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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
BELTSVILLE, PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY, MARYLAND


TABLES

Table 1.

Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards Associated with Areas of Concern (AOCs) with Sampling Data
Site Site Description/Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/ Environmental Monitoring Results Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Public Health
Evaluation
Areas of Concern (AOCs) in North Farm
BARC 3:
North Farm Dump
Throughout the 1950s, surface dumping of trash, scrap metal, transformers, and chemical containers occurred on this site. In the 1960s, a pit, about 110 square feet and 10 to 15 feet deep, was dug to dispose of the surface debris. The site is currently overgrown with vegetation. Soil: In three composite soil samples analyzed during the Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) and three surface soil samples analyzed in 1999, arsenic was the only contaminant detected at levels above the ATSDR comparison value (CV).
Groundwater: One 1999 sample contained bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, dieldrin, and a number of metals at concentrations exceeding their CVs.
Under the Site Screening Process (SSP), a Draft Human Health Risk Screen, issued in January 2001, discusses the results of the 1999 sampling conducted at this site. BARC has not yet determined what further actions it will take at the site, if any. Soil is not expected to pose a public health hazard. A fence limits access to the site. Any public exposures would be short-term and infrequent, and the arsenic levels detected do not cause adverse health effects under these circumstances. Groundwater does not pose a public health hazard because no wells have been identified near the site; therefore, no exposures have occurred.
BARC 4:
B-033 Washdown Area
Mixing and loading of pesticides occurred in this area. Runoff was routed to nearby ditches that drain into Little Paint Branch, about 1 mile to the east. Around 1993, a new facility for storing and mixing chemicals and washing equipment was built nearby, and a new sump collects runoff when the area is used. Soil: In five samples collected during the PA/SI, concentrations of arsenic, 4,4'-DDD, and 4,4'-DDT slightly exceeded CVs. In eight 1999 samples, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)flouranthene, several pesticides, arsenic, and lead exceeded CVs.
Groundwater: Four 1999 samples contained 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, dieldrin, and nine metals at concentrations above CVs.
Sediment: Sediment from a storm drain at this site, sampled in 1999, contained pesticides, arsenic, and lead at levels exceeding CVs.
A Draft Human Health Risk Screen for the AOC, describing the results of soil, sediment, and groundwater sampling, was issued in February 2001. Further actions to be taken at the site, if any, have not yet been determined. The public is not expected to be exposed to the contaminated soil or sediment at the site at doses sufficient to cause adverse health effects. There is no regular public access to the site. Any exposures would be sporadic, incidental, and of short duration. Thus, neither soil nor sediment poses a public health hazard. Groundwater does not pose a public health hazard because there is no known exposure. No potentially affected wells have been identified in the vicinity of the site.
BARC 5: Herbicide Washdown Area This area was used to burn ground-up currency, boxes, and other containers until 1960, when the site was fenced. Subsequently, shredded currency and rinsewater from washing herbicide sprayers were dumped on site. Soil: During the PA/SI, three composite soil samples were analyzed. Concentrations of all compounds were below CVs. The only contaminant to exceed its CV in four 1999 samples was arsenic.
Groundwater: In four 1999 samples, several metals exceeded CVs.
In February 2001, a Draft Human Health Risk Screen for the site was released. Further action to be taken at the site, if any, has not yet been planned. Soil poses no apparent public health hazard. Access to the area is now controlled, and prior exposures were probably uncommon and of short duration. Under such circumstances, the arsenic levels detected do not cause adverse health effects. Groundwater poses no apparent public health hazard because there is no known exposure.
BARC 18: Low-Level Radiation Burial Site
(LLRBS)
The northern field at this site was used from 1949 through 1987 for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, including scintillation fluids, contaminated laboratory refuse, animal waste, contaminated animal carcasses, and possibly ash from incinerated animal tissue. Soil: Samples collected in 1993 were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), total organic halogens (TOX), and gross alpha, beta, and gamma. No TOX were detected. Concentrations of VOCs did not exceed CVs. Monitoring for radiological constituents did not yield any results above background levels.
Groundwater: Results from groundwater sampling in 1993, 1996, 1997 and 1998 revealed levels of metals, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, chloroform, heptachlor epoxide, methylene chloride, tritium, Ra226, and Ra228 that exceeded CVs.
The data suggest that a plume of contamination is migrating southeast (the direction of groundwater flow) from the site, primarily in the upper portion of the Patuxent Aquifer. Principal plume contaminants appear to be chloroform, tritium, and possibly Ra226 and Ra228. Geoprobe® sampling in 1997 indicated that the plume had migrated approximately 1000 feet from the burial site. December 1998 sampling indicated that the plume had not left BARC property.
Surface Water/Sediment: In 1997, sediment and surface water samples were taken from locations downgradient of the site. Two samples were taken in spray irrigation runoff ditches southeast of the site, and 2 samples were taken in a tributary to Little Paint Branch further downgradient. Results indicated that no contamination from the site had migrated overland or through the groundwater to these locations.
According to a 1997 SSP Work Plan, surface water and sediment samples will be collected from a field drainage ditch near the site and a tributary of Little Paint Branch about 1,000 feet east of the site. A Geoprobe® survey will be used in conjunction with sampling at groundwater monitoring wells to determine the extent of groundwater contamination. The Remedial Investigation (RI) report is expected to be available in 2001. Soil contaminants are not expected to pose a public health hazard. The site is fenced, so there is no exposure to the public. Furthermore, sampling conducted to date has not revealed levels of non-radioactive contaminants that might pose a public health hazard, and soil radiological monitoring found no results above background levels. Groundwater does not pose a public health hazard because no one is exposed to contaminated groundwater. Sampling to date indicates that groundwater contamination has not migrated beyond BARC boundaries. No BARC wells are near the site. The nearest private well is 1.5 miles east of the site. ATSDR assumes that BARC will continue to monitor the plume to ensure it does not pose a hazard to drinking water supplies.
Surface water and sediment do not pose a public health hazard because site contamination is not affecting surface water or sediment at this time. ATSDR assumes that contamination at this site will be fully investigated and appropriately remediated in the future. ATSDR recommends that new signs be placed around the fence surrounding the site to further discourage trespassing in the area.
BARC 19: Trenches Behind B-029 This site was reportedly filled with automobiles and other refuse before being capped with soil. 1996 field reconnaissance revealed glass, brick, pottery, and other rubble in the on-site soil. Soil: Three samples collected in late 1999 contained benzo(a)pyrene, dieldrin, and arsenic at levels exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: Heptachlor and a number of metals were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs in two 1999 samples.
In January 2001, a Draft Human Health Risk Screen for the site was released. Whether any further action will be taken at the site has not yet been determined. Any public exposures to soil at this site would be brief, infrequent, and most likely incidental. These types of exposures would not cause adverse health effects. Thus, soil does not pose a public health hazard. Groundwater does not pose a public health hazard because there is no known exposure.
ENTECH M6:
B-029 Service Yard
Buildings on this site were constructed in the early 1940s to serve as the center for North Farm's logistical maintenance activities. The buildings have been used to store farm equipment, fertilizers, and laboratory chemicals. Fuels were stored in several underground storage tanks (USTs) and an aboveground storage tank (AST). Soil: In seven 1999 surface soil samples, only benzo(a)pyrene, Aroclor 1260, and arsenic were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: In six 1999 samples, metals were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs.
A Draft Human Health Risk Screen issued in January 2001 describes the results of 1999 sampling. It does not describe further plans for the site because they have not yet been determined. The contaminants found in soil at this site are not expected to cause adverse health effects. Any public exposures to the soil would be infrequent and brief. Thus, soil poses no public health hazard. Groundwater poses no public health hazard because there are no known downgradient drinking water wells near the site.
EPIC 7: Open Storage Area At this site, there is a service yard and a 300-gallon diesel AST. Beginning in the 1950s, the area served as a storage area for various shops formerly in the vicinity, such as paint, carpentry, and plumbing shops. The site is currently partially fenced. Soil: One 1999 sample contained arsenic and lead at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: Two samples contained metals at concentrations exceeding CVs in 1999.
Surface Water/Sediment: One 1999 sediment sample collected from a storm drain at the western boundary of this AOC contained only arsenic at a level exceeding its CV. Three surface water and three sediment samples collected in Little Paint Branch near EPIC 7, 8, and 9 in 1999 did not contain any contaminants at levels above CVs.
A January 2001 Draft Human Health Risk Screen describes the results of sampling at this site. Further plans for this site have not yet been determined. Any public exposures to soil at this site would be infrequent and of short duration. Exposures of this type to the detected levels of arsenic and lead would not cause adverse health effects. Thus, soil poses no public health hazard. Groundwater poses no public health hazard because there are no known exposures. Surface water and sediment do not contain contaminants at levels of health concern and therefore do not pose a public health hazard.
EPIC 8: Open Storage Area This site was used for stockpiling coal and then converted to a parking area. By 1996, it held piles of construction debris, refuse, and a drum. Soil: Dieldrin and arsenic were detected at levels exceeding CVs in seven 1999 samples.
Groundwater: Metals exceeded CVs in four 1999 samples.
