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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

IOWA ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT
MIDDLETOWN, IOWA




Table 2.

Summary of Potential Exposure Pathways at Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAAP)
PATHWAY NAME POTENTIAL SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION ENVIRON-MENTAL MEDIUM POINT OF EXPOSURE ROUTE OF EXPOSURE TIME OF EXPOSURE EXPOSED POPULATION COMMENTS
Drinking
water
(Off-site private wells south and southeast of IAAAP)
Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-- Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAAP) discharges.

Two sub-sites (the former Line 1 Impoundment and the Line 800 Pinkwater Lagoon) appear to be the primary sources of explosives leaching into local water supplies.

Groundwater Five private off-site wells south and southeast of IAAAP. Most contamination was detected in wells adjacent to Brush Creek, although two wells on a Skunk River Tributary contained RDX. Ingestion,
dermal contact
Past:
RDX was first detected in trace amounts in off-site wells in September 1992. RDX was detected above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's health advisory limit (HAL) of 2.0 parts per billion (ppb). The maximum detected concentration of RDX was 27.5 ppb in Well 2.

 

Present and Future:
No contaminants (including RDX) have been detected above Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) screening values in off-site active production wells in the past 5 years.

Past:
Five families living directly south and southeast of IAAAP.

One hundred and fifty four residences south and southeast of IAAAP were deemed potentially exposed to RDX-contaminated drinking water.

Present and Future: None7

Past:
After RDX was detected above the HAL in drinking water, the Army immediately provided bottled water to all affected residences. The Army then contracted with the Rathbun Water Company to connect over 150 residences in the area to the public water supply at the Army's expense.

Present and Future:
Municipal drinking water is filtered and treated, reducing groundwater contaminants to levels below state and federal drinking water standards.
Army remedial activities and natural attenuation are reducing, and will continue to reduce, RDX concentrations in groundwater.
Groundwater monitoring will continue on and off site. If contamination of a drinking water well is detected in the future, the use of the affected well will be discontinued or further remediated as necessary.

Past consumption of groundwater from private wells south of IAAAP poses no apparent public health hazards; present and future consumption poses no public health hazards.

Surface
water
(Brush Creek, Spring Creek, Long Creek, Mathes Lake, and un-named Skunk River tributaries)
TNT, RDX, and other explosives-- IAAAP discharges have contaminated most on-site and some off-site surface waters.

Two sub-sites (the former Line 1 Impoundment and the Line 800 Pinkwater Lagoon) appear to be the primary sources of explosives.

Surface water Off-site surface water in Brush Creek and in some un-named Skunk River tributaries Incidental ingestion, dermal contact Past:
Prior to the early 1950s, Brush Creek reportedly ran pink due to the presence of explosives, most likely TNT. No quantitative data are available for this period.

Present and Future:
Fluctuating RDX concentrations, generally below 10 ppb (maximum detected concentration of 22 ppb), have been detected off-site in Brush Creek surface water near the IAAAP boundary. RDX levels in the un-named Skunk River tributaries slightly exceeded the HAL of 2.0. Spring Creek, Long Creek, and Mathes Lake remain uncontaminated.

Past, Present, and Future:
Local residents have access to Brush Creek and the un-named Skunk River tributaries after they leave IAAAP property. These surface waters are too small to be suitable for typical recreational activities such as swimming, boating, or fishing, but they may be used for recreational purposes by children.
Past:
After IAAAP surface waters became visibly polluted in the 1950s, the Army changed its disposal methods, including treatment and filtration of process waters prior to discharge.
ATSDR did not identify any exposure pathways for adults via surface water.
Child exposures are likely to be minimal, if they occurred at all, because the contaminated surface waters are shallow and small. It appears unlikely that children would have spent much time in Brush Creek or the un-named Skunk River tributaries, especially when there are several other, larger (and cleaner) creeks, rivers, and lakes in the immediate vicinity.

Past exposure to IAAAP-area surface waters poses an indeterminate public health hazard.

Present and Future:
ATSDR did not identify any exposure pathways for adults via surface water.
Child exposures are likely to be minimal, if they occurs at all. The contaminated surface waters are shallow and small. It is unlikely that children will spend much time in Brush Creek or the un-named Skunk River tributaries, especially when there are several larger (and cleaner) creeks, rivers, and lakes in the immediate vicinity. Minimal exposure to the low-levels of contamination detected are not associated with any public health hazard.
Army remedial activities and natural attenuation are reducing, and will continue to reduce, RDX concentrations in surface water.

Current and future exposures to IAAAP-area surface waters pose no apparent public health hazards.

Soil and Sediment
(On-site)
Explosives, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and radionuclides -- IAAAP discharges from loading, assembling, and packing ammunition appear to be the primary sources of contamination.

The most significant contamination occurred at installation facilities and industrial areas, including Lines 1, 2, 3, 3A, and 800, the Explosive Disposal Area, the Firing Site, and the Fire Training Pit. Two sub-sites, the Line 1 Impoundment and Line 800 Pinkwater Lagoon, are considered to be the greatest sources of explosives contamination at IAAAP.

Soil and sediment Contact with surface soil and sediment Dermal contact Past, Present, and Future:
Contact with surface soil and sediment is extremely limited, if it occurs at all.
Past, Present, and Future:
 Local deer hunters, Army-approved groups (e.g., the Boy Scouts of America), and trespassers may access forested and agricultural areas on the installation.
Past, Present, and Future:
 IAAAP is surrounded by perimeter fencing to restrict public access. Access to contaminated areas is further restricted by secondary fencing and on-site security measures for 30 of the 33 potentially-contaminated sites.
  ATSDR believes that exposure to soil and sediment contamination at the three un-fenced sites is extremely minimal, if it occurs at all for two primary reasons:
1. The amount of time visitors spend in contact with on-site soil is likely to be very brief and will not occur on a regular basis, and
2. The visitors generally stay in or near forested areas, rather than venturing into open fields or industrial areas where the contamination occurs.
  Public exposure to contaminated sediments is further prevented because the sediments lie underwater, beneath restricted on-site surface water bodies.
  Army remedial activities are reducing, and will continue to reduce, RDX, TNT, metals, VOCs, SVOCs, and radionuclide concentrations in soil and sediment.

Past, current, and future exposures to IAAAP soil and sediment pose no public health hazards.

Local Biota
(produce, deer, and cattle from the IAAAP area)
RDX -- IAAAP discharges have contaminated on-site soils and surface waters. Plants grow in some contaminated areas and may be irrigated with RDX-contaminated water. Deer and cattle may eat these plants and/or drink contaminated surface water.

Two sub-sites (the former Line 1 Impoundment and the Line 800 Pinkwater Lagoon) appear to be the primary sources of explosives leaching into local water supplies.

IAAAP biota Corn, soy beans, deer, and cattle from the IAAAP area Ingestion Past, Present, and Future:
 None
Past, Present, and Future:
 None
Past, Present, and Future:
 Toxicologic and ecological studies indicate that IAAAP crops are not bioaccumulating RDX in their tissue and that they are safe for human consumption.
  Toxicologic and ecological studies indicate that deer and cattle do not tend to bioaccumulate RDX in their tissue and that IAAAP venison and beef is safe for human consumption.

Past, current, and future consumption of local crops, venison, and beef pose no public health hazards.


