from the beach stormwater outfalls has not contained elevated contaminant levels which could pose a threat to human health.

    8. There is not enough information on UXO in Monterey Bay to fully evaluate this potential physical hazard. However, it is likely that the UXO is located at depths which may only be accessed by experienced, technical divers.

    9. Based upon the available data, the areas of light and moderate bullet surface-soil coverage in the Beach Ranges do not contain lead levels which will pose a threat to human health. Because sharp bullet fragments may remain in these areas, they may pose a physical hazard to trespassers that may walk or recreate in these areas. Completion of the proposed clean-up process for the areas of "heavy" bullet surface- soil coverage will assure that those areas will not pose a future threat to human health.

    10.ATSDR makes the following public health category conclusions (see Appendix B):

    • Fort Ord to be a Category D site - No Apparent Public Health Hazard.
    • Seaside Drinking Water - No Public Health Hazard from Fort Ord contamination.
    • Fort Ord and Marina Current Drinking Water - No Apparent Public Health Hazard.
    • Fort Ord and Marina Past Drinking Water - No Apparent Public Health Hazard.
    • UXO/OE - No Apparent Public Health Hazard, except if you trespass.
    • Beach Stormwater Outfall Discharges - No Apparent Public Health Hazard.
    • Offshore UXO - No Apparent Public Health Hazard.
    • Lead in Beach Ranges - No Apparent Public Health Hazard.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

The public health action plan (PHAP) for Fort Ord, CA contains a description of actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or other governmental agencies at and in the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of this public health assessment. The purpose of PHAP is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to prevent adverse human health effects that would result from any exposure to hazardous substances in the environment.

Actions Planned

    1. The Army will continue to collect and analyze water samples from active drinking water wells. They will also monitor for VOCs of potential concern.

    2. Marina Coast Water District will continue to collect and analyze water samples from active drinking water wells. They will also monitor for VOCs of potential concern.

    3. The Army will properly remove and dispose of OE and UXO found in areas zoned for reuse.

    4. The Army will ensure that warning signs in a sufficient number to be intervisable are posted around the UXO/OE areas. Those signs should be written in English as well as universal symbols. A boundary fence will be maintained only around Site 15.

    5. The Army will remove the "heavy" lead-contaminated soil in the Beach Ranges to a level below 1,860 ppm.

    6. The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA; also known as Superfund) as amended, requires ATSDR to conduct needed follow-up health actions in communities living near hazardous waste sites. To identify appropriate actions, ATSDR created the Health Activites Recommendation Panel (HARP). HARP has evaluated the data and information contained in the Fort Ord Public Health Assessment for appropriate public health actions. HARP supports the continued efforts to monitor drinking water quality, to identify and properly clear areas of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and ordnance and explosives (OE), and to restrict access to areas where physical hazards may exist. Based upon the information available, this site poses no apparent public health risk. If additional information becomes available that may indicate a public health risk, this information will be evaluated by the HARP. HARP determined that health education and health studies follow-up actions are not warranted. As discussed above, there do not appear to have been exposures in the past which resulted in public health problems, and there are no current exposures.

Completed Actions

    1. The U.S. Army has, as of May 1996, completed time-critical removal actions for UXO/OE in those areas shown on Figure 8.


Figure 1

Figure 1. Site Location



Figure 2

Figure 2. Fort Ord Reuse Plan



Figure 3

Figure 3. Fort Ord



Figure 4

Figure 4. Geologic Cross-Section



Figure 5a

Figure 5a. Fort Ord Location Map



Figure 5b

Figure 5b. Drinking Water Well Locations, Landfills, Streets



Figure 6

Figure 6. Suspected UXO, Fort Ord



Figure 7

Figure 7. Schematic Profile of Fort Ord Water Distribution System



Figure 8

Figure 8. Time Critical Removal Actions



Table 1.

POPULATION DATA, MONTEREY COUNTY
Variable 1980 1990 1995
Total Population 290,444 355,660 370,996
Persons per Square Mile 87 107 112
% Male 51.2 51.9 NA
% Female 48.8 48.1 NA
% White 68.9 63.8 NA
% Black 6.5 6.4 NA
% AIEA* 1.0 0.8 NA
% API# 6.8 7.8 NA
% Other Race 16.9 21.1 NA
% Hispanic 25.9 33.6 NA
% Age 65+ 9.2 9.8 NA
% Age < 10 15.9 16.8 NA

* AIEA - American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
# API - Asian or Pacific Islander
NA - Not available

Sources: Tabulations from Tables 1, 6, 7, 8, and 10 (1980) and Tables P1, P5, P6, P9, and P11 (1990), Summary Tape File 1 (California), U.S. Bureau of the Census. Monterey County Population and Housing Estimates (1995), Report E-5, California Department of Finance, Demographic Research Unit.

Table 2.