Surface Water/Sediment: See description of samples from Little Paint Branch under EPIC 7.
A December 2000 Draft Human Health Risk Screen discusses the results of sampling at this site. No further action is planned at the AOC. Soil does not pose a public health hazard. The levels of arsenic and dieldrin detected do not cause adverse health effects to individuals with short-term and infrequent exposures, the only expected exposure scenario. Because there is no known exposure, groundwater does not pose a public health hazard. Surface water and sediment do not pose a public health hazard because they do not contain contaminants at levels of health concern.
EPIC 9: Open Storage Area EPIC 9 was used as a coal storage lot in the 1940s. It was later used as a maintenance and storage area for nearby shops. Later, B-013, B-013A, and a service yard were built on the site. Soil: In one 1999 sample, benzo(a)pyrene and arsenic exceeded CVs.
Groundwater: A number of metals exceeded CVs in three 1999 samples.
Surface Water/Sediment: See description of samples from Little Paint Branch under EPIC 7.
The results of the 1999 sampling event are discussed in a December 2000 Draft Human Health Risk Screen. No further action is planned at this site. Soil does not pose a public health hazard because the levels of contaminants detected do not cause adverse health effects under the expected brief, infrequent exposure scenarios. There is no known exposure to groundwater; thus, it poses no public health hazard. Surface water and sediment do not contain contaminants at levels of health concern and therefore pose no public health hazard.
EPIC 11: Open Storage This site was used by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in the 1950s and 1960s. The AEC apparently investigated the effects of small quantities of radioactive materials on plants. All plants grown in soil injected with radioactive material were reportedly harvested and the soils were scraped. Later, the site continued to be used as a storage area for the adjacent laboratory/greenhouse. Soil: Three 1999 soil samples contained arsenic and lead at concentrations exceeding their CVs. In addition, radium-226 exceeded its screening value. Low levels of gross alpha and non-volatile beta radiation, for which there are no screening values, were also detected.
Groundwater: In three 1999 samples, arsenic, iron, manganese, and vanadium exceeded CVs. In addition, radium-226 and gross alpha levels exceeded screening values. Non-volatile beta activity was also detected.
Sediment: In one sediment sample collected from a storm drain in 1999, arsenic exceeded its CV and radium-226 exceeded its screening value. Gross alpha and non-volatile beta levels were also measured in the sample, but screening values are not available.
A Human Health Risk Screen in Draft form in January 2001 describes the results of sampling conducted to date, but no further plans for the site have been finalized. Public exposures to soil at this site would be expected to be incidental, infrequent, and of short duration. Soil is not expected to pose a public health hazard because contaminant levels are not high enough to cause adverse health effects under expected exposure scenarios. There are no known drinking water wells in the vicinity of the site. As long as there is no exposure to contaminated groundwater, groundwater does not pose a public health hazard. Sediment does not pose a public health hazard because the public exposure to storm drain sediment is expected to be accidental, brief, and unusual, if it occurs at all, and the contaminants detected would not cause adverse health effects under such circumstances.
AOCs in South Farm
BARC 1: Experimental Wood Treatment Area In the 1940s and 1950s, various chemicals were applied to wood products, which were allowed to air dry directly on the ground or on top of old tires in this area. The preservatives used on the wood are thought to be copper and arsenic compounds. Soil: Composite soil samples from 1991 revealed, in two of three sample locations, concentrations of arsenic above the CV. In 1997, debris (mostly tires) was removed from the site. A 1999 SSP Work Plan for this AOC outlined further soil and groundwater sampling planned for the site and recommended that access controls in the area be improved. Soil is not expected to pose a public health hazard. Public exposure is unlikely because the site is remote and because signs around the site warn people of possible contamination in the area. Arsenic levels detected are not expected to cause adverse health effects to individuals coming into contact with them infrequently, briefly, and incidentally. Groundwater is not expected to pose a public health hazard because no nearby wells have been identified.
BARC 2: South Farm Dump This site was formerly a gravel pit and was later used (beginning around the 1940s) as a refuse disposal site for various solid wastes, vegetation, and drums. The drums may have contained waste chemicals or residues, possibly including the pesticides malathion and parathion and the herbicides 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D. Soil: Three samples from 1997 and 1998 contained levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), arsenic, and iron above CVs. 1991 sampling detected pesticides and metals at concentrations below CVs.
Groundwater: In five 1997 and 1998 samples, cadmium was detected at a concentration exceeding its CV.
In August 1997, a small amount of surface debris was removed from the AOC, including several drums full of dirt. A draft SSP report discusses the results of sampling conducted at the AOC, where no further action is planned. Soil at the site is not expected to pose a public health hazard. Because access to South Farm is restricted and the AOC is in a remote location, any exposures would likely be incidental, infrequent, and of short duration.
There are no potable water supply wells near BARC 2. Therefore, groundwater is not expected to pose a public health hazard.
AOCs in Linkage Farm
BARC 6: Biodegradable Site From the 1940s until 1975, this site was a landfill, reportedly accepting construction and household waste, as well as chemical containers. A fence was built along the western edge of the historical disposal area in 1993, the same year a large-scale cleanup of the site was conducted. The site is in a wetlands area, about 500 feet west of Indian Creek. It is part of a 10-acre parcel that will be transferred, after U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approval, to the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) after a Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) is completed. WMATA uses some of the adjacent property as a maintenance and storage yard. Hydrologically upgradient of the AOC is the Beltsville Industrial Center. A dry cleaning outlet supplier, W.P. Ballard & Company, operated there from 1965 to 1988 and is responsible for a tetrachloroethylene (PCE) spill that caused a groundwater plume that extends to BARC property southeast of the Center. Soil: 1990 samples collected from the landfill area before the remedial action contained levels of benzo(a)pyrene, dieldrin, lead, and arsenic exceeding CVs. In 32 samples from 1998, only benzo(a)pyrene and arsenic exceeded CVs.
Surface Water/Sediment: Concentrations of TCE, PCE, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and arsenic exceeded CVs in 11 1990 and 1994 surface water samples. In seven 1998 samples, concentrations of heptachlor epoxide, antimony, and arsenic in samples from Indian Creek exceeded CVs. In 12 1990 and 1994 sediment samples, detected concentrations of a number of metals exceeded CVs. In seven 1998 sediment samples, benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, and arsenic exceeded CVs.
Groundwater: 1990 sampling of three wells revealed levels of antimony, arsenic, chromium, manganese, lead, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, TCE, 4,4'-DDD, and 4,4'-DDT that exceeded CVs. In 1997 samples from nine wells, levels of manganese, PCE, TCE, and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) exceeded CVs in samples from both aquifers. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, iron, and manganese exceeded CVs in the upper aquifer. In spring 1998, 45 locations near the AOC were sampled at depths of 20 feet and 60 feet with a Geoprobe® to delineate the extent of plumes of PCE and its breakdown products. Levels of PCE, TCE, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) exceeded CVs. Sampling for organic compounds in September 1998 yielded similar results. PCE, TCE, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-DCE, and 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) exceeded CVs.
An Environmental Site Assessment of the AOC was conducted in 1990, and, in 1994, a Phase II Environmental Investigation was issued. A 1993 removal action included the excavation of over 93,000 tons of soil, waste, and debris from the site. In April 2000, a draft RI report for the site was released. The plume originating from the W.P. Ballard & Company site is moving southeast, in the general direction of BARC 6. Ballard is expected to remediate on- and off-site groundwater contamination under Maryland's Voluntary Cleanup Program. The draft RI for BARC 6 indicates that USDA-ARS does not think it makes sense to remediate BARC 6 until the Ballard source area is remediated. After the RI is finalized, USDA-ARS will work with EPA to identify potential remedial action alternatives and/or future monitoring requirements for the site and prepare a FS and Proposed Plan. No public exposure to surface soil is expected; therefore, surface soil poses no public health hazard. 1998 Geoprobe® sampling indicated that contaminant migration was still some distance from the nearest drinking water well, a BARC production well located about 0.75 miles east-southeast of the site. Further, this well was taken out of service at some time before 1993 and is not expected to be put back into service. Therefore, groundwater does not pose a public health hazard. ATSDR assumes that this site will be monitored and remediated as appropriate. Surface water and sediment pose an indeterminate public health hazard. Although surface waters on BARC property are not used recreationally, the levels of contamination that have reached and may reach downstream areas, off BARC property, are not known.
ENTECH 7: Open Storage Yard (Drums Near Building 085) This site was once used as an off-loading and storage area for bulk commodities such as fertilizer, gravel, and coal, transported to the site via a railroad spur line. The area was later used to mix and store tar for road repairs. Beginning in the 1950s, it also served as a disposal site. Soil: In May 1997, four surface soil samples were collected in locations that appeared likely to be contaminated. Several PAHs were detected at concentrations exceeding their CVs: Arsenic, iron, and lead were found at levels slightly exceeding their CVs. Surface soil was subsequently removed. During a 1997 debris removal action, 40 55-gallon drums (empty or containing soybean oil or a tar-like substance), a 500-gallon AST, and concrete and masonry debris were removed. Surface and subsurface soil sampling and shallow groundwater sampling is planned for the area, according to a 1999 SSP Work Plan. Surface water and sediment from an intermittent drainage ditch will also be sampled. Any past or current exposures to soil would probably be brief, infrequent, and incidental, as there is no reason for the public to access the site. This type of exposure to the levels of contaminants in soil detected to date is not expected to cause adverse health effects. Groundwater poses an indeterminate health hazard, as it has not been sampled. However, there are no drinking water wells in the immediate area. Although surface water and sediment have not yet been sampled, there is no public exposure to these media in the vicinity of this site; therefore, there is no public health hazard.