Figure 1. Area Map


Figure 2. Iowa Army Ammunition Plant


Figure 3. ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process


Figure 4. Locations of Production and Monitoring Wells


Figure 5. Locations of Suspected Groundwater Plumes


Figure 6. Locations of the 44 PA/SI Sites



APPENDICES


APPENDIX A:

Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards Associated With the 33 RI/FS Sites at Iowa Army Ammunition Plant
Site

Site Description/
Waste Disposal History

Investigation Results/
Environmental Monitoring Results
Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Evaluation of Public Health Hazards
Facilities in Brush Creek Watershed
Line 1 Line 1 is a fenced, 190-acre parcel with 22 buildings. Since 1941, cartridges, missiles, warheads, and grenades have been loaded and packed on Line 1. From 1941 to 1975, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) modified and operated parts of this site. In the past, untreated wastewater from the Line 1 operations were disposed in the Former Line 1 Impoundment. Line 1 drainage ways currently receive treated wastewater discharge through National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitted outfalls. The primary contaminants of concern include explosives, metals, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Groundwater: Contained elevated (above ATSDR comparison values) levels of explosives, metals, VOCs, and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs).
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives and metals.
Soil and Sediment: Contained explosives in near-surface soils with HMX, RDX, 2,4,6-TNT as high as 1,600, 3,700, and 9,200 parts per million (ppm), respectively. Metals contamination was more widespread than explosives contamination. Lead was generally the metal reported at highest concentration (as high as 1,530 ppm) and mercury (as high as 2,000 ppm) was highest at some Line 1 locations. Radionuclide contamination was not detected. VOCs (maximum concentration of 18,037 parts per billion [ppb]) were detected in soil gas samples taken from subsurface soils near one building.
Corrective Activities:
All Line 1 wastewater is treated by carbon adsorption and discharged to drainage ditches to NPDES permitted outfall (#12).
In the spring of 1995, sumps and associated contaminated soils were excavated and moved to the on-site soil repository, adjacent to the Inert Landfill.
By August 1997, Line 1 soils were sampled, analyzed, and segregated according to the risk or contaminant level detected. Depending on the concentration of explosives in the excavated soils, the soils have been placed in one of three on-site areas: the designated Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU), constructed adjacent to the IAAAP Inert Landfill, in the soil repository, or beneath the cap at the Inert Landfill as random fill to achieve final grade. Soils with contaminant concentrations posing the highest risks were stockpiled in the CAMU for treatment at a later date. Soils with an intermediate level of risk were disposed of in the soil repository, while soils with the lowest risk levels were disposed of beneath the Inert Landfill cap.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 1.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 1 surface water.
Soil and Sediment: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial and contaminants were primarily detected in the subsurface soils, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soil or sediment without adequate health and safety precautions as required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
Former Line 1 Impoundment The Former Line 1 Impoundment was formed by damming a portion of the upper reaches of Brush Creek. The primary function of the impoundment was to allow settlement of particles from explosives-contaminated wastewater prior to discharge downstream. The impoundment is an estimated 3.6 acres in size and, during periods of high flow, covers an estimated 7.5 acres (1,300 feet to 2,400 feet long). It received large volumes of discharge from 1948 to 1975. The explosives wastes primarily included 2,4,6-TNT and its degradation products. Other wastes included minor amounts of coal from a nearby coal pile and condensate from a coal-fired power plant. No known water treatment process was employed other than intermittent addition of fly ash to adsorb explosives components and reduce color. The actual volume or quantity of discharges to the Former Line 1 Impoundment was not recorded and is not known. The Former Line 1 Impoundment operated until 1975, when its embankment was breached by Brush Creek and the area was allowed to re-vegetate naturally. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of RDX (up to 445 ppb) and HMX (up to 80 ppb). Metals were not elevated. This groundwater moves southward along Brush Creek.
Surface Water: RDX was detected from less than detection limit up to 185 ppb. Metals were not elevated.
Soil and Sediment: The dominant explosives detected were RDX (up to 400 ppb) and HMX (up to 61 ppb), with trace amounts of tetryl; 1,3-DNB; 2,4-DNT; 2,6-DNT; 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT detected. Excluding barium (up to 903 ppm), metals were not present in soil samples at elevated concentrations.
Corrective Activities:
In 1997, approximately 8,270 cubic yards of explosives-contaminated soils were excavated from the Former Line 1 Impoundment. These soils contained more than 3,900 pounds of explosives. These soils were sampled, analyzed, and segregated according to the risk or contaminant level detected. Depending on the concentration of explosives in the excavated soils, the soils have been placed in one of three on-site areas: the designated Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU), constructed adjacent to the IAAAP Inert Landfill, in the soil repository, or beneath the cap at the Inert Landfill as random fill to achieve final grade. Soils with contaminant concentrations posing the highest risks were stockpiled in the CAMU for treatment at a later date. Soils with an intermediate level of risk were disposed of in the soil repository, while soils with the lowest risk levels were disposed of beneath the Inert Landfill cap.
The Former Line 1 Impoundment has been converted into a wetlands. Remediation efforts are establishing native plants that contain an enzyme (nitroreductase) needed to pyhtoremediate the surface and groundwater contaminated with residual levels of explosives.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Former Line 1 Impoundment.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to surface water at this site.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Line 2 Line 2 is a fenced, 140-acre parcel with 70 buildings. It operated from the early 1940s to 1947 and from 1949 to present. Line 2 was primarily used to load, assemble, and pack ammunition. Contaminants of concern include explosives, metals, VOCs, and SVOCs. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of explosives, metals, and VOCs.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives and metals.
Soil and Sediment: Explosives were identified in surficial soils near foundations of munitions processing building and loading/unloading areas. Contamination was also detected in loess and fill material surrounding former wastewater sumps, wastewater discharge locations, and drainage ways. VOCs were detected (up to 1,950 ppb) in the subsurface soils of two discontinuous areas.
Corrective Activities:
All Line 2 wastewater is treated by carbon adsorption in adjacent filter houses and discharged to NPDES permitted outfalls (#21, #22).
In the spring of 1995, sumps and associated contaminated soils were excavated and moved to the on-site soil repository.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 2.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 2 surface water.
Soil and Sediment: Access to all production lines is restricted to operations personnel. The production line areas are completely fenced and access is controlled by security guards. Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial and contaminants were primarily detected in the subsurface soils, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Line 3 Line 3 is a fenced, 149-acre parcel with 56 buildings. It supported cleaning metal operations from 1941 to 1945 and from 1949 to present. Explosives, metals, and VOCs are the primary contaminants of concern at Line 3. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of explosives, metals, and VOCs.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives and metals.
Soil and Sediment: The Remedial Investigation (RI) indicated that 38 of 135 soil samples contained explosives. Soils with the highest concentrations of explosives were located at wastewater sumps, the foundations of buildings where wastewater is generated, and loading docks. Swales and ditches tended to channelize concentrations in near-surface soils. Metals contamination (particularly lead and, to a lesser degree, chromium) was also widespread, especially within 10 to 20 feet of historical sources at Line 3. VOCs were detected up to 1,462 ppb in the subsurface soils of one area.
Corrective Activities:
All Line 3 wastewater is treated with settling tanks, filtration, and carbon adsorption. It is discharged by drainage ditches to NPDES permitted outfalls (#32, #33).
In the spring of 1995, sumps and associated contaminated soils were excavated and moved to the on-site soil repository.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 3.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 3 surface water.
Soil and Sediment: Because land use at this site is industrial/commercial and contaminants were primarily detected in the subsurface soils, public exposure (past, present, and future) is highly unlikely. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Line 4A Line 4A is a fenced, 21-acre parcel with 12 buildings. It supported detonator production and assembly from 1941 to 1945 and from 1982 to present. Explosives and metals are the primary contaminants of concern. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives and metals.