POPULATION DATA, MARINA AND SEASIDE
Variable Marina Seaside
1980 1990 1995 1980 1990 1995
Total Population 20,647 26,436 18,356 36,567 38,901 30,102
Persons per Square Mile 2,360 3,023 2,098 4,146 4,408 3,413
% Male 54.5 52.8 NA 57.2 57.0 NA
% Female 45.5 47.2 NA 42.8 43.0 NA
% White 56.2 53.6 NA 50.7 52.7 NA
% Black 17.7 19.0 NA 29.9 23.5 NA
% AIEA* 1.1 0.7 NA 0.9 1.0 NA
% API# 18.0 20.8 NA 11.8 13.5 NA
% Other Race 7.0 5.9 NA 6.7 9.4 NA
% Hispanic 9.9 10.7 NA 10.0 17.4 NA
% Age 65+ 2.4 4.3 NA 4.0 5.4 NA
% Age < 10 19.2 19.1 NA 17.5 17.6 NA

* AIEA - American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
# API - Asian or Pacific Islander
NA - Not available

Sources: Tabulations from Tables 1, 6, 7, 8, and 10 (1980) and Tables P1, P5, P6, P9, and P11 (1990), Summary Tape File 1 (California), U.S. Bureau of the Census. Monterey County Population and Housing Estimates (1995), Report E-5, California Department of Finance, Demographic Research Unit.

Table 3.

HOUSING DATA, MARINA AND SEASIDE
Variables Marina Seaside
1980 1990 1995 1980 1990 1995
Total Households* 5,724 7,908 6,006 9,875 10,641 9,208
Persons per Household 3.20 3.05 3.06 3.05 3.10 3.25
% Households Owner-Occupied 41.7 34.5 NA 42.4 38.0 NA
% Households Renter-Occupied 58.3 65.5 NA 57.6 62.0 NA
% Mobile Homes 5.6 5.3 5.3 2.0 4.4 4.3
% Persons in Group Quarters* 11.3 8.8 0.1 17.7 15.2 0.6
Median Value, Owner-Occupied Households 85,400 172,500 NA 68,300 150,100 NA
Median Rent, Renter-Occupied Households 265 607 NA 242 565 NA

NA - Not available

* A household is an occupied housing unit, but does not include group quarters such as military barracks, college dormitories, and prisons.

Sources: Tabulations from Tables 1, 3, 15, 26, 39, 44, and 55 (1980) and Tables P1, P3, P28, H3, H17A, H23B, H32B, and H43 (1990), Summary Tape File 1 (California), U.S. Bureau of the Census. Monterey County Population and Housing Estimates (1995), Report E-5, California Department of Finance, Demographic Research Unit.

Table 4.

HOUSING DATA, MONTEREY COUNTY
Variables 1980 1990 1995
Total Households* 95,734 112,965 113,007
Persons per Household 2.85 2.96 3.17
% Households Owner-Occupied 53.1 50.6 NA
% Households Renter-Occupied 46.9 49.4 NA
% Mobile Homes 4.4 5.2 5.1
% Persons in Group Quarters* 6.2 5.9 3.4
% Households Owner-Occupied 53.1 50.6 NA
% Households Renter-Occupied 46.9 49.4 NA

NA - Not available

* A household is an occupied housing unit, but does not include group quarters such as military barracks, college dormitories, and prisons.

Sources: Tabulations from Tables 1, 3, 15, 26, 39, 44, and 55 (1980) and Tables P1, P3, P28, H3, H17A, H23B, H32B, and H43 (1990), Summary Tape File 1 (California), U.S. Bureau of the Census. Monterey County Population and Housing Estimates (1995), Report E-5, California Department of Finance, Demographic Research Unit.

Table 5:

Historical Summary of all Contaminant Detections in Fort Ord wells; 1985-1993. Contaminants with detections above the MCLs are shaded in the table.
Contaminant Min-Max (ppb) Number of Detections Duration of Detections Comparison Values MCL (ppb) Comments
Carbon tetrachloride 0.50 -9.8 33 5/21/85 -1/23/91 5 * Only 6 detections >5 ppb MCL
Chloroform 0.93 -1.8 5 11/23/87 -10/1/88 100 ** No detections above MCL
Dichloromethane 1.2 1 11/25/85 None No detections above MCL
Tetrachloroethylene(PCE) 0.63 -53.0 14 7/31/85 -4/8/88 5 Only 2 detections >5 ppb MCL
1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) 7.7 1 6/4/86 200 No detections above MCL
Trichloroethylene (TCE) 0.62 -25.0 43 5/14/85 -3/16/93 5 Only 18 detections > 5 ppb MCL
Trichlorofluoro- methane 5.0 1 5/21/85 2,000 ppb - LTHA No detections above LTHA
Xylenes 2.6 -2.8 2 4/5/88 -4/8/88 10,000 No detections above MCL

* The U.S. EPA MCL is 5 ppb, however, the state of California has adopted a state MCL of 0.5ppb (CCR, Title 22, Sec. 6444a). The level of detection for carbon tetrachloride is 0.5 ppb.
** At this time there is no MCL specifically for chloroform. However, chloroform is regulated under the total trihalomethane MCL of 100 ppb.