AOCs in Central Farm
BARC 8: Animal Parasitology Unit (APU) Waste Dump From the 1960s through the 1980s, this site was used as a dump for APU wastes that could not be incinerated. Reportedly, the waste included drums, rubble, small amounts of lab waste, and incinerator ash. Soil: Three composite samples collected during the PA/SI were analyzed and did not reveal any contaminants at concentrations exceeding CVs. Groundwater, surface water/sediment, and soil sampling at the site have been recommended. Soil data collected to date have not revealed levels of contaminants that might pose a public health hazard. Furthermore, the public is not expected to access the site, which is fenced. Groundwater has not yet been characterized. BARC production wells #9 and #10 are located to the southeast of this AOC. However, these wells were taken out of service prior to 1993 and are not expected to be put back into service; also, the BARC water supply has been sampled. Therefore, groundwater is not expected to pose a public health hazard. The extent to which surface water and sediment may pose a public health hazard cannot be evaluated due to the lack of data on the extent of contamination downstream, off BARC property.
BARC 9: Dump Off Odell Road In the 1930s and 1940s, gravel was harvested from this site. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the gravel pit and the area that surrounded it were used for general refuse disposal. Soil: During the SI, five composite samples were collected. At that time, the only contaminant detected at levels above its CV was arsenic. During the 1997 removal action, 23 soil samples were analyzed. Arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead, manganese, vanadium, and various PAHs were detected at levels exceeding CVs. A CERCLA removal action was completed on site in the spring of 1997 and focused on removing surface debris, including drums, laboratory bottles and other containers that might have, at one time, contained hazardous products. A small amount of debris remains. A 1999 SSP Work Plan describes plans for further soil sampling and planned groundwater sampling on the site. Trespassing has been noted in the area of this site. While sporadic exposures to levels of soil contamination at the site are not expected to pose a health hazard, ATSDR recommends that BARC take measures to minimize trespassing. Groundwater at this site poses an indeterminate public health hazard. There is a residential area to the east, where, according to the county health department, there may be potential drinking water wells. BARC production well #5, recently redrilled, is in the southern part of the site, near ENTECH R3. However, the BARC water supply is regularly tested.
BARC 10:
B-301 Washdown Area
Chemical fertilizers and pesticides were stored, mixed, and loaded/unloaded in this area, which is fenced. Around 1987, a washwater disposal pit, lined with gravel and overlying clayey soil, was constructed on the site. The pit apparently overflows at times. In 1990, 200 gallons of sodium hydroxide leaked from a tank, and the affected area was flushed with water for 2 hours. In 1991, some urea ammonium nitrate (a fertilizer) spilled from an AST. Oil and gas spills also have occurred. Near the site are two BARC production wells from the 1930s, #2 (no longer active) and #7 (re-drilled to a depth of over 200 feet in late 1997). Soil: Eleven surface soil samples from 1997 revealed the following chemicals at concentrations exceeding CVs: n-nitroso-di-n-propylamine, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, arsenic, and iron.
Surface Water/Sediment: Results from three surface water samples collected in 1997 revealed manganese and cadmium levels above the CV. Two sediment samples collected concurrently contained bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, arsenic, and iron at levels above CVs.
Groundwater: Shallow groundwater was found at only 3 of the 9 locations sampled in 1997, as the Arundel clay layer underlies the site. Only manganese and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, a possible lab contaminant, were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs.
After sampling was conducted, drainage improvements were made to the site to reduce the impact to surface soils of potentially-contaminated runoff. An 1998 Draft SSP Report outlines results of sampling conducted at the AOC and adjacent ENTECH M23, and a November 2000 Draft Human Health Risk Screen further discusses these data. No further action is planned at this site. Access to the site is limited by a fence. Therefore, there is no public exposure to soil and no public health hazard.
This site is situated on the Arundel clay formation. Some perched shallow groundwater is located within this formation, but the formation acts as a barrier above the underlying Patuxent Aquifer. A former BARC production well and a current BARC production well are located near the site to the west. These wells draw or drew from the Patuxent Aquifer. The BARC water supply is regularly tested. No private residential wells are known to be present within a mile or more of the site. Therefore, groundwater does not pose a public health hazard. There is no exposure to soil, surface water, or sediment in the vicinity of this site; therefore, these media pose no public health hazard.
BARC 11: Dump East of B-409 This site and associated ravine were reportedly used in the 1950s and 1960s to dispose of debris, pesticide-treated corn, and waste from nearby EPA operations. Immediately east of the site is an intermittent stream (a tributary of Beaver Dam Creek). There is a single privately-owned residence about 200 feet northeast of the AOC. It is not known whether there is a well in use at this residence. Soil: During the SI, five soil samples from the ravine and an area of rusted drums were tested. No contaminants were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs. In late 1997, five soil samples were collected. Arsenic, thallium, alpha-chlordane, and gamma-chlordane were detected above CVs.
Surface Water/Sediment: In late 1997, three surface water samples did not contain any contaminants at concentrations above CVs. Three sediment samples from the nearby stream analyzed during the SI did not contain any contaminants at concentrations exceeding CVs. In three subsequent samples, collected in 1997 during the SSP, only arsenic exceeded its CV in sediment.
Groundwater: Groundwater was only encountered at one of the locations sampled (in a small perched area within the clay layer). The sample was analyzed for VOCs, which were not detected.
In August 1997, miscellaneous waste was removed from the AOC, including glassware, drums (one of which held several types of insect and fungus control products), and tires. A Draft Human Health Risk Screen discusses the results of soil, sediment, surface water, and shallow groundwater sampling at this AOC. No further action is planned at the site. Because BARC 11 is located in a remote area, is densely forested, and is surrounded by a fence, there is little possibility of human contact with soil. Therefore, soil poses no apparent public health hazard. Although the residence northeast of the site may have a private well, it is upgradient of the site. Also, such a well would presumably be drawing from the Patuxent Aquifer, which lies below the thick Arundel clay layer. BARC production wells also draw from the Patuxent Aquifer. Thus, it is not expected that groundwater at the site poses a health hazard. There is no exposure to surface water and sediment in the vicinity of this site; therefore, surface water and sediment pose no public health hazard.
BARC 12: Chemical Disposal Pits By the 1940s, surface dumping and burning were conducted at this site. Beginning in the 1960s, chemicals were buried in 12-foot deep pits. As many as 100 such pits may have been used during the 10 to 15 years the disposal site was active. It appears a UST was once present on site, and old drums and oil-changing equipment are still present. Scattered around the site are piles of debris, including drums, auto parts, discarded equipment, and construction waste. A retention pond built in the mid-1970s collects surface water runoff from a former onsite sludge composting facility active in the 1970s and early 1980s. The Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission reportedly leased land at BARC 12 for sludge disposal and is now required to perform post-closure monitoring. Areas that do not drain to the retention pond drain northward to an unnamed creek on the perimeter of BARC. The site currently serves as a supply and equipment storage area. Soil: Five soil samples were collected from the area during the SI. 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, toluene, and a number of metals were detected in the samples. Only arsenic exceeded its CV.
In early 1998, additional sampling associated with the SSP report was performed. A geophysical survey was conducted and identified 14 geophysical anomalies, most of which are probably attributable to buried metallic objects. Thirty surface soil and almost 70 subsurface soil samples were also collected and analyzed. Aldrin, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT, and some metals exceeded CVs in surface soil.
Surface Water/Sediment: In 1998, surface water samples were collected from 10 locations in the drainage ditches around the site. Some metals exceeded CVs. In co-located sediment samples, some metals exceeded CVs.
Groundwater: Six monitoring wells were tested during the PA/SI. The maximum detected levels of antimony, beryllium, chromium, lead, 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDD, and 1,2 -DCA exceeded CVs. The highest levels of contaminants were detected in wells farther east and southeast, in the direction of groundwater flow.
In mid-1997, 11 existing wells were sampled as part of baseline groundwater sampling. Methylene chloride, chloroform, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, vinyl chloride, 1,2-DCA, carbon tetrachloride, and PCE exceeded CVs, as did several metals.
In 1997, waste was removed from the site, including metal, wood, and glass surface debris. Several empty drums were also removed. SSP Report No. 01 discusses the results of 1998 sampling activities at the site. An October 1999 RI/FS Draft Work Plan outlines plans to excavate and sample test pits, conduct a soil gas survey, sample surface water and sediment in the retention pond and the stream northeast of the AOC, and collect and analyze soil and groundwater samples during 2000. EPA is currently reviewing the Draft Work Plan. BARC 12 is in an isolated, relatively remote location, and little human contact with the site is expected. Therefore, soil poses no apparent public health hazard.
