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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

PANTEX PLANT
AMARILLO, CARSON COUNTY, TEXAS

APPENDIX B

Pantex Plant Reference Documents Reviewed

Acquavella JF, Wiggs LD, Waxweiler RJ, MacDonell DG, Tietjen GL, Wilkinson GS. Mortality among workers at thePantex weapons facility. Health Phys 1985 June;48(6):735-46.

Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Research Division. Draft RCRA facility investigation report for groundwater inzone 12 at the DOE Pantex Plant. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. Chicago, IL: November 1995.

Barns & McDonnell. Land use census Pantex facility (draft). Kansas City, MO: March 1991.

Barns & McDonnell. Revised land use census Pantex facility. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy and Mason &Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Kansas City, MO: June 1995.

Battelle Pantex. Pantex Plant environmental restoration program. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX:December 1992.

Battelle Pantex. Pantex Plant federal facility compliance act mixed waste treatment program: Conceptual site treatment plan.Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: October 1993.

Battelle Pantex, Environmental Protection Department, Environmental Monitoring Section. Uranium in pullman soils of theTexas panhandle. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: October 1991.

Bounini L, Desmare W, Orban J, Rellergert C, Thalhammer D, Williams M, Zygmunt S. AL mixed waste treatment plan(final issue). March 1994.

Bureau of Economic Geology. Hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of the Ogallala Aquifer, southern high plains, Texaspanhandle, and eastern New Mexico. Austin, TX: 1988. Report of investigations no. 177.

Geo-Marine, Inc. A cultural resources survey of 500 acres surrounding the sewage playa at the Pantex Plant facility, CarsonCounty, Texas. Prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Plano, TX: May 1994. Miscellaneous report of investigationsno. 75.

Geo-Marine, Inc. A cultural resources survey of 2,400 acres at the U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant, Carson County,Texas. Prepared for Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Plano, TX: March 1995. Miscellaneous report of investigationsno. 87.

Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. RCRA facility investigation report for construction landfills 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, and 15 (draftfinal). Prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Albuquerque, NM: December 1995.

Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. RCRA facility investigation report for construction landfills 3, 13, original, 1, 2, sanitary, andabandoned zone 10 (draft). Prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Albuquerque, NM: February 1996.

Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. in conjunction with Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Company. Chemical highexplosives hazards assessment for the Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas. Albuquerque, NM: October 1993.

Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. in conjunction with Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Company. Hazardousmaterials hazards assessment for the Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas. Albuquerque, NM: November 1992.

Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. in conjunction with Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Company. Naturalphenomena hazards assessment for the Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas. Albuquerque, NM: October 1993.

Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. in conjunction with Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Company. Recalculation ofpotential deposition levels and dose exposure levels for the Pantex radiological hazards assessment for the Pantex PlantAmarillo, Texas. Albuquerque, NM: October 1993.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential Ogallala Aquifer impacts of a hypothetical plutonium dispersal accident in zone 4of the Pantex Plant. Los Alamos, NM: November 1992.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. Supplementary documentation for an environmental impact statement regarding the PantexPlant: Hydrologic study for Pantex. Los Alamos, NM: December 1982. Document no. LA-9445-PNTX-A.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. Supplementary documentation for an environmental impact statement regarding the PantexPlant: Radiation monitoring and radiological assessment of routine releases. Los Alamos, NM: December 1982. Documentno. LA-9445-PNTX-C.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. Supplementary documentation for an environmental impact statement regarding the PantexPlant: Dispersion analysis for postulated accidents. Los Alamos, NM: December 1982. Document no. LA-9445-PNTX-D.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. Supplementary documentation for an environmental impact statement regarding the PantexPlant: Review of occupational exposures to radiation. Los Alamos, NM: December 1982. Document no. LA-9445-PNTX-E.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. Supplementary documentation for an environmental impact statement regarding the PantexPlant: Radiological consequences of immediate inhalation of plutonium dispersed by postulated accidents. Los Alamos, NM:December 1982. Document no. LA-9445-PNTX-F.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. Supplementary documentation for an environmental impact statement regarding the PantexPlant: Estimated releases and downwind concentrations of air pollutants from waste organic solvent evaporation, waste high-explosive burning, and high-explosive test shots. Los Alamos, NM: December 1982. Document no. LA-9445-PNTX-G.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. Supplementary documentation for an environmental impact statement regarding the PantexPlant: Geohydrologic investigations. Los Alamos, NM: December 1982. Document no. LA-9445-PNTX-H.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. Supplementary documentation for an environmental impact statement regarding the PantexPlant: Agricultural food chain radiological assessment. Los Alamos, NM: December 1982. Document no. LA-9445-PNTX-M.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. Supplementary documentation for an environmental impact statement regarding the PantexPlant: Long-term radiological risk assessment for postulated accidents. Los Alamos, NM: December 1982. Document no.LA-9445-PNTX-O.

