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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

WOODLAWN COMPANY LANDFILL
WOODLAWN, CECIL COUNTY, MARYLAND


CONCLUSIONS

The Woodlawn Landfill poses a public health hazard because of the potential for future exposure tosite-related contaminants in the water of residential wells. Low level vinyl chloride contaminationhas been discovered in one residential well. Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen andchronic exposure to low levels of this chemical may result in a slightly increased risk of developingcancer. A computer-generated groundwater model predicts that the plume of detectable vinylchloride contamination would reach other residential wells in the near future (i.e., within 20 years).

The site is easily accessed from adjacent property and there are indications that people occasionallytrespass onto it. Based on the environmental sampling that has been conducted on the site, it appearsunlikely that trespassers would currently be exposed to hazardous levels of contaminants. Exposureto on-site contaminants would become a more significant exposure pathway during site remediation.

The water and sediment sampling that has been conducted in the unnamed creek that flows throughthe landfill suggests that this is currently not a significant means for the off-site transport ofcontaminants. In general, it appears that the environmental sampling that has been conducted onand off of the site is sufficient to adequately characterize the extent of contamination.

An evaluation of available health outcome data suggests that a statistically higher rate of 2 birthdefects, spina bifida and Down Syndrome, exists in Cecil County when compared to the state. Theincreased rate of those birth defects are not likely a result of environmental exposures tocontaminants from the site because people are known to have only been exposed to low levels ofvinyl chloride, which has not been associated with those birth defects. Spina bifida has beenassociated with dietary deficiencies (folic acid) of the mother and Down Syndrome is more prevalentwhen the mother is older. Other factors that may be associated with the birth defects are not clearly understood.


RECOMMENDATIONS

Recommendations

The following actions are recommended:

  1. Establish a regular groundwater monitoring program for residential wells near the landfill. Wells that should be regularly monitored (at least twice per year) include the four residentialwells north of the site along Firetower Road, the four wells along Firetower Road, south ofthe intersection with Waibel Road, and the two wells off of Waibel Road, immediately to the south of the site.

  2. Alternative water supplies should be provided to residents if contaminants are discovered in their drinking water wells in concentrations that exceed health-based levels.

  3. Access to the site should be restricted, especially during future remediation activities. Currently, the site can be easily accessed from the dirt road that parallels the northern border. Warning signs should be posted at regular intervals along the site perimeter.

  4. Conduct monitoring for airborne contaminants that may be released from the site duringfuture remediation activities. Monitoring should be conducted for volatile organiccompounds and for common landfill gases such as methane at downwind stations that are onor just over the site boundary.

  5. Employ dust suppression techniques during site remediation in order to limit the exposure of persons on and off of the site to contaminated dusts.

  6. Provide health education to the exposed and potentially-exposed populations.

  7. Provide the health outcome data evaluation to the appropriate agency as a source ofinformation for future birth defects studies that may be performed in Cecil County.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP)

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980(CERCLA), as amended, requires ATSDR to perform public health actions needed at hazardouswaste sites. To determine if public health actions are needed, ATSDR's Health ActivitiesRecommendation Panel (HARP) has evaluated the data and information developed in theWoodlawn Landfill Public Health Assessment. Because there are no indications that people havebeen exposed to contaminants at levels that may cause illness or disease, HARP determined that nofollow-up health activities are indicated at this time. If new information becomes availableindicating exposure at levels of concern, ATSDR will evaluate that information to determine what actions, if any, are necessary.

Public Health Actions

The public health action plan (PHAP) for the Woodlawn Landfill site contains a description ofactions to be taken by ATSDR and/or other governmental agencies at and in the vicinity of the sitesubsequent to the completion of this public health assessement. The purpose of the PHAP is toensure that this public health assessement not only identifies public health hazards, but provides aplan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposureto hazardous substances in the environment. Included is a commitment on the part of MDE and ATSDR to follow up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented.

  1. MDE will make additional recommendations as needed to reduce and/or prevent exposures associated with any future remediation activities that might affect public health.

  2. When appropriate, MDE will communicate with local residents to provide information and assistance in understanding their potential for exposure to hazardous substances.