The residential inholding near BARC 11 is about 0.5 miles southwest of BARC 12. If this residence has a well, it is presumably drawing from the Patuxent Aquifer, which lies below the thick Arundel clay layer. Thus, groundwater at the site is not expected to pose a public health hazard. It is not known to what extent the site may impact nearby streams, and whether these streams are used recreationally.
BARC 22: College Park Landfill On this site, a solid waste landfill was operated by the city of College Park from the 1950s through 1978. After the landfill closed, two softball diamonds were created on site, but their use was discontinued after 1997. Access to the site is restricted by a gate on the access road. BARC employees have stated said that laboratory bottles and "test diets" containing small amounts of mercury were taken to the site. An employee also stated that manure from cows treated with radioactive materials was landfilled in plastic bags. The southeast corner of the landfill is adjacent to Beaver Dam Creek. There is debris on the ground and in the creek, including batteries and drums. In the northeast part of the site, a leachate seep drains to the north towards fields. The landfill may encroach on the 50-year floodplain of Beaver Dam Creek. Soil: Soil from drainage ditches was tested in 1997. In the eight samples, benzo (a) pyrene, iron, Aroclor 1260, and arsenic were detected at concentrations above CVs. Surface and subsurface soils at the landfill itself were also tested, as was soil in the floodplain. In the floodplain, some PAHs and metals exceeded CVs. At the landfill itself, VOCs and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were found over CVs in subsurface soils.
Surface Water/Sediment: Five surface water samples were collected from Beaver Dam Creek in 1997. The only contaminant to exceed its CV was manganese. In co-located sediment samples, arsenic and iron exceeded CVs.
Groundwater: VOCs, SVOCs and some metals were found over CVs in shallow groundwater.
A draft of SSP Report No. 01, which addresses BARC 22, was released in October 1998. A removal action of surface debris was performed in the spring of 1998, after the completion of SSP field activities. Surface debris removed includes empty drums, metal and other construction debris, tires, and household waste. A June 1999 RI/FS Work Plan for the site describes planned sampling of soil and groundwater, surface water and sediment in Beaver Dam Creek and its floodplain, and landfill gas. Sporadic exposure to surface soil is not expected to pose a public health hazard.
In the past, wells may have been used at certain residences surrounded by BARC property, known as residential inholdings, near Edmonston Road. Some of these residences are about 600 feet north of the site. However, a recent investigation performed as part of field work for the Ballard site found that no wells were in use at these inholdings. Because this area is thought to be hydraulically upgradient of the site, it is unlikely that contamination from the site reached any wells that may have been used in the past. Therefore, no past, current, or future public health hazard is expected from groundwater.
Surface water and sediment pose an indeterminate public health hazard. Although surface waters on BARC property are not used recreationally, it is not known to what extent BARC 22 contamination affects downstream surface water, off BARC property.
BARC 26: Dump Off Poultry Road This small area within BARC 9 is in an excavated part of a hillside. Formerly the site of a trench silo, it became a disposal site for poultry waste. There is a residential area northeast of the site where, according to the county health department, there may be potential drinking water wells. BARC production well #5, recently redrilled, is less than 0.5 miles to the south. Soil: Three 1999 samples contained only benzo(a)pyrene and arsenic at concentrations slightly above CVs. A February 2001 Draft Human Health Risk Screen details the available sampling data. Plans for the site have not yet been determined. Soil does not pose a public health hazard because the contaminants detected would not cause adverse health effects from expected infrequent and brief exposures. Groundwater poses an indeterminate public health hazard because it has not been sampled. However, groundwater flow in the area is generally to the southeast, so the nearby production well may not be downgradient of this site.
BARC 27: Beaver Dam Road Landfill This site, now fenced, was used for waste disposal as early as 1943. In the 1980s, it was clay capped, with a geofabric liner beneath the clay. Reportedly, the soils used to cap the landfill were excavated from the south end of the BARC airfield, where a depression is currently located. The landfill apparently accepted solely or mostly nonhazardous substances, but documentation of materials received is poor and access was poorly controlled. No debris protrudes from the landfill, but there is an area of surface debris nearby, within the fence. Mostly, there is construction and household waste, but there are also three empty drums, formerly holding oil and a compressed gas cylinder. Groundwater: Four monitoring wells are located on the perimeter of the landfill, three of which are downgradient of the site. These wells draw from shallow groundwater; the downgradient wells are all less than 30 feet deep. The four wells were sampled in 1997 as part of baseline groundwater sampling of existing BARC wells. Concentrations of TCE at one downgradient well were above the CV. Four metals were measured at concentrations exceeding CVs in downgradient wells: nickel, beryllium, iron, and manganese. The detected level of manganese in the upgradient well also exceeded the CV. In 1998, a SSP Work Plan was completed for the AOC. It outlines plans to collect shallow groundwater samples along the perimeter of the landfill and at points near an unnamed tributary to Beaver Dam Creek, surface water and sediment samples from the stream and from wetland areas at the southern terminus of the landfill, and samples from the four monitoring wells at BARC 27. Access to this site is restricted by a fence. Therefore, soil contamination does not pose a public health hazard because there is no exposure. Groundwater contamination is not expected to pose a public health hazard. The only drinking water wells in the vicinity of the site are two BARC production wells (#7 within a half mile to the west, and #8 over a half mile to the southeast), which are not expected to be affected by contaminants from this site at levels of health concern. BARC water is blended, sampled, and treated at the BARC water supply plant before being distributed. Surface water and sediment do not pose a public health hazard because there is no recreational use of surface water and sediment at BARC.
BARC 30: Chemical Storage Shed Behind Water Tower There was formerly a shed on this site, which may have been used to store bottles of chemicals. No further information about the use of the shed is available. Soil: In May 1997, four soil samples, including a background sample, were analyzed. The following contaminants were detected at levels above CVs: benzo(a)pyrene, heptachlor, alpha-chlordane and gamma-chlordane, arsenic, lead, and mercury. The shed, associated debris, and two large metal shipping crates were removed from the site as part of a 1997 removal action. Additional sampling is planned. Sporadic contact with soil contamination at this site is not expected to pose a public health hazard. Groundwater at this site is not expected to be contaminated. Further, there are no drinking water wells nearby.
BARC 41: Underground Storage Tank at B-312 An UST was removed from this site in the late 1980s. At that time, it did not contain any traces of fuel oil, which it formerly stored. In 1996, boxes and drums marked with radiation warning labels were visible inside B-312. This building is currently scheduled for demolition. Two or three old groundwater monitoring wells are near the building, and BARC production well #4 is 25 to 50 feet northeast of B-312. Soil: In five samples collected in December 1998 and January 1999, only arsenic exceeded its CV. In addition, carbon-14, radium-226, and radium-228 were present at levels exceeding screening values. Gross alpha and non-volatile beta activity, for which there are no screening values, were also detected.
Surface Water/Sediment: In two surface water samples from 1998 or 1999, alpha-BHC, several pesticides, arsenic, manganese, and thallium exceeded CVs. In three sediment samples, PAHs and arsenic were present at levels exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: Five 1998 and 1999 monitoring well samples contained bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 2 PAHs, and thirteen metals at concentrations exceeding CVs. Radium-226, radium-228, and gross alpha were also present at levels above screening values. Non-volatile beta activity were also detected. BARC production well #4 was sampled in 1999 and contained lead, TCE, 1,2-DCA, and 1,1-DCE at levels exceeding CVs.
A December 2000 Draft Human Health Risk Screen describes the results of recent sampling at the AOC. However, further actions to be taken at the site have not yet been determined. Because any public exposure to soil, surface water, or sediment at this site would be infrequent, incidental, and of short duration, no adverse health effects would be expected to occur. Thus, these media are not expected to pose any public health hazards. Although samples from nearby BARC production well #4 contained concentrations of lead and a few VOCs exceeding CVs, these contaminants were not detected in concurrent samples from the BARC water supply plant at levels of health concern. However, because well #4 was not sampled for radiological parameters, groundwater poses an indeterminate public health hazard.
ENTECH M23: Fill Area An aerial photograph from 1943 indicates that this site was a fill area. During 1996 Field Reconnaissance, a 12-inch concrete pipe was noted in a gully. It was later determined that the pipe drained storm water from the washdown area of the adjacent Farm Services complex. Soil: During the SSP for BARC 10, two samples from ENTECH M23 were analyzed. Only arsenic levels exceeded the CV.
Surface Water/Sediment: Levels of cadmium, manganese, and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate above CVs were detected in a surface water sample collected below the concrete pipe. A sediment sample from the discharge point of the pipe contained concentrations of arsenic and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate above CVs.
After the source of the pipe was determined (around 1998), riprap was placed on the soil near the discharge point of the pipe. Because significant exposure is not expected to contaminants found in soil, surface water, and sediment, none of these media pose a public health hazard. A BARC production well is located near the site, to the west. Because the BARC water supply is regularly tested and there are no known private wells near the site, groundwater is not expected to pose a public health hazard.