Table 6:

Historical Summary of All Contaminant Detections in Marina wells: 1985-1994.
Contaminant Min-Max (ppb) Number of Detections Duration of Detections Comparison Values MCL (ppb) Comments
Bromodichloromethane 1.0 -5.3 2 11/7/90 -10/2/91 100 No detectionsabove MCL
Bromoform 0.68 -2.0 4 11/7/90 -10/2/91 100 No detectionsabove MCL
Bromomethane 3.2 1 7/3/91 10 ppb-LTHA No detectionsabove LTHA
Carbon tetrachloride 0.83 -1.3 3 1/9/91 -7/31/91 5 No detectionsabove MCL
Chloroform 0.87 -3.8 3 11/7/90 -10/2/91 1002 No detectionsabove MCL
cis-1,2 Dichloroethylene 0.56 -2.0 8 5/24/89 -7/6/94 None No detectionsabove MCL
Dibromochloromethane 1.4 -6.2 2 11/7/90 -10/2/91 None No detectionsabove MCL
trans-1,2Dichloroethylene 0.59 -2.6 9 8/27/86 -6/29/88 None No detectionsabove MCL
Tetrachloroethylene(PCE) 0.50 -2.4 35 8/19/85 -7/6/94 5 No detectionsabove MCL
Trichloroethylene (TCE) 0.51 -2.9 33 9/9/85 -7/6/94 5 No detectionsabove MCL
1,1,1-trichloroethane(1,1,1-TCA) 0.55 -3.2 11 1/21/86 -3/28/89 200 No detectionsabove MCL
Toluene 0.60 1 4/3/91 1000 No detectionsabove MCL
m-p-Xylene 0.95 1 4/3/91 None No detectionsabove MCL

2 - At this time there is no MCL specifically for chloroform. However, chloroform is regulated under the total trihalomethane MCL of 100 ppb.

Table 7:

Fort Ord Closed Wells (after Geotechnical Consultants, 1986; HLA, 1994)
Well Name Year Drilled Year Closed/ Destroyed Comments
8 1940 1952 Pumped sand and had high chloride content
9 1940 1952 Pumped sand and had high chloride content
10 1940 1952 Pumped sand and had high chloride content
11 1940 1983-closed; 1989 Pumped sand and had high chloride content
12 1942 1952 Pumped sand and had high chloride content
14 1941 1989 High chloride content since 1975 *
16 1942 1962-closed; 1989 High chloride content
17 1946 1971-closed; 1989 High chloride content
18 1952 1989 High chloride content since 1975 *
19 1952 1986-standby;1989 High chloride content
21 1952 1986-standby;1989 High chloride content
22 1952 1969-closed; 1989 High chloride content
23 1952 1989 High chloride content since 1975 *
24 1963 1986-Inactive backup well; 1989 High chloride content since 1978
25 1963 1989 High chloride content since 1977 *
26 1962 1986- inactive 1990-destroyed High chloride content since 1977. Pump failed
27 1968 1986 High chloride content since 1981. Water samples indicated undesirable water source
28 1968 1986-standby;1988 Sporadic detection of volatile organic chemicals

* After chloride levels became too high, Wells 14, 18, 23, and 25 were used only as occasional backup wells until destroyed.

Table 8:

Potential cancer risk associated with human ingestion of Fort Ord drinking water assuming "worst-case" (maximum-case) (2) and "possible-case"(3) conditions.
Chemical Concentration
Max.
(ppm)
Estimated
Dose
(mg/kg/day)
Cancer
Slope Factor
(1/[mg/kg/day])
Exposure
Duration
"Max."
(years)
Cancer
Risk
"Max."
Exposure
Duration
"Possible"
(years)
Cancer
Risk
"Possible"
TCE
Well 14 0.0140 0.0004 0.011 19 1.19E-06 0 0.00E+00
Well 18 0.0250 0.0007 0.011 19 2.13E-06 0 0.00E+00
Well 19 0.0050 0.0001 0.011 33 7.14E-07 1 2.25E-08
Well 23 0.0090 0.0003 0.011 19 7.68E-07 0 0.00E+00
Well 24 0.0020 0.0010 0.011 26 2.33E-07 1 8.98E-09
Carbon Tetrachloride
Well 26 0.0005 0.0000 0.13 24 6.37E-07 1 2.65E-08
Well 27 0.0020 0.0001 0.13 18 1.91E-06 1 1.06E-07
Well 28 0.0090 0.0003 0.13 21 1.00E-05 1 5.00E-07