Soil and Sediment: Explosive contamination was below ATSDR comparison values. All 69 samples from the RI reported arsenic, barium, and lead at levels up to 11, 526, and 1,160 ppm, respectively. Chromium was detected in 64 samples at levels up to 39.8 ppm and mercury was detected in 12 samples at levels up to 0.184 ppm. Surficial metals contamination existed primarily around one sump and along the surface water drainage pathway leading east of the site.
Corrective Activities:
All Line 4A wastewater enters treatment tanks, with sludge of settled metals shipped off-site. There are also treatment sumps for RDX-contaminated wastewater. In the past, treated wastewater was discharged to a NPDES permitted outfall (#41), but no wastewater is presently discharging.
In the spring of 1995, 14 in-ground sumps (treatment tanks) and associated contaminated soils were excavated and moved to the on-site soil repository.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 4A.
Surface: There is no public exposure to Line 4A surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Line 5A Line 5A is a fenced, 33-acre parcel with 17 buildings. It operated from 1942 to 1945 and from 1949 to 1998, although it is currently inactive. Line 5A contained explosive assembly operations and component lines for pelletizing. Explosives are the primary contaminants of concern. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives.
Soil and Sediment: Explosives contamination was detected above ATSDR comparison values in surface soil immediately adjacent to sumps.
Corrective Activities:
All Line 5A wastewater was discharged to intermittent drainage ditches to a NPDES permitted outfall (#51). It is presently not discharging.
In the spring of 1995, sumps and associated contaminated soils were excavated and moved to the on-site soil repository.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 5A.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 5A surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Line 6 Line 6 is a fenced, 30-acre parcel with 34 buildings. It was in use from 1941 until 1981 for the production, storage, and shipping of detonators, relays, and hand-grenade fusers. Contaminants of concern at Line 6 include explosives and metals. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives and metals.
Soil and Sediment: Explosives detected during the RI were below ATSDR comparison values. Metal concentrations were elevated in surficial soils of sumps, ditches, and drainage swales. Maximum detected concentrations for lead, silver, and mercury were 13,000, 500, and 1,900 ppm, respectively.
Corrective Activities:
In the past, Line 6 wastewater percolated into the ground, overflowed to a tributary of Brush Creek, or was placed in treatment tanks and neutralized in Building 6-68. Treated wastewater was pumped from the treatment tanks to gravel filterbeds. Generated wastewater treatment sludge was shipped off-site.
In the spring of 1995, Building 6-68 underwent RCRA closure. Also at this time, the gravel filterbeds, sumps, and associated contaminated soils were excavated and moved to the on-site soil repository.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 6.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 6 surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Line 7 Line 7 is a fenced, 9-acre parcel in the center of Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAAP) property. From 1941 to 1970, Line 7 operated as a fuse and blank loading facility and a loading, assembly, and packing (LAP) facility. In the past, building washdown waste was discharged to gravel-lined sumps. Sumps were pumped and removed water taken to carbon filter units. Groundwater: No contaminants were elevated in Line 7 groundwater.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives and metals.
Soil and Sediment: Explosive and metal contamination in soils and sediment did not exceed ATSDR comparison values.
Corrective Activities:
In the spring of 1995, sumps and associated contaminated soils were excavated and moved to the on-site soil repository.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 7.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 7 surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Contaminant concentrations are at levels that do not pose health hazards. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Line 9 Line 9 is a fenced, 9-acre parcel with 15 buildings in the center of IAAAP property. It began operations in 1942 and continues to serve in "Lay-Away" status as a component production and LAP facility. Explosives, metals, and VOCs are the contaminants of concern. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of VOCs and SVOCs.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives and metals.
Soil and Sediment: Surficial soil surrounding sumps and drainage pathways contained slightly elevated explosives and metals contamination (specifically antimony, lead, and copper). VOCs and 1,1,2-trichlorofluoroethane (Freon) were detected subsurface soils, primarily between 23- to 33-foot depths.
Corrective Activities:
Most Line 9 waste solvents are stored for 9 months, although a 90-day solvent accumulation area temporarily existed.
In the spring of 1995, sumps and associated contaminated soils were excavated and moved to the on-site soil repository.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 9.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 9 surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Contaminants were primarily detected in the subsurface soils and are inaccessible. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Line 800
(Line 800
Pinkwater
Lagoon)
Line 800 is a fenced, 17.5-acre parcel with 18 buildings in the center of IAAAP property. It began operations in 1941 for ammunition renovation and fuse demilitarization. Line 800 is currently inactive even though it is still considered operational. Wastes were generated by metal cleaning operations. Most Line 800 wastewater was disposed of in the Line 800 Pinkwater Lagoon, which measures 5 acres and is 4-feet deep. A limited amount of wastewater drained directly into adjacent ditches and Brush Creek. In 1979 and 1980, waste sludge from the Line 800 metal cleaning bath was disposed of at the former Blue Sludge Lagoon at the Inert Disposal Area. Explosives and metals are the primary contaminates of concern. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of explosives, metals, VOCs, and SVOCs.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives and metals.
Soil and Sediment: Surficial soil contamination occurred mostly adjacent to sumps and drainage ways. Specifically, two areas contained explosives RDX (7.7 to 130 ppm), HMX (4.3 to 56 ppm), 2,4,6-TNT (2.3 to 36 ppm). All 60 samples collected during the RI contained barium and lead with maximum values of 651 and 1,650 ppm, respectively. Chromium was detected in 59 samples with a maximum value of 161 ppm, arsenic was detected in 56 samples with a maximum value of 18 ppm, mercury was detected in 20 samples with a maximum value of 7.8 ppm, and cadmium was detected in 10 samples with a maximum value of 757 ppm.
Corrective Activities:
All Line 800 wastewater is treated in a closed loop metals wastestream. Metals are collected from this wastestream and sold as scrap. The wastestream effluent runs into the Line 800 Pinkwater Lagoon. In the lagoon, a settling/carbon filter system further treats the generated process water. Treated water is discharged to a NPDES permitted outfall (#82).
In the spring of 1995, sumps and associated contaminated soils were excavated and moved to the on-site soil repository.
Waste sludge disposed of at the former Blue Sludge Lagoon at the Inert Disposal Area was deposited into Trench 6 at the Inert Disposal Area in January 1997.
Current Status:
Line 800 is currently not discharging any wastewaters.
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 800.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 800 surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soil and sediment without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Pesticide Pit The Pesticide Pit is an 8-square foot area located in the center of IAAAP, north of Line 800. It was a lined pit used from 1968 to 1974 for the disposal of small amounts of pesticides, herbicides, and rinsate. Pesticides and SVOCs are the contaminants of concern at this site. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals, SVOCs, and pesticides.
Surface Water: There is no surface water at this site.
Soil: Pesticides were detected in 13 of 18 samples during the RI. 4,4'-DDE concentrations were greatest and ranged from 0.013 to 21,000 ppm. Surficial contamination extended slightly southeast of the pit. 2-methylnaphthalene was the SVOC detected at the highest concentration (200 ppm).
Corrective Activities:
The Pesticide Pit and all its contents were excavated, containerized, and transported to an off-site Inert Landfill in 1995.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Pesticide Pit.
Surface Water: No surface water exists at this site.
Soil: Past public exposure to the Pesticide Pit is extremely minimal, if it occurred at all. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Sewage Treatment Plant The Sewage Treatment Plant occupies approximately 1 acre. It is the main treatment plant for IAAAP. Metals are the primary contaminant of concern at this site. Groundwater: No contaminants were elevated in groundwater underlying the Sewage Treatment Plant.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Sludge: Metals were reported in sludge at the expected levels.
Corrective Activities:
All Sewage Treatment Plant wastewater is treated. It runs through an Imhoff tank, a trickling filter, a secondary clarifier, and sludge drying beds before being discharged to a NPDES permitted outfall (#13).
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Sewage Treatment Plant.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Sewage Treatment Plant surface water.
Sludge: The public is not exposed to Sewage Treatment Plant sludge.
Facilities in Long Creek Watershed