ENTECH R2: NASA Laser Test Mast Formerly, a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) radio and laser test station was present at this site After NASA abandoned the site, a shipping crate, poles, an antenna mast, drums, paint and oil cans, batteries, and a possible groundwater monitoring well remained. Soil: A NASA contractor performed a site screening investigation and analyzed 10 soil samples in 1997. The only contaminants detected above CVs were arsenic and mercury. The 1997 site investigation report recommended that the surface debris be removed from the site. Further action planned by BARC at the site will be outlined in an SSP Work Plan. Sporadic exposure to soil contamination at this site is not expected to pose a public health hazard. Any shallow groundwater contamination that may exist will not impact drinking water wells.
ENTECH R3: Possible Disposal Area This site, within BARC 9, formerly housed chicken coops, along with other miscellaneous surface debris, such as spray paint cans and other metal items. It is located between two drainage tracks that eventually join with tributaries to Beaver Dam Creek. There is a residential area northeast of the site where, according to the county health department, there may be potential drinking water wells. BARC production well #5, recently redrilled, is less than 0.25 miles to the west. Soil: In two 1999 samples, the only contaminant detected at a concentration exceeding its CV was arsenic.
Groundwater: No contaminants were detected at concentrations above CVs in one 1999 sample.
A Draft Human Health Risk Screen for the AOC was issued in February 2001. Whether any further action will be taken at this site has not yet been determined. Soil does not pose a public health hazard. Any public exposures would be short-term and infrequent, and the arsenic levels detected do not cause adverse health effects under these circumstances. Groundwater does not pose a public health hazard because no contaminants were detected.
AOCs in East Farm
BARC 14: Airport Mixing Pad BARC 14 is in the southwestern part of the aircraft hangar area of the BARC airfield, about 50 feet south of B-606 and about 100 feet hydrologically upgradient of a wetland. A concrete pad was reportedly used for mixing and loading pesticides into crop-dusting aircraft and washing aircraft and equipment. Other paved areas, currently removed, were used for aircraft servicing. A pad at the south end of B-606 served as the aircraft fueling station beginning around 1952. All pesticide handling in the hangar area probably ceased when airfield operations ended in 1980. Access to the hangar complex is not controlled. Soil: During the 1991 PA/SI, four soil samples were collected and analyzed for metals and pesticides. Dieldrin was detected in the nearby wetland at a level exceeding the CV. 1998 sampling found some SVOCs and pesticides above CVs.
Groundwater: 1998 sampling did not find any contaminants above CVs.
Sediment: In 1998 sampling, some SVOCs and pesticides were detected above CVs.
During the 1996 field reconnaissance, an area of soil staining with a sludge- or tar-like appearance and a 100 Octane pump and pipe, suggesting an UST, were observed near the fueling pad. The pump and presumably the associated UST were removed between 1996 and July 1997, as was hangar B-604, disturbing the surface soil. This site was investigated with BARC 37; further plans have not yet been determined. Sporadic exposure to soil contamination is not expected to pose a public health hazard. There is no known exposure to sediment. There are no drinking water wells in the area; further, no groundwater contaminants were found at levels that would pose a public health hazard.
BARC 15: Airport Test Droplet Area BARC 15 is about 800 feet east of the BARC airfield hangar area in the northeast corner of formerly intersecting runways. It is surrounded by a fence, the gates of which are frequently locked, and is currently covered with grass. The area was used by all aircraft prior to takeoff to test spray equipment, using dyed water or pesticides. Evidence from aerial photographs suggests it was used from the early 1950s until the mid-1970s. One employee reported that the area was excavated around 1990. Soil: During the 1991 SI, four soil samples were analyzed for priority pollutant metals and pesticides. Low levels of 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, nickel, and zinc were detected, all below CVs. 1998 surface and subsurface soil sampling did not detect any contaminants above CVs.
Groundwater: In 1998, one groundwater sample was taken at 22 feet. PCE was found slightly above its CV.
Sampling was conducted as part of SSP Investigation No. 2. Further plans for the site have not yet been determined. This site does not pose a public health hazard. Soil contamination was not found at levels that would pose a public health hazard. There are no drinking water wells in the area.
BARC 35: Chicken Hill BARC 35 is on the west side of Springfield Road, on the crest of a hill about 800 feet southeast of the BARC airfield access gate. The AOC is about 150 feet wide by 200 feet long. From the 1950s until 1980, poultry manure and small amounts of debris, including glassware, were buried and dumped on the surface of the site. A large volume of concrete rubble and similar debris is also on site. Soil: In conjunction with the removal action, six soil samples were collected from the AOC in February 1997. A number of contaminants moderately exceeded their respective CVs: heptachlor epoxide, alpha-chlordane and gamma-chlordane, arsenic, lead, and mercury. In 1997, glassware, both laboratory and household, was removed from the site. An SSP Work Plan for the site will outline sampling to be conducted at the site. Sporadic exposure to soil contamination is not expected to pose a public health hazard. Groundwater does not pose a public health hazard because there are no drinking water wells in the area.
BARC 36: Airport Scrap Pile BARC 36, located about 350 feet southwest of B-604 and 250 feet north of the former east-west runway, was used to store machinery and scrap metal when the airport was open. There was formerly an administrative, storage, and parking complex on the site. Later, during the 1960s and 1970s, the area was used by U.S. Park Police, who used trailers as offices and classrooms and reportedly performed vehicle maintenance on site. The area is currently heavily wooded and most debris was located in a ravine. Nearby was also the remains of a radio antenna. Soil: Arsenic, iron, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)flouranthene, aldrin, dieldrin, and 4,4'-DDT were found at levels exceeding CVs in seven 1998 samples.
Groundwater: In 1998, one sample was taken at a depth of 9 feet. Only metals were found at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Sediment: One sediment sample was taken in a wetland north of the disposal ravine in 1998. Dieldrin, arsenic, and iron were found at levels above CVs.
In 1997, waste on the surface of the site was removed. The waste included metal and steel debris, as well as household and construction waste in a small ravine. Also removed were two kerosene-filled ASTs. The site was investigated as part of SSP Investigation No. 2, and a Draft Human Health Risk Screen addressing the site was released in January 2001; further plans have not yet been determined. Sporadic exposure to soil and sediment contamination is not expected to pose a public health hazard. There are no drinking water wells in the area, so groundwater does not pose a public health hazard.
BARC 37: Waste Oil Pit BARC 37 is near BARC 14, in the southwestern part of the aircraft hangar area at the airfield and about 50 feet west of B-606. On site is a concrete spillway which was discolored in aerial photographs from 1963 to 1987. It was reported that the spillway channeled rinsewater, oil, and other fluids generated by aircraft maintenance into a wooded area. Reportedly, a leaking chlorine cylinder was once discovered on the site and, in 1982, contaminated soil from the area was mixed with manure and used as fertilizer on BARC cornfields. Sampling at this AOC was conducted in 1998 in conjunction with sampling at BARC 14. See BARC 14 for a description of sampling results. This site was being investigated with BARC 14 as part of SSP Investigation No. 2; further plans have not been determined. See BARC 14.
BARC 44: Dump in Woods at Airport BARC 44 is just west of BARC 36, in a wooded area along the northern edge of the old BARC airfield. Debris, including aircraft parts, styrofoam sheets, and aluminum siding was historically present in and around a depression. The building debris may be associated with old trailers stored in the area in the late 1970s. Employees reported that items were stored on or near a concrete pad in the area, such as aircraft and automobile batteries, runway equipment, and an electrical panel. One employee said that the Forest Service used the land until about 1970. Soil: No contaminants were detected above CVs in 1998 surface or subsurface soil samples. In the fall of 1997, a surface debris removal action occurred at the site. The remains of a building once associated with the site were removed, as well as other wood and metal debris. This site was investigated as part of SSP Investigation No. 2; further plans have not been determined. This site does not pose a public health hazard. No contaminants were detected at levels of health concern.
EPIC 47: Undetermined EPIC 47 is at the northern end of the former north/south runway at the BARC airfield. Entry is controlled by a 10-foot high security fence with locked gates. The area is paved and currently used to store two 8-foot high compost piles. Aerial photographs from the 1970s show surficial staining related to a track used for vehicle training activities, which may have been associated with tenant law enforcement agencies. U.S. Park Police reportedly used the area, which they coated with used crank case oil from aircraft maintenance activities. Soil: In 1998, benzo(a)pyrene and dieldrin were found above CVs in surface soil and dieldrin was found above CVs in subsurface soil.
Groundwater: No contaminants were detected above CVs in shallow groundwater samples collected in 1998.
This site was investigated as part of SSP Investigation No. 2; further plans have not been determined. Because this site is fenced, there is no public exposure to soil contamination, and therefore no public health hazard. There are no known drinking water wells in the area.
ENTECH 20: Runway Destruction Activity On this site were the two runways of the old BARC airfield, built in the early 1940s and now fenced. After the airfield closed, a compost pile was stored on site. There is a large man-made depression at the southern end of the runways, filled with water and reportedly created in the early 1990s. Mounds of earth and construction debris are at the eastern banks of the depression. There are also two earth/rubble piles on site. Soil: No contaminants were detected above CVs in surface or subsurface soil samples analyzed in 1998.
Surface Water/Sediment: Surface water and sediment samples were collected from the inundated borrow pit at the south end of the airfield in 1998. In surface water, aldrin was found above its CV. Some SVOCs were detected above CVs in sediment.
Groundwater: No contaminants were found above CVs in groundwater samples taken at 18 and 32 feet in 1998.
This site was investigated as part of SSP Investigation No. 2; further plans have not been determined. This site does not pose a public health hazard. No contaminants were detected in soil at levels of health concern. There is no known exposure to sediment and surface water. There are no drinking water wells in the area; further, no groundwater contaminants were found at levels that would pose a public health hazard.