Los Alamos National Laboratory. Supplementary documentation for an environmental impact statement regarding the PantexPlant: A comparison of county and state cancer mortality rates. Los Alamos, NM: December 1982. Document no. LA-9445-PNTX-P.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1973. Prepared for theU.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Amarillo, TX: May 1974. Document no. MHSMP-74-12.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1974. Prepared for theU.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. Amarillo, TX: May 1975. Document no. MHSMP-75-8.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1975. Prepared for theU.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. Amarillo, TX: March 1976. Document no. MHSMP-76-8.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1976. Prepared for theU.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. Amarillo, TX: March 1977. Document no. MHSMP-77-7.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1977. Prepared for theU.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: March 1978. Document no. MHSMP-78-7.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1978. Prepared for theU.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: May 1979. Document no. MHSMP-79-24.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1979. Prepared for theU.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: May 1980. Document no. MHSMP-80-12.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1980. Prepared for theU.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: March 1981. Document no. MHSMP-81-18.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1981. Prepared for theU.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: April 1982. Document no. MHSMP-82-14.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1982. Prepared for theU.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: March 1983. Document no. MHSMP-83.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1983. Prepared for theU.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: 1984. Document no. MHSMP-84-15.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1984. Prepared for theU.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: April 1985. Document no. MHSMP-85-17.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1985. Prepared for theU.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: May 1986. Document no. MHSMP-86-17.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1986. Prepared for theU.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: April 1987. Document no. MHSMP-87-18.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1987. Prepared for theU.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: April 1988. Document no. MHSMP-88-1.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Pantex Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1988. Prepared for the U.S.Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: May 1989. Document no. MHSMP-89-27.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Pantex Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1989. Prepared for the U.S.Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: May 1990. Document no. MHSMP-90.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Pantex Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990. Prepared for the U.S.Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: July 1991. Document no. MHSMP-91-06.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Pantex Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1991. Prepared for the U.S.Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: December 1992.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Pantex Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1992. Prepared for the U.S.Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: December 1993.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. 1993 environmental report for Pantex Plant. Prepared for the U.S. Department ofEnergy. Amarillo, TX: June 1994. Document no. DOE/AL/65030-9413.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. 1994 environmental report for Pantex Plant. Prepared for the U.S. Department ofEnergy. Amarillo, TX: June 1995. Document no. DOE/AL/65030-9506.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. 1995 environmental report for Pantex Plant. Prepared for the U.S. Department ofEnergy. Amarillo, TX: May 1996. Document no. DOE/AL/65030-9602.

Mason & Hanger Corporation. 1996 environmental report for Pantex Plant. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy.Amarillo, TX: May 1997. Document no. DOE/AL/65030-9704.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Environmental monitoring plan for the Pantex Plant. Prepared for the U.S.Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: March 1996. Document no. PLN-20.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Groundwater protection management program plan. Prepared for the U.S.Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: May 1993. Document no. PLN8.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Groundwater protection management program plan (update for FY95). Prepared forthe U.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: June 1995. Document no. PLN8.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Pantex Plant draft site treatment plan. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy.Amarillo, TX: August 1994.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Pantex Plant environmental monitoring program. Prepared for the U.S. Departmentof Energy. Amarillo, TX: December 1991.

Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Pantex zone 12 treatability study, Vol No 1: Interim data reports no. 1, 2, 3.Amarillo, TX: December 1995.

Mason & Hanger Corporation. Risk reduction rule guidance for Pantex Plant RCRA facility investigations (final). Preparedfor the U.S. Department of Energy. Amarillo, TX: August 1996.

Morrison Knudsen Corporation. RCRA facility investigation report for miscellaneous high explosives/radiation release sitesPantex Plant, Amarillo, TX ADS 1212 (AL-PX-11) (draft final). Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. Englewood,CO: January 1996.

Morrison Knudsen Corporation. RCRA facility investigation report firing sites for 5, 6, and 15 ADS 1205 (AL-PX-09) (draftfinal). Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. Englewood, CO: February 1996.

Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An evaluation of meteorological data differences between the Pantex Plant and Amarillo,Texas. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. Richland, WA: June 1993. Document no. PNL-8718.

Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Ecological investigations at the Pantex Plant Site, 1992. Prepared for the U.S. Department ofEnergy. Richland, WA: September 1993. Document no. PNL-8810.

Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Pantex Plant cell 12-44-1 tritium release: Re-assessment of environmental doses for 1990 to1992. Prepared for Battelle Pantex and Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Richland, WA: March 1994. Document no.PNL-9367.

Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Pantex Plant meteorological monitoring program. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy.Richland, WA: July 1993. Document no. PNL-8744.

Radian Corporation. RFI report, Vol 1: Pantex RCRA facility investigation AL-PX-8 ditches and playas, ADS 1216 (draftfinal). Prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Austin, TX: September 1995. (Vol 1 of 5)

Texas Department of Health. Letter to Claudia Blackburn from Minda M. Weldon concerning a response to a concern aboutan excess of infant mortality in Potter and Randall Counties. April 11, 1997.

Texas Department of Health. Letter to Deborah Martin from Jean D. Brender concerning congenital malformations -panhandle region. March 19, 1987.

Texas Department of Health. Summary writeup: Analysis of parental occupation and workplace, and distribution by zip code.Austin, TX: October 1996.

Texas Department of Health, Birth Defects Monitoring Division. Pantex investigation: Birth defects component. Austin, TX:August 1996.

Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control. Environmental monitoring annual report 1987. Austin, TX: March1990. Document no. TBRC EMR-87.

Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control. Environmental monitoring annual report 1988 and 1989. Austin,TX: March 1991. Document no. TBRC EMR-88/89.

Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control. Environmental monitoring annual report for 1990. Austin, TX.Document no. TBRC EMR-90.

Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control. Environmental monitoring annual report for 1991. Austin, TX.Document no. TBRC EMR-91.

Texas Department of Health, Bureau of Radiation Control. Environmental monitoring annual report for 1992. Austin, TX.Document no. TBRC EMR-92.

Texas Department of Health, Cancer Registry Division. Study of cancer in selected counties near the Pantex NuclearWeapons Plant. Austin, TX: June 1994.

Texas Department of Health, Texas Cancer Registry. Summary of investigation into the occurrence of cancer in selectedcounties in the Texas panhandle. Austin, TX: July 1996.

Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. Pantex Plant federal facility compliance act proposed site treatmentplan/compliance plan. Austin, TX: March 1995.

Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Monitoring Operations Division. Pantex nuclear weapons facility qualityassurance project plan for ambient air monitoring. Austin, TX: June 1995. Document no. RG-140.

Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Monitoring Operations Division. Pantex nuclear weapons facility qualityassurance project plan for ambient air monitoring. Austin, TX: August 1997. Document no. RG-140/97.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Final work plan, Vol I (generic): RCRA facility investigations for ditches and playas.Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. Tulsa, OK: May 1991.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Final work plan, Vol II (site specific): RCRA facility investigations for ditches and playas.Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. Tulsa, OK: May 1991.

U.S. Department of Defense. DOD ammunition and explosives safety standards. Washington, DC: October 1992. Documentno. DOD 6055.9-STD.

U.S. Department of Energy. Programmatic Information Document. Environmental impact statement: The continued operationof the Pantex Plant and associated storage of nuclear weapon components. Washington, DC: October 1995.

U.S. Department of Energy. Draft environmental impact statement for the continued operation of the Pantex Plant andassociated storage of nuclear weapon components (summary). Washington, DC: March 1996. Document no. DOE/EIS-0225D.

U.S. Department of Energy. Draft environmental impact statement for the continued operation of the Pantex Plant andassociated storage of nuclear weapon components (Vol I-main report). Washington, DC: March 1996. Document no.DOE/EIS-0225D.

U.S. Department of Energy. Draft environmental impact statement for the continued operation of the Pantex Plant andassociated storage of nuclear weapon components (Vol II-appendixes). Washington, DC: March 1996. Document no.DOE/EIS-0225D.

U.S. Department of Energy. Environmental restoration program solid waste management units information booklet.Washington, DC: May 1995.

U.S. Department of Energy. Final environmental impact statement Pantex Plant Site Amarillo, Texas. Washington, DC:October 1983. Document no. DOE/EIS/0098.

U.S. Department of Energy. Risk reduction rule guidance to the Pantex Plant RFI (final). Washington, DC: September 1996.

U.S. Department of Energy. Tiger team assessment of the Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas. Washington, DC: February 1990.Document no. DOE/EH-0130.

U.S. Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office, Environment, Safety, and Health Division, EnvironmentalPrograms Branch. Comprehensive environmental assessment and response program Phase I: Installation assessment PantexPlant (draft). Washington, DC: October 1986.

U.S. Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. Human radiation experiments: TheDepartment of Energy roadmap to the story and records. Washington, DC: February 1995. Document no. DOE/EH-0445.

U.S. Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. Report of the task group on operationof Department of Energy tritium facilities. Washington, DC: October 1991. Document no. DOE/EH-0198P.

U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Restoration Program. Remedial investigation report, Vol 1: Task 1, stage 1(draft). Albuquerque, NM: June 1989.

U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Restoration Program. Remedial investigation report, Vol 2: Task 1, stage 1(draft). Albuquerque, NM: June 1989.

U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Restoration Program. Remedial investigation report, Vol 3: Task 1, stage 1(draft). Albuquerque, NM: June 1989.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Site history of Pantex Plant(draft). Washington, DC: January 1993.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Site maps and facilities listings.Washington, DC: November 1993.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency & Remedial Response, Office of Program Management.National priorities list sites: Texas. Washington, DC: September 1990. Document no. EPA/540/4-90/043.


APPENDIX C

Pantex Plant Groundwater Treatability Study

In September 1995, the Pantex Plant initiated a groundwater treatability study. The purpose was to investigate methods totreat the perched aquifer groundwater under the plant. The initial treatment system filtered the groundwater throughgranulated activated carbon, removing any of the historic explosive or volatile organic compounds.

Phase I of the study showed treatment was effective in removing explosives, and the system was expanded and improved toincrease effectiveness. Phases II and III of the study involved completing 10 additional groundwater extraction wells, oneadditional water injection well, and one Ogallala monitoring well.

Under Phase II, four additional extraction wells were installed in optimum locations to remove explosives and chromium. These wells help preclude potential movement of the explosives and chromium off site. The drilling began in August 1996and was completed on September 30, 1996. Three extraction wells were placed in the leading edge of the chromium plume. One extraction well was placed in the area of a low concentration of 1,2-dichloroethane. An Ogallala monitoring well wascompleted to monitor the Ogallala groundwater downgradient from the perched aquifer. The Ogallala aquifer lies about 100feet below the perched interval.