Line 3A Line 3A lies on the western side of IAAAP property. It is a fenced 119-acre parcel with 17 buildings. From 1943 to 1945 and from 1949 to 1989, Line 3A functioned as an explosives-related processing and LAP area. In the early 1980s, it was re-opened for the production of anti-tank mines. Treated wastewater from the site is discharged to an intermittent creek that flows for one mile and then joins Long Creek. The contaminants of concern are primarily explosives, metals, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs). Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of explosives, metals, VOCs, and SVOCs.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives and metals. VOCs were detected in trace amounts.
Soil and Sediment: 2,4,6-TNT and RDX were detected in soils near Line 3A at levels up to 19,000 and 11,000 ppm, respectively. HMX was detected at levels up to 1,700 ppm. 1,3,5-TNB, 2,4-DNT, 1,3-DNB, 2,6-DNT, and nitrobenzene were detected at low concentrations. Most explosive contamination was detected around one building, sumps, and loading areas. Metals were also present, with barium and lead detected at the highest concentrations (341 and 1,710 ppm, respectively). PCBs were detected in one sample collected at the NPDES discharge point at levels less than 10 ppm.
Corrective Activities:
All Line 3A wastewater is processed through a carbon filter and discharged to creeks through NPDES permitted outfalls (#34, #35).
In the spring of 1995, sumps and associated contaminated soils were excavated and moved to the on-site soil repository.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 3A.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 3A surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Line 4B Line 4B is a fenced, 16-acre parcel in the northern part of IAAAP. It operated from 1941 to 1945 and from 1962 to date, but it is currently inactive. Components, missiles, and fuses were assembled at this site. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of SVOCs.
Surface Water: Surface water contained the SVOC bis(2)ethylhexylphthalate slightly above detection limits, but below ATSDR comparison values.
Soil and Sediment: No contaminants were detected above ATSDR comparison values or background levels.
Corrective Activities:
All Line 4B wastewater was stored in either in-ground or above-ground tanks, and transported to carbon filter facilities for on-site treatment.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 4B.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 4B surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Contaminant concentrations are at levels that do not pose health hazards.
Line 5B Line 5B is a fenced, 41-acre parcel with 18 buildings. It operated from 1942 to 1945 and from 1949 to the present, but it is currently inactive. It primarily supported pelletizing and assembling of adaptor boosting tetryl. Explosives and metals are the contaminants of concern. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives and metals.
Soil and Sediment: Most explosive contamination was low-level and occurred in areas adjacent to sumps. However, two of eight sampling locations around one building contained RDX above 1,000 ppm. Two samples also reported tetryl and HMX at levels between 100 and 500 ppm. Lead was detected near sumps at levels between 100 and 500 ppm.
Corrective Activities:
All Line 5B wastewater is processed through carbon filter columns and discharged to a NPDES permitted outfall (#052).
In the spring of 1995, sumps and associated contaminated soils were excavated and moved to the on-site soil repository.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 5B.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 5B surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Line 8 Line 8 is a 69-acre parcel in the center of IAAAP property. It was constructed and used during World War II for Amatol (ammonium nitrate) production, fertilizer production, and fuse and rocket igniter LAP operations. Line 8 production activities closed in 1950. Ammunition inspection activities took place from 1976 to 1993. Metals are the contaminants of concern. Groundwater: Groundwater at Line 8 was not sampled.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Soil and Sediment: No explosives were detected in soil and sediment samples. Low metal concentrations in soils were detected, all below ATSDR comparison values. No metals were detected in associated drainage pathways, indicating that metals are not migrating from Line 8.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 8.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 8 surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Contaminant concentrations are at levels that do not pose health hazards.
Line 800 A small portion of Line 800 drains southwest in an intermittent stream to Long Creek. Explosives and metals are the contaminants of concern (see "Facilities in Brush Creek Watershed" section of this table for more details). Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of explosives, metals, and VOCs.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives and metals. VOCs were detected in trace amounts.
Soil and Sediment: See "Facilities in Brush Creek Watershed" section of this table for more details.
Corrective Activities:
See "Facilities in Brush Creek Watershed" section of this table for more details.
Current Status:
See "Facilities in Brush Creek Watershed" section of this table for more details.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 800.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 800 surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health.
Building 600-86 Building 600-86 served as IAAAP's Central Chemical Laboratory from 1941 to 1953. Presently, it serves as a permitted RCRA hazardous waste storage facility. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Soil and Sediment: No contaminants were detected above ATSDR comparison values or background levels.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Building 600-86.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Building 600-86 surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Contaminant concentrations are at levels that do not pose health hazards.
Construction Debris Landfill The Construction Debris Landfill is a 3-acre area where debris is stored on surface soil. The Construction Debris Landfill began operations in 1940 and debris is present today. Explosives, metals, pesticides, and PCBs were the contaminants of concern prior to RI investigations, but contamination levels proved than expected. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Soil and Sediment: No contaminants were detected above ATSDR comparison values or background levels.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Construction Debris Landfill.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to the Construction Debris Landfill surface water.
Soil and Sediment: Past public exposure to the Construction Debris Landfill is extremely minimal, if it occurred at all. Contaminant concentrations are at levels that do not pose health hazards.
Firing Site The Firing Site is a fenced, 459-acre parcel in the west-central portion of IAAAP. Three acres with firing pads are used for static testing of warheads. Other areas are used for the destructive testing of 701 shots of D-38s and high explosives. Radionuclides were the primary contaminants of concern at the Firing Site. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals and radionuclides.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of metals and radionuclides. Radionuclides detected were (maximum detected concentration): potassium 40 (250pCi/L), alpha gross (24.8 pCi/L), and beta gross (16.2 pCi/L).
Soil and Sediment: Radionuclides were above detection limits, with the highest level at the North Test Site.
Corrective Activities:
Prior to AEC phase out in 1975, radioactive soils were removed and transported off-site to Sheffield, Illinois for landfilling.
Radioactive soils were removed and stored in the on-site CAMU, adjacent to the Inert Landfill.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Firing Site.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Firing Site surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Fly Ash Landfill The Fly Ash Landfill is a 9.5 acre area that accepts fly ash from a coal-fired heating plant. It has been in operation since 1985. No hazardous waste has been disposed at this site. Contaminants of concern include metals and sulfates. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals, explosives, and sulfates.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Soil and Sediment: No contaminants were detected above ATSDR comparison values or background levels.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Fly Ash Landfill.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to the Fly Ash Landfill surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Contaminant concentrations are at levels that do not pose health hazards.
Fly Ash Disposal Area The Fly Ash Disposal Area is a 5-acre parcel that contains fly ash, residual coal, and other residue from IAAAP's coal-fired plant. Metals and sulfates are the contaminants of concern. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of metals and sulfates.
Soil and Sediment: No contaminants were detected above ATSDR comparison values or background levels.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Fly Ash Disposal Area.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Fly Ash Disposal Area surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Contaminant concentrations are at levels that do not pose health hazards.
Inert Disposal Area
(Inert Landfill)
The Inert Landfill covers approximately 14 acres in the west-central portion of IAAAP. From 1941 to 1984, the Inert Landfill functioned as a sanitary landfill, burning field, metal salvage operation, sludge drying bed, and clay-lined holding area. It received such materials as residential and cafeteria refuse and garbage, plastic, tin cans, scrap lumber, empty drums (crushed), unsalvageable paper and cardboard, and asbestos insulation (in double plastic bags). For several years in the early 1980s, a small portion of the Inert Landfill (Trench 5) received other wastes, such as ash from the open burning of explosives and explosive-contaminated waste, the contaminated waste processor, and the explosive waste incinerator. Surface run-off from the area reaches Long Creek only during heavy rain or melting ice and snow. Contaminants of concern include metals, VOCs, and SVOCs.

Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals and VOCs.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of metals. VOCs were detected in trace amounts.
Soil and Sediment: Elevated metals were detected, including (maximum concentration detected): barium (1,240 ppm), chromium (502 ppm), lead (51,000 ppm), arsenic (117 ppm), mercury (1.1 ppm), cadmium (31.2), silver (14 ppm), and selenium (100 ppm). Asbestos was not detected.

Corrective Activities:
The Inert Landfill was closed in 1984.
In 1989, Trench 5 was capped and closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C guidelines.
Contaminated soils were removed and stored in the on-site CAMU and soil repository.
In the fall of 1997, the Army completed construction of a low permeability cover, consisting of a geonet drainage layer and a low permeability geomembrane with appropriate vegetative cover. The cover prevents infiltration of precipitation into the landfill material and the subsequent transport of contaminants from wastes to groundwater.
Current Status:
In RI/FS process. The Army is currently evaluating treatment methods to cap the Inert Landfill and to treat soils in the CAMU and soil repository. All trenches within the Inert Landfill (including the CAMU and soil repository) will be capped in accordance with RCRA Subtitle C guidelines.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Inert Landfill.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Inert Landfill surface water.
Soil and Sediment: Past public exposure to the Inert Landfill is extremely minimal, if it occurred at all. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Facilities in Spring Creek Watershed
Ammunition Box Chipper Disposal Pit
(ABC Disposal Pit)
ABC Disposal Pit is a small site measuring 120 by 40 by 8 feet. It was used for approximately 3 months from 1972 to 1975. Shredded wooden ammunition boxes, primarily 90-millimeter cartridge boxes, were reportedly buried at this site. Explosives are the primary contaminants of concern. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives.
Soil and Sediment: ABC Disposal Pit soil and sediment contamination levels were below ATSDR comparison values.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the ABC Disposal Pit.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to ABC Disposal Pit surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Contaminant concentrations are at levels that do not pose health hazards.
Contaminated Waste Processor
(CWP)
Housed in building BG-199-2 in the Explosive Disposal Area, the CWP has been in operation since 1982. The CWP flashes or burns materials that have come in contact with explosives or other energetic substances, including equipment, pipe, steel, empty cartridge cases and projectiles, and lumber. Ash from the CWP is drummed and placed in a RCRA accumulation area pending toxicity testing results. CWP-generated wash water is collected in floor trenches and pumped into a 1,200-gallon sump on the south side of the building and transported to Line 2 for treatment. Explosives are the contaminants of concern. Groundwater: No contaminants were elevated in groundwater underlying the CWP.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives.
Soil and Sediment: CWP soil and sediment contamination levels were below ATSDR comparison values.
Corrective Activities:
All CWP wastewater is treated in Line 2 filter houses and discharged to a NPDES permitted outfall (#21).
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the CWP.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to CWP surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Contaminant concentrations are at levels that do not pose health hazards.
Explosive Waste Incinerator
(EWI)
The EWI is housed within building BG-199-1 in the Explosive Disposal Area. The EWI operated from 1981 to 1990, as a permitted RCRA facility. The EWI incinerated sump scrap and waste explosives that could not be reused or resold off site. Wastewater was pumped into a sump and transported to Line 2 for treatment. The EWI was permanently closed in 1998. Groundwater: No groundwater samples were collected from the EWI.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives.
Soil and Sediment: EWI soil and sediment contamination levels were below ATSDR comparison values.
Corrective Activities:
In the past, incinerated EWI residue and ash were drummed, labeled, and transferred to the RCRA accumulation area of the CWP and managed as hazardous waste.
All EWI wastewater was treated in Line 2 filter houses and discharged to a NPDES permitted outfall (#21).
The EWI went through the RCRA closure process in September 1998.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the EWI.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to EWI surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Contaminant concentrations are at levels that do not pose health hazards.
Explosive Disposal Area The Explosive Disposal Area is a fenced, 12-acre parcel in the north-east corner of IAAAP. Until 1982, debris was openly burned at this site. Debris contained explosives-contaminated metals, propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnic-contaminated materials. Surface runoff from the site's western portion goes directly to Spring Creek. The site's eastern portion runoff feeds a Spring Creek tributary. The primary contaminants of concern are explosives, metals, and SVOCs. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals, explosives, VOCs, and SVOCs.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives.
Soil and Sediment: Explosive contamination occurs in surface soil, primarily at the site's pad centers, areas near culverts, and areas where pools of surface water develop in the drainage ditches. Metals were detected mostly at low levels, with the highest lead levels between 100 ppm and 500 ppm. Surficial soil in the drainage ditches near the 8 burn pads contained elevated levels of SVOCs.
Corrective Activities:
Contaminated soils were removed and stored in the on-site CAMU and soil repository.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Explosive Disposal Area.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Explosive Disposal Area surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Fire Training Pit The Fire Training Pit is a 40-by-60-by-2-foot area that was used by firefighters from 1982 to 1987. Fifty-five gallons drums of solvents or fuels were placed in the Fire Training Pit and set ablaze. Contaminants of concern include metals, VOCs, and SVOCs. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals, VOCs, and SVOCs.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives.
Soil and Sediment: Metals contamination was highest (greater than 1,000 ppm) in the center of the pit. VOCs (up to 200 ppm) and SVOCs (up to 12 ppm) were detected in subsurface soils. Surface soils contained SVOCs with a maximum detected concentration of 60 ppm.
Corrective Activities:
Contaminated soils were removed and stored in the on-site CAMU and soil repository.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Fire Training Pit.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Fire Training Pit surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
North Burn Pads The North Burn Pads site contains two pads, each measuring 20 by 50 feet. It is in a fenced area. From 1968 to 1972, lead azide and gun powder were burned at this site. Surface run-off flows southeast toward an unnamed tributary of Spring Creek. Metals are the primary contaminant of concern. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals and explosives.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives.
Soil and Sediment: Extensive metals contaminated surficial soils. Metals decreased with soil depth, but even at 3 feet, there were elevated levels of antimony (122 ppm), barium (645 ppm), cadmium (1.49 ppm), chromium (74.2 ppm), copper (11,500 ppm), lead (5,930 ppm), nickel (278 ppm), silver (1.66 ppm), sodium (356 ppm), and zinc (8,040 ppm).
Corrective Activities:
Contaminated soils were removed and stored in the on-site CAMU and soil repository.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the North Burn Pads.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to North Burn Pads surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
North Burn Pads Landfill The North Burn Pads Landfill is a 3/4-acre landfill used prior to 1980. It is located within a fenced area. This site stored residue from the North Burn Pads, primarily flashed or burned cans and containers. Explosives and metals are the primary contaminants of concern. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals, explosives, and VOCs.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives.
Soil and Sediment: North Burn Pads Landfill soil and sediment contamination levels were below ATSDR comparison values.
Corrective Activities:
Some contents of the North Burn Pads Landfill were removed in 1980 and taken to the Inert Landfill.
In 1998, more soils and debris were removed and placed in the Inert Landfill, primarily to minimize any further groundwater contamination.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the North Burn Pads Landfill.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to North Burn Pads Landfill surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Contaminant concentrations are at levels that do not pose health hazards.
PCB Roundhouse Transformer Storage Area (PCB-RTSA) The PCB-RTSA is a large, flat-graded, fenced area in the northeastern portion of IAAAP. It stores unused transformers. In 1980, all transformers with >500 ppm PCBs were moved inside an on-site warehouse, in 1987, all transformers with >50 ppm PCBs were moved outside. The outside transformers lie in the yard on ground surface. PCBs are the primary contaminants of concern. Groundwater: No groundwater samples were collected underlying the PCB-RTSA.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives.
Soil and Sediment: Low-levels (generally less than 2 ppm) PCBs were detected in surface soils over much of the yard and in some samples to the west and south of the yard.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the PCB-RTSA.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to PCB-RTSA surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Contaminant concentrations are at levels that do not pose health hazards.
West Burn Pads
(Contains the West Burn Pads Landfill and the Burn Cage Ash Disposal Landfill)
The West Burn Pads site is in a fenced area. It contains two burn pads (50 by 15 feet), two landfills (200 by 300 feet), and three cages (30 by 60 feet). The pad cages and the Burn Cage Ash Disposal Landfill operated from 1949 to 1975. The West Burn Pads Landfill received wastes from 1950 to 1875. This site is adjacent to Spring Creek in a fenced-off area in the northeast corner of IAAAP. At the pads, explosives-contaminated metal parts were flashed and disposed or sold as scrap. Salvageable metal parts were stored at this site. The cages were used to incinerate inert and explosive-contaminated packaging. The West Burn Pads Landfill received residue from pads and various types of solid waste. The Burn Cage Ash Disposal Landfill received residual ash from burn cages. Discarded materials were put on the ground and covered with earth at both landfills. Contaminants of concern include explosives, metals, VOCs, and SVOCs. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals, explosives, and VOCs.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives.
Soil and Sediment: The RI indicated the widespread presence of explosives in surficial soils and drainage ways. The highest detections were HMX at 27,000 ppm and RDX at 140 ppm in surface samples. Metal contamination (arsenic, barium, chromium, mercury, silver, and cadmium) was fairly widespread throughout the area. Low levels of VOCs and SVOCs were detected.
Corrective Activities:
Burn cages were removed when the site became inactive.
Some debris and contaminated soils were removed and stored in the on-site CAMU and soil repository.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the West Burn Pads.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to West Burn Pads surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Facilities in Skunk River Watershed
Line 3A Some explosives-contaminated wastewater from Line 3A drains into a tributary of the Skunk River (see "Facilities in Long Creek Watershed" section of this table for more details). Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of explosives, metals, and VOCs.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives and metals.
Soil and Sediment: See "Facilities in Long Creek Watershed" section of this table for more details.
Corrective Activities:
Line 3A wastewater is processed through a closed-loop carbon filter and discharged, as necessary, via NPDES #34 to a tributary of the Skunk River.
Current Status:
See "Facilities in Long Creek Watershed" section of this table for more details.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Line 3A.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 3A surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.
Line 3A Pond The Line 3A Pond is a 60-by-30-by-8-foot pond in a fenced area of western IAAAP. Between 1956 and 1958 or 1959, approximately 15,000 gallons of spent sulfuric and hydrochloric acid were disposed in the pond and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The waste was the result of a metal-cleaning operation. Metals are the primary contaminants of concern. Groundwater: No groundwater samples were collected underlying the Line 3A Pond.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of metals.
Soil and Sediment: Line 3A Sewage Treatment Plant soil and sediment contamination levels were below ATSDR comparison values.
Corrective Activities:
Line 3A Pond was excavated and its soils and sediment were disposed in the Inert Landfill.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Line 3A Pond.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 3A Pond surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Contaminant concentrations are at levels that do not pose health hazards.
Line 3A Sewage Treatment Plant The Line 3A Sewage Treatment Plant occupies half an acre in a fenced area of western IAAAP. It has operated from 1943 to 1945, from 1949 to the late 1980s, and at present. It treats domestic waste and blowdown water from the IAAAP steam-generating plant at Line 3A. The primary contaminants of concern are explosives and metals. Groundwater: No groundwater samples were collected underlying the Line 3A Sewage Treatment Plant.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives and metals.
Soil and Sediment: Line 3A Sewage Treatment Plant soil and sediment contamination levels were below ATSDR comparison values.
Corrective Activities:
Effluent from the Line 3A Sewage Treatment Plant flows into an intermittent stream west of the site via a NPDES outfall (#014) which eventually drains into the Skunk River.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the Line 3A Sewage Treatment Plant.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to Line 3A Sewage Treatment Plant surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health.
Demolition Area/Deactivation Furnace (DA/DF) DA/DF is a fenced, 10-acre parcel in the southwest corner of IAAAP. The DA was used from the early 1940s to present, the DF operated from 1971 to 1980 and from 1983 to present. The DA was used for the open detonation of reject ammunition, and the DF was used for the destruction of small explosive-loaded components. Explosives and metals are the primary contaminants of concern. Groundwater: Contained elevated levels of metals and explosives.
Surface Water: Contained elevated levels of explosives.
Soil and Sediment: Low levels of explosives were found in 1 of 10 samples during the RI. Of 21 soil samples, all had detectable levels of arsenic, barium, chromium, and lead with maximum values of 13, 5,100, 613, and 6,400 ppm, respectively. Lower levels of mercury, cadmium, and selenium were reported in some samples.
Corrective Activities:
After detonation, metal and collectable residue were collected and flashed by fire in the on-site CWP to allow for sale of salvageable material.
Unsalvageable metal and ash were treated in the DF and containerized in steel dumpsters and stored as hazardous waste. The DF underwent RCRA closure and is not in a temporary inactive status.
Current Status:
RI/FS complete.
The Army will continue monitoring and remediation activities.
No public health hazards are associated with this site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the DA/DF.
Surface Water: There is no public exposure to DA/DF surface water.
Soil and Sediment: There is no public exposure to soil and sediment at this site. Remedial activities have reduced contaminant levels to those protective of human health. On-site workers will not contact site soils without adequate health and safety precautions as required by OSHA.