Sources: Apex 1991; Apex 1994b; BARC 1999; Cassell 1999a; ENTECH 1997a, b, c, d, and e; ENTECH 1998a, b, c, d, e, f, g, and h; ENTECH 1999a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, and i; ENTECH 2000a, b, c, d,e, f, and g; ; ENTECH 2001a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l; KCI 1997; Maryland Geological Survey 1983; Schoppet 1999a, b, and c; Wise 1999.

Note:

Sites are ordered first by location (North Farm, South Farm, Linkage Farm, Central Farm, and East Farm).

Within each location, AOCs are ordered according to the investigation during which they were identified:
  • "BARC" AOCs were identified during the 1991 PA/SI
  • "EPIC" AOCs were identified during the 1993 EPA/EPIC aerial photographic analysis
  • "ENTECH" AOCs were identified during the 1997 ENTECH aerial photographic analysis
  • "ENTECH M" AOCs were identified as miscellaneous features during the 1997 ENTECH aerial photographic analysis
  • "ENTECH R" AOCs were identified during the 1997 ENTECH field reconnaissance and desktop data collection study

Numbers are no longer sequential because 166 individual potential AOCs were originally identified and numbered. Subsequently, USDA-ARS determined that 107 of these 166 AOCs did not need to be further characterized or remediated. Accordingly, the 59 AOCs designated "further action sites" are listed in this table.


Table 2.