  3. MDE will contact EPA to ensure that all environmental recommendations are considered for implementation.

  4. MDE will identify the appropriate state or local health agency to receive the birth defects evaluation and provide that agency with a copy of this public health assessment.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Peter J. Ashley, M.P.H.
Environmental Toxicologist
Environmental Toxicology and
Risk Assessment Division
Maryland Department of the Environment

Shirin de Silva, M.D., M.P.H.
Project Director and Administrator
Environmental Health Program
Maryland Department of the Environment

Carolyn Nunley, M.P.H.
Acting Division Director
Environmental Toxicology and
Risk Assessment Division
Maryland Department of the Environment

John Fairbank
CERCLA Division
Waste Management Administration
Maryland Department of the Environment


ATSDR REPRESENTATIVES

Charles Walters
Senior Regional Representative
ATSDR (Region III)

Gail Godfrey
Technical Project Officer
State Program Section
Atlanta, GA


CERTIFICATION

The Woodlawn Landfill Site Public Health Assessment has been prepared by the MarylandDepartment of the Environment under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for ToxicSubstances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology andprocedures existing at the time the public health assessment was initiated.

Gail D. Godfrey
Technical Project Officer, SPS, RPB, DHAC


The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams, P. E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Preliminary Health Assessment forWoodlawn Landfill. Woodlawn, Maryland. Atlanta: ATSDR, May, 1988.

  2. Gwillim, J. Angry at the county, landfill neighbors express health fears. Cecil Whig. 1989. May, 6.

  3. IT Corporation. Phase IV-Additional Fieldwork. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Woodlawn Landfill, Cecil County, MD. May, 1991 and Revision 01, November, 1991.

  4. IT Corporation. Phase III-Groundwater Evaluation. Remedial Investigation/FeasibilityStudy, Woodlawn Landfill, Cecil County, MD. May, 1991 and Revision 01, November,1991.

  5. Environmental Resources Management (ERM). Septic System Drain Field Investigation. Woodlawn Transfer Station, Cecil County, MD. April, 1991.

  6. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures - 1990. Atlanta: American Cancer Society.

  7. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile forBenzene. Atlanta: ATSDR, August, 1989.

  8. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile forDi(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Atlanta: ATSDR, April, 1989.

  9. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile forManganese. Atlanta: ATSDR, February, 1991.

  10. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile forMethylene Chloride. Atlanta: ATSDR, April, 1989.

  11. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile forVinyl Chloride. Atlanta: ATSDR, August, 1989.

  12. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA). 1991. Conducting RemedialInvestigations/Feasibility Studies for CERCLA Municipal Landfills. Washington, D.C.:Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. EPA/540/P-91/001.

APPENDICES

Site Map with Location of Monitoring Wells
Figure 1. Site Map with Location of Monitoring Wells

Site Map with Location of Adjacent Domestic Wells
Figure 2. Site Map with Location of Adjacent Domestic Wells


Table 1.

RANGE OF CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATIONS IN ON-SITE SEEPS AND LEACHATE SOILS (3)
CONTAMINANT SEEP CONCENTRATION (ppb) LEACHATE SOIL CONCENTRATION (ppb) SAMPLING DATE REFERENCE
VolatilesAcetone
ND1
ND - 130
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
2-Butanone
ND
ND - 49
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
Benzene
ND - 82
ND - 6a
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
Chlorobenzene
ND - 20
ND
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
Ethylbenzene
ND - 18
ND - 17b
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
Toluene
ND - 2a
ND - 120b
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
Xylenes
ND - 10b
97b
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
Semivolatiles

Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP)

ND
140 - 5,800a
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)2
ND
ND - 780
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
Metals  

CONCENTRATION
(ppm)

   
Cadmium
ND - 2.7
0.9 - 10.5
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
Cobalt
2.6 - 11.1
12.3 - 33.4
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
Magnesium
21,700 - 35,800
2,120 - 3,330a
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
Manganese
13.2 - 1,090
295 - 1,270
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
Mercury
ND
ND - 0.68
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV
Vanadium
6.1 - 8.9
13.1 - 72.6
2 - 3/90 RI/FS Phase IV

1ND = Not Detected
2PAH's are a group of similar chemicals formed from incomplete combustion
aChemical was identified, but the concentration is uncertain
bThe presence of the chemical may be due to laboratory contamination


Table 2.