Sources: CDM, 1997; ACE, 1998c; IAAAP, 1999.


APPENDIX B

Estimates of Human Exposure Dose and Determination of Health Effects from Past
Consumption of RDX-Contaminated Groundwater

Derivation of ATSDR's Estimated Exposure Doses8

To determine whether adverse health effects are a concern for this pathway, ATSDR estimatedadult and child exposure doses for past ingestion of RDX-contaminated groundwater in thevicinity of IAAAP. In deriving human exposure doses, ATSDR incorporated informationabout the frequency and duration of potential contaminant exposure. ATSDR assumed that atypical adult drank 2 liters of water each day and weighed 70 kg and that a child drank 1 liter ofwater each day and weighed 10 kg. ATSDR used an exposure period of 7 years for adults andchildren to consider for the years between sampling periods when RDX was not detected(1985) and when RDX was detected (1992) in off-site private wells. ATSDR also assumedthat the drinking water pumped to residential taps contained the maximum RDX concentration(27.5 ppb) detected in an active well. Furthermore, ATSDR assumed that 100% of the waterused for drinking came from the groundwater contaminated by IAAAP activities.

ATSDR used the following equation to estimate potential exposure doses for past ingestion of groundwater from private wells that may have been affected by RDX:

Estimated exposure dose       = Conc. x IR x EF x ED
BW x AT

where:

Conc. = Maximum detected contaminant concentration in an active production well: 0.0275 parts per million (ppm)
IR = Ingestion rate (liters/day): 2 liters/day for adults; 1 liter/day for children
EF = Exposure frequency or number of exposure events per year of exposure:
1 event/day x 7 days/week x 52 weeks/year or approximately 365 events/year
ED = Exposure duration or the duration over which exposure occurs: 7 years (coincides with the approximate time span that RDX was not detected in private wells to when RDX was first detected in private wells [1985 to 1992])
BW = Body weight (kg): 70 kg for adult; 10 kg for children
AT = Averaging time or the time period over which cumulative exposures are averaged (7 years x 365 days/year for noncancer effects; 70 years x 365 days per year for cancer).

The estimated exposure doses calculated are conservative estimates and may overestimateactual doses received by this population. Actual doses associated with exposure to water in theprivate wells is expected to be less than estimates presented above, based on the following reasons:

  • The maximum detected RDX concentration used to estimate exposure doses for allresidents in the IAAAP vicinity was detected in a private well serving only one family. All other RDX detections in active drinking water wells were lower, and all but oneother detection only slightly exceeded the 2.0 ppb health advisory limit.
  • The exposure frequency is extremely conservative because it assumes that residentswere drinking all their water from contaminated wells for 365 days a year. In allprobability, the affected residents also consumed other water sources (e.g., watersupplied at work, bottled water, restaurant water, water from various travel locations,etc.).
  • Similarly, the exposure duration is extremely conservative. The exposure duration usedto estimate the exposure dose was 7 years for adults and children (the length of timefrom when wells were known to be contaminant-free to when they were first discoveredto contain RDX). This estimate probably overestimates exposure because not all wellswere contaminated or in use for the full 7 years.