Table 9:

Potential non-cancer risk associated with human ingestion of Fort Ord drinking water assuming "worst-case"(4) conditions.
Chemical Concentration Max. (ppm) Estimated Dose (mg/kg/day) Reference Dose (mg/kg/day) Intermediate MRL (mg/kg/day)
Child Adult
TCE
Well 14 0.0140 0.0009 0.0004 0.0060 (5) 0.0020
Well 18 0.0250 0.0016 0.0007 0.0060 0.0020
Well 19 0.0050 0.0003 0.0001 0.0060 0.0020
Well 23 0.0090 0.0006 0.0003 0.0060 0.0020
Well 24 0.0020 0.0010 0.0010 0.0060 0.0020
Carbon Tetrachloride
Well 26 0.0005 0.0000 0.0000 0.0007 0.0007
Well 27 0.0020 0.0001 0.0001 0.0007 0.0007
Well 28 0.0090 0.0006 0.0003 0.0007 0.0007

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Amanda K. Dunnick, M.P.H.
Health Assessor
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Edward Gregory, Ph.D.
Demographer
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

W. Mark Weber, Ph.D.
Geologist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


REFERENCES

D&M. 1993a. Dames and Moore. Baseline Risk Assessment: Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. June 7, 1993.

D&M. 1993b. Dames and Moore. Final Remedial Investigation Report: Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. June 8, 1993.

D&M. 1993c. Dames and Moore. Final Feasibility Study Report: Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. October 1, 1993.

DOD. 1993. U.S. Department of Defense. Base Realignment and Closure, Ordnance and Explosive Waste Archives Search Report. December 1993.

FORA. 1994. Fort Ord Reuse Authority. Fort Ord Base Reuse Plan. December 12, 1994.

Geotechnical Consultants. 1986. Hydrogeologic update: Fort Ord Military Reservation and Vicinity. July 1986.

HFA. 1994. Human Factors Applications, Inc. OEW Sampling and OEW Removal Action, Ft. Ord Final Report. Volume I. December 1, 1994.

HLA. 1994a. Harding Lawson Associates. Fort Ord Site Map. 1994.

HLA. 1994b. Harding Lawson Associates. Basewide Hydrogeologic Characterization. Draft Final. June 10, 1994.

HLA. 1994c. Harding Lawson Associates. Volume II - Remedial Investigation. Basewide Storm Drain and Sanitary Sewer Investigation. Draft Final. November 16, 1994.

HLA. 1994d. Harding Lawson Associates. Volume II - Remedial Investigation. Site 3. Draft. August 1994.

HLA. 1994e. Harding Lawson Associates. Volume II - Remedial Investigation. Site 3. Draft Final. December 1994.

HLA. 1994f. Harding Lawson Associates. Volume III - Baseline Human Health Risk Assessment. Draft Final. December 1994.

HLA. 1994g. Harding Lawson Associates. Volume IV - Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment Appendixes. Draft Final. November 16, 1994.

HLA. 1995. Harding Lawson Associates. Enhanced Preliminary Assessment of Monterey Bay, Fort Ord, California. Draft Final. October 6, 1995.

MCWD. 1995. Marina Coast Water District, CA. Communication with Malcolm Crawford. October 11, 1995.

MCHD. 1995. Monterey County Health Department, CA. Communication with Marianne Dennis. July 25, 1995.

MCHD. 1996. Monterey County Health Department, CA. Communication with Walter Wong. April 5, 1996.

NSCMP. 1995. Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Program. Survey and Analysis Report, Second Edition. Draft. April 3, 1995.

POM. 1991. Presidio of Monterey, CA. Communication with Dann Stein-Freer. April 19, 1991.

POM. 1995a. Presidio of Monterey, CA. Communication with Melissa Hlebasko. 1995.

POM. 1995b. Presidio of Monterey, CA. Fort Ord Restoration Advisory Board Minutes, September 28, 1995.

POM. 1996a. Presidio of Monterey, CA. Communication with Linda Temple. April 15, 1996.

POM. 1996b. Presidio of Monterey, CA. Communication with Gail Youngblood. June 27, 1996.

POM. 1996c. Presidio of Monterey, CA. Communication with Bill Collins. September 10, 1996.

POM. 1996d. Presidio of Monterey, CA. Superfund Proposed Plan: U.S. Army Proposes Cleanup Plan to Address Human Health at the Site 3 Beach Trainfire Ranges, Fort Ord, California. May 3, 1996.

TCASS. 1995. Toxic Chemical Agent Safety Standards. 1995.

USACHPPM. 1994. U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine. Industrial Radiation Historical Data Review. 1994.

UXB. 1994. UXB International, Inc. Work Plan for OEW Phase II Removal Action. Chantilly, Virginia. June 1994.

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