RANGE OF CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATIONS IN THE TOP SIX INCHES OF SOIL FROM ON-SITE BORINGS (3)
CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION RANGE (ppb) DATE REFERENCE
Volatiles2-Butanone
NDa - 43
Feb/March 1990 Phase IV RI/FS
Chlorobenzene
ND - 5b
Feb/March 1990 Phase IV RI/FS
SemivolatilesBenzoic Acid
ND - 730b
Feb/March 1990 Phase IV RI/FS
Bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
(BEHP)
ND - 15,000
Feb/March 1990 Phase IV RI/FS
Butyl Benzylphthalate
ND - 450b
Feb/March 1990 Phase IV RI/FS
Di-n-octyl phthalate
ND - 9,300
Feb/March 1990 Phase IV RI/FS
Diethyl phthalate
ND - 630b
Feb/March 1990 Phase IV RI/FS
4-Methylphenol
ND - 420b
Feb/March 1990 Phase IV RI/FS
Polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)1
ND - 1,300
Feb/March 1990 Phase IV RI/FS
METALS

Cadmium

CONCENTRATION RANGE (ppm)

ND - 1.3

Feb/March 1990 Phase IV RI/FS
Lead
7 - 278
Feb/March 1990 Phase IV RI/FS
Magnesium
372 - 32,000
Feb/March 1990 Phase IV RI/FS
Manganese
161 - 470
Feb/March 1990 Phase IV RI/FS

aND=Not Detected

bIndicates that the chemical was identified but that the concentration is an estimate.

1PAH's are a group of similar chemicals formed by incomplete combustion and are common environmental contaminants.


Table 3.

RANGE OF CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATIONS IN ON-SITE GROUNDWATER MONITORING WELLS (3,4)
CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION RANGE (ppb) COMPARISON VALUE (ppb) DATE REFERENCE
Volatiles Acetone
ND1 - 600

3,500a

11/90 Phase III RI/FS
2-Butanone
ND - 680
NA2
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Benzene
ND - 72
5b
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Ethylbenzene
ND - 52
700b
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Methylene chloride
ND - 38
5c
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Toluene
ND - 210
1000c
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Vinyl Chloride
0.28 - 522
2b
3/90,11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Semivolatiles

Bis-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (BEHP)

ND - 140
4c
3/90, 11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Diethyl Phthalate
ND - 49
4c
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Metalsd

Aluminum

ND - 1,840
NA
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Cadmium
ND - 119
5b
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Cobalt
ND - 52
NA
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Iron
ND - 59,500
NA
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Magnesium
401 - 34,800
NA
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Manganese
5.6 - 24,200
3,500a
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Mercury
ND - 2.6
2b
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Sodium
3200 - 633,000
NA
11/90 Phase III RI/FS

aValue derived using U.S. EPA's Reference Dose (RfD) for chronic oral exposure
bMaximum Contaminant Level (MCL) - the maximum level of a contaminant that is allowed in a public drinking water supply (established by the U.S. EPA)
cProposed Maximum Contaminant Level (PMCL) - levels that have been proposed by the EPA, but have not been promulgated as final rules
dMetal samples were filtered before being analyzed
1ND = Not detected in sample
2NA = Not available


Table 4.

RANGE OF CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED IN OFF-SITE* GROUNDWATER MONITORING WELLS (3,4)
CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION RANGE (ppb) COMPARISON VALUE (ppb) DATE REFERENCE
Volatiles

Benzene

2a
5b
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Methylene Chloride
ND1 - 16
5c
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Toluene
ND - 15
1,000b
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Vinyl Chloride
ND - 31
2b
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Semivolatiles

Bis-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (BEHP)

ND - 140
4c
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Alpha-BHC (lindane)
ND - 0.11
4b
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Metalse

Magnesium

1,390 - 13,800
NA2
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Manganese
5.5 - 8,370
3,500d
11/90 Phase III RI/FS
Sodium
6,870 - 18,400
NA
11/90 Phase III RI/FS

*Includes data from monitoring wells located just inside of the site boundary

aChemical was detected at a low concentration, but the exact level is uncertain

bMaximum Contaminant Level (MCL)

cProposed Maximum Contaminant Level (PMCL)

dValue derived using U.S. EPA's Reference Dose (RFD) for chronic oral exposure

eMetal samples were filtered before analysis

1ND - Not detected in sample

2NA - Not available: Sufficient data are not available for the derivation of a comparison value



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