Evaluation of ATSDR's Estimated Exposure Dose

When evaluating noncancer effects, ATSDR uses standard health guidelines, such as EPA'soral reference dose (RfD), to determine whether adverse effects will occur. An RfD is definedas an estimate of daily oral human exposure to a chemical that is likely to be without anappreciable risk of deleterious effects (noncancer) over a specified duration of exposure. Estimated exposure doses for both adults (0.0008 mg/kg/day) and children (0.0028 mg/kg/day)were below EPA's oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.003 mg/kg/day. Therefore, ATSDRconcludes that past ingestion of RDX-contaminated groundwater in the IAAAP vicinity is notassociated with any noncancer effects.

Cancer effects

Although there are no studies establishing a direct link between oral exposure to RDX andcancer in humans, laboratory experiments with animals have resulted in a classification ofRDX as a Possible Human Carcinogen.

For screening purposes, ATSDR used a previously derived cancer potency factors (CPF) forRDX of 0.11 (mg/kg/day)-1. CPFs, developed using data from animal or human studies, definethe relationship between exposure doses and the likelihood of an increased risk of developingcancer over a lifetime. The derivation of CPFs often requires extrapolation from high exposuredoses administered in animal studies to lower exposure levels typical of human exposure toenvironmental contaminants. Because CPFs represent the upper-bound estimate of theprobability of developing cancer at a defined level of exposure, they tend to be veryconservative (i.e., overestimate the actual risk) in order to account for a number ofuncertainties in the data used in extrapolation. Therefore, this approach provides aconservative evaluation of the likelihood of cancer effects being associated with the levels ofRDX detected in drinking water in the vicinity of IAAAP.

ATSDR estimated the potential for cancer to occur using the following equation:

Lifetime Cancer Risk = Estimated exposure dose (mg/kg/day) x CPF (mg/kg/day)-1

For the IAAAP, ATSDR derived a lifetime (70 year) cancer estimate from RDX-contaminateddrinking water of 8 x 10-6 (or an increased likelihood of 8 in one million). Although no risk ofcancer is considered acceptable, because a zero cancer risk is not possible to achieve, ATSDRoften uses a range of 10-4 to 10-6 estimated lifetime cancer risk (or 1 new case in 10,000 to1,000,000 exposed persons) to determine whether there is a concern for cancer effects. TheIAAAP cancer estimate is within ATSDR's range of 10-4 to 10-6. Therefore, ATSDR does notconsider an increased risk of cancer from RDX-contaminated drinking water to be a concernfor residents living south of IAAAP.

Conclusions

In summary, no apparent public health hazards are associated with past consumption ofRDX-contaminated groundwater from off-site wells in the vicinity of IAAAP.


APPENDIX C

Comparison Values

APPENDIX C: Comparison Values

The conclusion that a contaminant exceeds the comparison value does not mean that it willcause adverse health effects. Comparison values represent media-specific contaminantconcentrations that are used to select contaminants for further evaluation to determine thepossibility of adverse public health effects.

Cancer Potency Factor (CPF)
Usually derived from dose-response models and expressed in mg/kg/day, CPFs describe the inherent potency of carcinogens and estimate an upper limit on the likelihood that lifetime exposure to a particular chemical could lead to excess cancer deaths.

Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)
Estimated contaminant concentrations that would be expected to cause no more than one excess cancer in a million (10-6) persons exposed over a 70-year life span. ATSDR's CREGs are calculated from EPA's cancer potency factors.

EPA Region III Risk-Based Concentration
EPA combines reference doses and carcinogenic potency slopes with "standard" exposure scenarios to calculate risk-based concentrations, which are chemical concentrations corresponding to fixed levels of risk (i.e., a hazard quotient of 1, or lifetime cancer risk of 10-6, whichever occurs at a lower concentration) in water, air, fish tissue, and soil.

Health Advisory Limit (HAL)
The concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse noncarcinogenic effects over a lifetime of exposure, with a margin of safety.

Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL)
The lowest dose of a chemical that produced an adverse-effect when it was administered to animals in a toxicity study.

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)
The MCL is the drinking water stand established by EPA and enforced by the California Department of Environmental Protection. It is the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to the free-flowing outlet. MCLs are considered protective of human health over a lifetime (70 years) for individuals consuming 2 liters of water per day.

Minimal Risk Levels (MRL)
MRLs are estimates of daily human exposure to a chemical (i.e., doses expressed in mg/kg/day) that are unlikely to be associated with any appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects over a specified duration of exposure. MRLs are calculated using data from human and animal studies and are reported for acute (< 14 days), intermediate (15-364 days), and chronic (> 365 days) exposures. MRLs are published in ATSDR Toxicological Profiles for specific chemicals.


APPENDIX D
Glossary

APPENDIX D: Glossary

Background Level
A typical or average level of a chemical in the environment. Background often refers to naturally occurring or uncontaminated levels.

Carcinogen
Any substance that may produce cancer.

Comparison Values
Estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adverse health effects, given a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. The comparison values are calculated from the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.

Concentration
The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.

Contaminant
Any substance or material that enters a system where it is not normally found or found in greater concentrations than background levels.

Dose
The amount of substance to which a person is exposed. Dose often takes body weight into account.

Environmental contamination
The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective, environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of life of people living and working near the contamination.

Exposure
Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).

Hazard
A source of risk that does not necessarily imply potential for occurrence. A hazard produces risk only if an exposure pathway exists, and if exposures create the possibility of adverse consequences.

Ingestion
Swallowing (such as eating or drinking). Chemicals can get in or on food, drink, utensils, cigarettes, or hands where they can be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout the body.

Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)
MCLs represent contaminant concentrations in drinking water that EPA deems protective of public health (considering the availability and economics of water treatment technology) over a lifetime (70 years) at an exposure rate of 2 liters of water per day.

Media
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.

Minimal Risk Level (MRL)
An MRL is defined as an estimate of daily human exposure to a substance that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of adverse effects (noncancer) over a specified duration of exposure. MRLs are derived when reliable and sufficient data exist to identify the target organ(s) of effect or the most sensitive health effect(s) for a specific duration via a given route of exposure. MRLs are based on noncancer health effects only. MRLs can be derived for acute, intermediate and chronic duration exposures by the inhalation and oral routes.

National Priorities List (NPL)
EPA's listing of sites that have undergone preliminary assessment and site inspection to determine which locations pose an immediate threat to persons living or working near the release. These sites are most in need of cleanup.

Potentially Exposed
The condition where valid information, usually analytical environmental data, indicates the presence of contaminant(s) of a public health concern in one or more environmental media contacting humans (e.g., air, drinking water, soil, food chain, surface water), and there is evidence that some of those persons may have an identified route(s) of exposure (e.g., drinking contaminated water, breathing contaminated air, having contact with contaminated soil, or eating contaminated food).

Public Health Assessment
The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environment in order to assess any current or future impact on public health, develop health advisories or other recommendations, and identify studies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects; also, the document resulting from that evaluation.

Public Health Hazard
Sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.

Route of Exposure
The path in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.

Volatile organic compound (VOC)
Substance containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easily become vapors or gases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (e.g., paint thinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, dry cleaning fluids).

APPENDIX E

Responses to Public Comments

APPENDIX E: Responses to Public Comments

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) received the followingcomments/questions during the public comment period (June 22, 1999 to October 31, 1999) forthe Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAAP) Public Health Assessment (PHA). For commentsthat questioned the validity of statements made in the PHA, ATSDR verified or corrected suchstatements. The list of comments does not include editorial comments concerning such thingsas word spelling or sentence syntax.