Areas of Concern (AOCs) with Little or No Sampling Data
Site Site Description/Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/Environmental Monitoring Results Corrective Activities and/or Current Status
Areas of Concern (AOCs) in North Farm
ENTECH 3:Public FuelingStationBetween about 1943 and 1972, a gas station waslocated on the site. Underground storage tanks (USTs)may have been left in place after the gas station wasremoved.In 1998, a geophysical survey ofthe AOC was conducted. Thestudy identified three geophysicalanomalies that may representUSTs. No other environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis, but petroleum productsmay be present at this site.A 1999 SSP Work Plan outlines planned soil and shallow groundwatersampling, with analytical parameters limited to volatile organic compounds,metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and semi-volatile organiccompounds. A Geoprobe® will be used to "sound" near each geophysicalanomaly identified to determine if USTs are still present.
AOCs in South Farm
BARC 17: B-064 Scrap AreaIn the 1940s, this area began to be used to store largepieces of farm equipment and other surplusconstruction and farm materials, including drums. Mostof the debris in the area is located along the sides of aservice road, under which are several small culvertsdraining towards Paint Branch Creek.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.During a 1997 debris removal action, metal items, including 55-gallondrums (one of which was marked No. 6 Fuel Oil and one of whichcontained hardened tar) were removed. A 1999 SSP Work Plan outlinesplanned soil, surface water/sediment, and shallow groundwater sampling atthe AOC.
AOCs in Linkage Farm
EPIC 16:Disposal/FillAreaIn the 1950s, on-site disposal activities began at this site,which was previously used for agriculture. 1997 fieldreconnaissance revealed that most debris was discardedalong the railroad right-of-way, suggesting it may beattributable to past railroad activities or to the industrialpark across the tracks from the site. There are residentialinholdings less than 0.5 miles south and southwest ofthis AOC. A recent investigation revealed that there areno wells currently in use at those residences.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.In 1997, a debris removal was conducted. Material removed include a 5-gallon container that formerly held a fluid containing methylene chloride,empty 55- and 30-gallon drums, and numerous bottles. A 1999 SSP WorkPlan describes planned sampling at this AOC. Soil, groundwater, andsurface water/sediment sampling will be conducted.
ENTECH R5:BuildingRemains andDebrisA small building was once present on the site, andconstruction rubble and the building's foundationremain. Several in-ground metal frames made of heavygauge steel are also present. There was reportedly adumpsite associated with on-site research activitieswhere chemicals may have been dumped until thebuilding was abandoned in the 1960s. About 200 feetsouth of the AOC is Sunnyside NeighborhoodPlayground, and there is a residential area not far fromthe site.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.A 1999 SSP Work Plan outlines soil, surface water/sediment, andgroundwater sampling planned for the area. After sampling results becomeavailable, a removal of remaining debris will be conducted.
AOCs in Central Farm
BARC 31: B-442 Scrap AreaDuring the World War II era, this area began to be usedas a storage yard for surplus equipment and scrapmetal. As of 1996, the yard was surrounded by asecurity fence and contained ASTs, drums, old airconditioners, a small amount of lab waste, and otherrefuse.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.In the fall of 1997, most surface debris was removed from the site,including construction debris, household waste, and a small amount oflaboratory glassware. Subsurface debris was not disturbed. Limited soiland shallow groundwater sampling has been recommended for the AOC,but an SSP Work Plan is not yet available.
BARC 32: PCBStorage AreaAround 1940, a maintenance compound/ service yardwas constructed on this site. Two of the buildings wereused to service and repair electrical transformers thatcontained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the1980s and 1990s, there were two occasions on whichtransformers leaked on-site, but the affected area wasremediated both times. There are several USTscurrently on the site, which now houses service yards,storage areas, and offices. Formerly, there was a fuelingstation onsite.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.Limited soil and groundwater sampling in areas where contaminant spillsor releases may have occurred has been recommended. An SSP WorkPlan for the AOC is being drafted.
EPIC 21: OpenStorageBeginning around 1952, the site was apparently amanure composting area. During part of the time itoperated, trucks leaving the site would pass through adecontamination trough filled with water and Staphene,reportedly a phenyl-based disinfectant. Around 1968,the site was turned back into a field or pasture.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.On-site soil sampling, as well as sampling in an associated drainage trench,has been recommended. An SSP Work Plan for the site is being drafted.
EPIC 23:UndeterminedEPIC 23 is about 1,000 feet west of B-1423, a buildingin the Animal Parisitology Unit. The AOC is the outfallof a drainage pipe and nearby associated standingwater. In 1996, the water had an oily sheen in places,which may have been due to decaying vegetation. Anemployee stated that the pipe discharges water collectedfrom nearby pastures. BARC production well #10, nowinactive, is about 1,000 feet south of the site.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.The 1997 ENTECH Desktop Data Collection Report recommends that oneor two surface water/sediment samples from the site be collected andanalyzed. An SSP Work Plan for area is being drafted.
EPIC 31:Disposal/FillAreaThis former landfill was apparently in use in the late1930s and early 1940s. It subsequently became coveredwith trees and dense underbrush. Large quantities ofsurface debris were present until they were removed in1997. There is a small pond northeast of the site.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.A 1997 surface debris removal action eliminated such items as scatteredmetal debris, two empty 55-gallon drums, paint buckets, and laboratorybottles. An SSP Work Plan has been completed and calls for sampling ofsurface and subsurface soil, surface water/sediment, and shallowgroundwater in the fill area and in areas hydrologically downgradient.
EPIC 34: Disposal/FillAreaIn the 1950s, this site was used as a disposal area.During subsequent utility work, excess fill was used tograde a nearby area. A hydrocarbon odor from the fillwas reported, so the work was halted. This site isadjacent to the pumphouse for BARC production well#3. All current BARC production wells are currentlyundergoing sampling. In addition, two ponds are nearthis site.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.In 1997, a removal action rid the site of most of its visible debris. Much of itwas construction-related waste, but there was also a number of laboratorybottles. However, debris remains below the surface of the pond. A 1999SSP Work Plan calls for soil, surface water/sediment, and groundwatersampling.
EPIC 39:Disposal/FillAreaThis site, located in a wooded area, was reportedly usedfor agricultural research and later for storage ofgreenhouse soils and other items. One employeereported being told a study was being conducted in thearea, and the study may have been related to a sewagesludge research project conducted at adjacent BARC12.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.The Desktop Data Collection Report recommends limited soil and shallowgroundwater sampling at the site due to the possibility that sewage sludgeand/or soil contaminated with pesticides was disposed of on site. In thespring of 1998, surface debris was removed from the site, includingmounds of earthen material and some 55-gallon drums. An SSP WorkPlan for the site is being drafted.
FDA 1:OvergrownClearing onEdge of Woodsand Animal PenThis area is within the former Food and DrugAdministration (FDA) complex known as the Centerfor Veterinary Medicine (CVM) and used by FDAfrom the late 1960s through the mid-1990s. Thecomplex is partially fenced. In 1993, waste wasdiscovered on this site, including laboratory debris,unidentified liquids and powders in glass containers,and a syringe. Most of the debris was later removed. Astream is about 100 feet to the northeast. Soil: One soil sample collectedin connection with the 1993excavation contained a level ofarsenic slightly exceeding theCV. No other contaminants weremeasured at concentrationsabove CVs.In 1993, after laboratory waste was found on site, the waste was removedand the top foot of materials within the fenced area was excavated. Anadditional remedial action in 1997 removed construction rubble andlaboratory glassware from the site. A 1999 SSP Work Plan outlinesplanned soil, groundwater, and surface water/sediment sampling.
FDA 2: WoodedAreaThis site is a former disposal site in a woodland ravinewithin the former CVM complex. Reportedly, FDAused the area to dump organic debris, livestock feeders,and other agricultural refuse, and private citizens alsodumped items on the site.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.During a 1997 removal action, waste material from the surface of the sitewas removed, including tires, furniture, construction materials, and fiveunlabeled 55-gallon drums. A 1999 SSP Work Plan calls for limited soil,surface water/sediment, and shallow groundwater sampling.
ENTECH 15:UndergroundStorage TankRemoval On this site are empty drums and reportedly a 100,000-gallon underground water reservoir/mixing tank. In1977, an UST was removed from the site. Two otherUSTs containing fuel oil remain. During the 1990s, thearea has been used to store vehicles and earth. To thesouth of the site is a former transformer compound,enclosed by a 7-foot high fence marked with signswarning of a PCB hazard within. The gate of the fenceis broken, allowing access to the compound.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.The 1998 SSP Work Plan describes planned sampling activities at the site.Surface and subsurface soil and groundwater samples will be collected andanalyzed, as will surface water/sediment samples from the small drainageditch on site.
ENTECH M12: WoodlandScarring/ClearingIn 1996, laboratory bottles (many of them broken) anda Bunsen burner were observed along a drainage ditchon the eastern edge of the site. The ditch drains intotributaries of Indian Creek, about 800 feet west of thesite. Some bottles and site markers were later removedby an unknown person. There is no fence betweenBARC property and residences nearby, and there aretrails into woods near the site from public roads. ThePrince George's County Health Department indicatedthat there may be wells used for drinking water in aresidential area 0.5 miles to the south.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.In 1997, a debris removal occurred on the site. An SSP Work Plan for thesite was completed in late 1998 and calls for limited soil, groundwater, andsurface water/sediment sampling.
ENTECH M16: PossibleExcavation SiteA square excavation in this area can be seen on aerialphotographs from 1938. Shortly thereafter, the area wasfenced, suggesting that there might have been disposalactivity on the site. The fence was gone by 1963, andthe area has since been incorporated into a livestockpasture. There may be drinking water wells at off-siteresidences less than 0.5 miles away.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.Limited soil and groundwater sampling have been recommended toascertain whether the site is contaminated. An SSP Work Plan is beingdrafted.
ENTECH M22:Possible FillArea1938 aerial photography shows a ground scar at the site,which is along an unnamed stream. Later, there was asmall structure on site, which an employee reportedwas a sewer pumping station. During 1996 fieldreconnaissance, metal and household debris were seenalong the stream bank, including rusted drums.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.In 1997, there was a surface debris removal action at the site that resulted inthe proper disposal of a few rusted drums and a small amount ofhousehold waste. Limited soil, sediment/surface water, and shallowgroundwater sampling have been recommended. An SSP Work Plan forthe site is being drafted.
ENTECH R1:Structural RuinThis site contains the thick foundation of a building(present by 1938) and debris around its remains. Thereis a monitoring well on site. BARC production well #3is between 0.5 miles and 1 mile west of the site.;however, all BARC wells are currently being tested forthe full range of appropriate parameters.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.During a 1997 debris removal, miscellaneous construction and plasticdebris and two empty 55-gallon drums were removed. An SSP Work Planfor the site, finalized in late 1998, describes planned soil and groundwatersampling.
ENTECH R13:Surface DisposalA BARC employee reported that pesticide dumpingoccurred in this area in 1993 or 1994. The site iscurrently used to store potting soil.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.An SSP Work Plan for this site calls for limited surface and subsurface soilsampling to assess levels of pesticides and other contaminants. If elevatedlevels are detected, groundwater sampling and/or a small-scale soil removalaction may follow.
ENTECH R23: Rose GardenSiteThis area once contained two storage sheds that heldchemicals, including DDT and acetone. Debris was alsolocated outside of the building, including empty drums.This site is less than 0.5 miles northeast of BARCproduction well #3. This well, along with other BARCproduction wells still in service o r expected to be usedin the future, is currently being sampled for a full rangeof analytical parameters. Soil: Six surface soil samplescollected in 1998, prior to theremoval action, were analyzedfor DDT. Each contained thecontaminant, and five of thesamples contained levels of DDTabove its CV.In the spring of 1998, a surface debris removal was completed at the site.The two dilapidated storage sheds were removed, as were several 55-gallondrums, several small canisters, and miscellaneous debris. An SSP WorkPlan recommending further sampling activities is being drafted.
AOCs in East Farm
BARC 34:Drum DisposalAreaAn employee reported that 10 drums were found onthis site, some labeled methanol and others unlabeled.All the visible drums were removed and only a smallamount of rubble remains onsite. The site is just northof Beaver Dam Creek and upgradient of a residence.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.In the fall of 1997, a small amount of building debris was removed from thesite. The Desktop Data Collection Report recommends on-site soil samplesand sediment samples from an associated ditch be collected and analyzed.An SSP Work Plan for the AOC is being drafted.
BARC 34A: FillArea Behind B-537Historical aerial photographs of this site show scarringas early as 1943 and discarded items as early as 1969.Most debris was removed in 1997. To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.Surface debris, including drums, animal pens, and household waste, wasremoved from the site in 1997. Due to its history of waste disposal,groundwater and soil sampling at the AOC are recommended. An SSPWork Plan is being drafted.
ENTECH M26:Shooting RangeThis site has been used by the Greenbelt Police and theARS Shooting Club as a shooting range since about1987. Brass casings and shotgun shells are scatteredaround firing lines. The backstop used is about 100-feethigh and made of soil and construction rubble. Alsopresent are old drums.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.Limited on-site soil sampling and sediment/surface water sampling in anassociated drainage ditch has been recommended. An SSP Work Plan forthe site is being drafted.
ENTECH R15:SurfaceDumping AreaThis site was used as a disposal site over time. Most ofthe debris present in 1996 was construction refuse. Alsopresent were old drums and an old light pole with anattached empty transformer casing.To date, no environmentalsamples have been collected foranalysis.During a 1997 surface debris removal, drums, glassware, and a farmimplement were removed from the site. A PCB-filled transformer was alsoproperly disposed of. Further action at the site will probably include limitedon-site soil and groundwater sampling. An SSP Work Plan is being drafted.

Sources: BARC 1999; Cassell 1999a; ENTECH 1997c, d, and e; ENTECH 1998a and e; ENTECH 1999a and c; Maryland Geological Survey 1983; Schoppet 1999a, b, and c; Wise 1999.

Note:

Sites are ordered first by location (North Farm, South Farm, Linkage Farm, Central Farm, and East Farm).

In keeping with BARC policies, within each location, AOCs are ordered according to the investigation during which they were identified:

  • "BARC" AOCs were identified during the 1991 PA/SI
  • "EPIC" AOCs were identified during the 1993 EPA/EPIC aerial photographic analysis
  • "ENTECH" AOCs were identified during the 1997 ENTECH aerial photographic analysis
  • "ENTECH M" AOCs were identified as miscellaneous features during the 1997 ENTECH aerial photographic analysis
  • "ENTECH R" AOCs were identified during the 1997 ENTECH field reconnaissance and desktop data collection study

Numbers are no longer sequential because 166 individual potential AOCs were originally identified and numbered. Subsequently, USDA-ARS determined that 107 of these 166 AOCs did not need to be further characterized or remediated. Accordingly, the 59 AOCs designated "further action sites" are listed in this table.


Table 3.

Evaluation of Potential Exposure Pathways
Pathway Name Exposure Pathway Elements Time of Exposure Comments
Source of Contamination Environmental Medium Point of
Exposure
Route of Exposure Exposed Population
On-sitedrinkingwaterOperations andwaste manage-ment practices atBARC;upgradient W.P.Ballard &Company sitebeing remediatedunder theComprehensiveEnvironmentalResponse,Compensation,and Liability ActGroundwaterBARCproductionwells Ingestion
Inhalation
Dermal contact
BARCemployees,residents, andvisitorsPast, Current, and Future: Post-treatment sampling of BARCdrinking water has never revealedlevels of contaminants aboveregulatory limits. Sampling data arenot available for years prior to 1990,but based on currently-availableinformation, ATSDR does notexpect that contaminants in thePatuxent Aquifer (from whichBARC's production wells draw)would previously have reachedhigher levels than those measured inthe 1990s. ATSDR assumes thatcurrent and future monitoring ofBARC-East's production wells willensure that the water systemcontinues to meet safe drinkingwater standards. BARC production wells have always only supplied water to BARC-East. BARC-West water comes from the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission, which does not water from the vicinity.
ATDSR's findings suggest that on-site drinking water poses no apparent public health hazard. As a precautionary measure, however, ATSDR recommends that the monitoring schedule and regime for the BARC-East water supply system be increased. In addition, ATSDR recommends that areas in which sewer or water pipelines intersect groundwater contamination be characterized. If there are any areas where small diameter water pipes (8" or less) contact groundwater contamination, ATSDR recommends that taps served by such pipes be sampled.
Off-site drinking water
(including residential inholdings)
Operations andwaste manage-ment practices atBARCGroundwaterPrivate wells Ingestion
Inhalation
Dermal contact
Users ofprivate wellsoutsideBARC and inthe residentialinholdingswithin BARCPast, Current, and Future: Since some residences close toBARC obtain (in past, current, andfuture scenarios) drinking waterfrom private wells, exposure cannotbe ruled out. Information is notcurrently available about thelocations and depths of the wellsand whether any contaminants everwere present in these wells. Since data are incomplete, ATSDRconsiders this exposure pathwayindeterminate. If ongoing groundwatercharacterization investigations suggest thatgroundwater contamination might reach anyof the residential inholdings within BARCthat rely on private wells or any off-siteresidences, or that is contacts small diameterwater pipes, ATSDR recommends that acomprehensive survey of private well use beperformed and that any potentially affectedtaps be sampled.
Soil Operations and waste manage-ment practices at BARC Soil BARC AOCs Ingestion
Dermal contact
BARC employees, residents, and visitors Past and Current: Access to BARC AOCs is generally restricted, although not all areas are fenced.
Future: AOCs are being characterized, remediated, and will, if appropriate, receive better access controls, but it is unknown when exposure potential to contaminated soil will end.
Exposure is not expected to occur at significant enough frequencies and durations for contaminants at the levels expected to be detected on-site to pose a public health hazard.
Surface water, sediment, and fish Surface water and sediment contaminated from operations and waste management practices at BARC and from the upgradient W.P. Ballard site being remediated under CERCLA Surface water, sediment, and fish Surface water bodies on site and off site Ingestion
Dermal contact
Recreational users of off-site surface water Past, Current, and Future: No one is allowed to swim, fish, or boat in on-site surface water bodies. However, these activities are thought to occur downstream of the facility. Off-site surface water, sediment, and fish samples are not available from areas immediately downstream of BARC. ATSDR recommends that more data be collected. Subsequently, it may be desirable to collect more conclusive information on the extent of downstream surface water use and consumption of fish than is currently available. Given the insufficiency of sampling and exposure data, ATSDR concludes that off-site exposures pose an indeterminate public health hazard.
Physical hazards Operations and waste manage-ment practices at BARC Remnants of structures
Discarded drums, cylinders, bottles, and other containers
Various areas within BARC Physical hazard BARC employees, residents, and visitors Past, Current, and Future: To date, access controls surrounding physical hazards at BARC have not been sufficient to prevent potential exposures to physical hazards. Certain recreational users of BARC may not be aware of the AOCs they should avoid. ATSDR recommends that BARC improve the signs and fencing around AOCs. Until these measures are taken, physical hazards at BARC will continue to pose a potential public health hazard.


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