  1. Comment: Page 1, Paragraph 4. The validity of the statement "no one has ever usedon-site groundwater as a source of drinking water" was questioned. Specific referenceswere made to well pumps located on the installation, visible inside of some fencedareas. It was also pointed out that one on-site well historically provided emergencywater to the main reserve of IAAAP's water treatment facility.

    Response: ATSDR did not change the original text because no reference documentscould be found to verify that on-site wells were used for drinking water. On thecontrary, cited sources identified 5 wells located on the installation, but none of thesewells were ever used for drinking water purposes (Hicks, 1999). As explained in theGroundwater Use section, one on-site well served as an alternate (i.e., emergency)water source for the water treatment facility, but this well was never needed or used forthis purpose (Hicks, 1999). ATSDR sources indicate that IAAAP drinking water wasobtained from (treated) Mathes Lake surface water prior to 1977, after which IAAAPused the Burlington Municipal System as its drinking water source. ATSDR does notdispute that on-site wells are visible at the installation.

  2. Comment: Page 2, Paragraph 1. The validity of the statement "no available data existto quantify past TNT or RDX contamination level" was questioned. It was suggestedthat historical surface water contamination data may have been recorded and/orpresented at IAAAP meetings during the late 1960s or early 1970s.

    Response: The author of this comment did not provide a reference citation and ATSDRwas unable to locate any such quantitative contamination data. IAAAP personnelconfirmed that the installation has no record of such sampling events (Allison, 1999c).The closest such study that ATSDR found was a reference to a 1962 study thatevaluated surface water contaminant levels as "very strong," "strong," "not as strong,""discernable," or "weak." This 1962 study, however, did not provide quantitative detailabout historical surface water contamination (although it does seem to supportATSDR's assumption that the levels of surface water explosives were probably in theppm range [i.e., pink water]). Therefore, the original text was not changed.

  3. Comment: Page 3, Paragraph 2. The phrase "components of these munitions, includingprimers, detonators, fuses, and boosters have also been handled at the facility" shouldbe revised to indicate that these items were manufactured at IAAAP during the 1960sand 1970s on lines 5a, 5b, 6, and 7.
  4. Response: ATSDR clarified it's statement by adding "primarily in the 1960s and 1970s" to the text.

  5. Comment: Modify the PHA to indicate that, from 1941 until 1977, Long Lake was theprimary source for all IAAAP water (including drinking water, not just an emergencysupply).
  6. Response: ATSDR changed the text to accurately reflect that Mathes Lake surfacewater (after treatment in an on-site water treatment facility) was the source for allIAAAP drinking water prior to 1977.

  7. Comment: Past IAAAP employees and local residents commented that they personallyobserved untreated, contaminated water dumped into the Pink Lagoon and/or theypersonally witnessed pink water running off site via Brush Creek. One individualcommented that "chunks of TNT and Composition B as large as my fist were in thesump water dumped into the lagoon." Therefore, remove the word "allegedly" whenreferring to pink water in the IAAAP vicinity in the 1960s and 1970s.

    Response: ATSDR contacted current and past IAAAP employees and unequivocallyverified that local surface waters historically ran pink. The original text was revised toincorporate the personal observations and to confirm the existence of past surface watercontamination. ATSDR removed the word "allegedly" from all surface water discussions.

  8. Comment: Concern was expressed regarding one family that previously resided onIAAAP's south boundary with Long Creek running through their property. Verify thatthis family's health problems and their concerns were addressed, even though thefamily was not specifically mentioned in the PHA.
  9. Response: To protect individual privacy, ATSDR does not mention family orindividual names in PHAs. The health of all families living in the IAAAP vicinity,particularly those living south (downgradient) of IAAAP, were accounted for whendeveloping this document. To ensure, however, that community concerns were clearlyaddressed, ATSDR added a Community Health Concerns section to the PHA.

  10. Comment: During the 1970s, Long Lake and other local surface waters werecontaminated and endured a "major fish kill," allegedly by farm chemicals andpesticides used for "no-till" farming. The U.S. Department of Fisheries regularlyperformed fish studies at IAAAP. Include this information in the PHA.
  11. Response: ATSDR PHAs focus on human health issues and generally do not addressecological health or ecological risk issues, unless there is a completed exposurepathway to a human receptor population (there is none in this instance). Moreover, thisPHA specifically addresses health issues associated with IAAAP activities (not localfarming practices). The original text was not changed.

  12. Comment: Several commenters were concerned that ATSDR used "pink" waterinstead of "red" water and "RDX" instead of "TNT."
  13. Response: Pink water and red water conditions both originate from TNT contaminants,but they indicate varying levels of TNT concentrations. No quantitative data areavailable, however, to know whether or not historical IAAAP surface water conditionsare more accurately described by pink water (approximately 5 ppm) or red water(greater TNT concentrations). The majority of documents obtained by ATSDR used"pink" water to describe historical conditions, although some did use "red" water. Alldocuments referred to the "Pinkwater Lagoon." To be consistent with most referencedocuments, ATSDR described historical conditions as having "pink" waters. Atunknown times in the past, however, ATSDR acknowledges that IAAAP surface watersmay have run red. The text, however, was not changed.

    Documents obtained by ATSDR indicate that RDX is currently the primarycontaminant of concern, although historically TNT may have been more prevalent (asdescribed in this PHA). Some on-site soil areas currently contain TNT contaminantconcentrations above health-based guidelines (see Appendix A for details), but there isno public exposure to these soils. Without exposure, no public health hazards exist, soTNT is not addressed as a primary contaminant of concern. The text was not changed.


1. This public health assessment specifically addresses non-nuclear issues related to IAAAP operations. ATSDR will, as necessary, review and report on environmental pathways of radioactive contamination, if any, andthe potential public health implications.

2. Prior to 1977, IAAAP's primary drinking water source came from Mathes Lake and was treated at an on-site water treatment facility.

3. ATSDR's estimated exposure doses are calculated for the general population in the IAAAP vicinity and may not accurately reflect exposure for the one household that has ignored repeated Army recommendations to abandon their private well. For this household, the exposure period was approximately twice as long. According to ATSDR estimates, doubling the exposure period is not associated with an increased incidence in noncancer effects in adults, but it may increase the susceptibility of children to noncancer effects (see Appendix B).

4. Community concerns regarding radiological issues will be addressed by ATSDR when sufficient information regarding potential environmental contamination becomes available.

5. ATSDR's estimated exposure doses are calculated for the general child population in the IAAAP vicinity and may not accurately reflect exposure for the one household that has ignored repeated Army recommendations to abandon their private well. For this household, the exposure period was approximately twice as long. According to ATSDR estimates, doubling the exposure period may be associated with an increased incidence of noncancer effects in children (see Appendix B). ATSDR, however, does not know if any children have lived in the household for this entire 15-year duration.

6. This conclusion excludes the one household that has refused to abandon its contaminated private well, even after the Army has connected the residence to the Rathbun Rural Water System and repeatedly informed the residents that their well water does not meet state and federal standards (see Concern: Groundwater section and Appendix B).

7. Excluding the one household that has refused to abandon its contaminated private well, even after the Army has connected the residence to the Rathbun Rural Water System and repeatedly informed the household that their well water does not meet state and federal standards (see Concern: Groundwater section and Appendix B).

8. For the one household that has repeatedly ignored Army recommendations and knowingly continues to drink from a contaminated private well, ATSDR used an exposure period of 15 years instead of 7 years. This extended exposure period does not appear to result in any health threats for adults because the estimated adult exposure dose (0.001 mg/kg/day) remains below EPA's oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.003 mg/kg/day. Therefore, ATSDR concludes that there are no apparent noncancer effects associated with adults ingesting the households' private well water in the past. The prolonged 15-year exposure, however, increased the estimated child exposure dose (0.006 mg/kg/day) above EPA's oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.003 mg/kg/day. Therefore, ATSDR concludes that there may be noncancer health effects for children. ATSDR does not know if any children have lived in the household for this entire 15-year duration.



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