Phase II also included adding a chemical precipitation system to the treatability unit to remove metals. An insulated building,constructed to enclose the unit and protect the system during the winter, allows year-round operations.

Phase III work involved the installation of six new extraction wells. This phase increased the size of the study to includewater extraction from additional areas where explosives were found. Because the additional wells process more water than was previously processed, this should further slow movement of theplumes off site.

The system is currently treating an average of 70,000 gallons of water per day for explosives and 14,000 gallons per day forchromium. It is estimated that as much as 43,000 gallons will be processed for chromium each day when the unit goes to 24hours per day operation. A treatment rate of 115,000 gallons per day for the whole system is anticipated. As of March 31,1998, 30 million gallons of perched aquifer groundwater had been treated.

The treatability system is effective in that treated water contaminant concentrations (explosives and total hexavalentchromium) are below detection limits. The detection limit for explosives is 1 ppb, total chromium is 5 ppb, and hexavalentchromium is 10 ppb. The system is about 98% effective in removing total chromium. Even at that percentage, the presenceof total chromium in the effluent is nondetectable. Initial amounts of explosives and chromium have ranged as high as 1,800micrograms per liter (µg/L) and 3,490 µg/L respectively. The treated water is presently being re-injected into the perchedaquifer to help groundwater flow. Evaluation of the treatment system continues, and the system may be expanded further todevelop better extraction from known areas or to include other new areas for treatment.

APPENDIX D

Pantex Plant Solid Waste Management Units

1. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-1, BURNING GROUNDS ASSESSMENT [Activity Data Sheet (ADS) 1232]

The Burning Grounds is in the north central portion of the Pantex Plant area and comprises approximately 58 acres. Operations at the Burning Grounds began at least as early as 1952. The site is used for the demilitarization and sanitizationof High Explosive (HE) components and treatment of HE and HE-contaminated material. Disposal of solvents at the site wasdiscontinued in the early 1980s, but other permitted treatment activities continue. Units in the Burning Grounds include burntrays, flashing pits, racks, and the demonstration/detonation sites. Closure approval for burn racks, burn cages, and flashingpits was received from the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (TNRCC) in 1996. Inactive unitsinvestigated include the solvent evaporation pit and pans, the former chemical burn pit, burn pads, and the Burning Groundslandfills. The solvent evaporation pans were closed under the Plant Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)permit in April 1991.

The potential contaminants of concern are HEs, solvents, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), asbestos, polychlorinatedbiphenyls (PCBs), and radionuclides. The Phase I fieldwork consisted of a geophysical survey, soil samples, and agroundwater investigation. This investigation ran from March through May 1995. The Remedial Facility Investigation (RFI)Report was submitted to TNRCC August 1, 1995. A Phase II investigation was completed in 1995 and a Draft Final RFIReport was submitted to TNRCC in FY97.

2. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-2,
HIGH PRIORITY POTENTIAL RELEASE SITES (ADS 1219)

Various industrial operations in support of the Pantex Plant mission had the potential for the release of hazardouscontaminants to the environment. These releases are associated with nine sites collectively referred to as the High PriorityPotential Release Sites Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) Grouping.

SWMU 11Surface Impoundment in Zone 5
SWMU 13Former Surface Impoundment, Building 11-51
SWMU 109Releases from Building 12-68 Outside Sump
SWMU 136Subsurface Leaching Beds, Building 12-59
SWMU 139Photo Processing Leaching Bed at FS-10
AOC 12Building 12-5D Paint Shop Area
SWMU 78FS-24 Concrete Sump
UnnumberedFS-1 Landfill and FS-22 Container

The Phase I fieldwork, conducted from December 1993 through February 1994, consisted of soil gas sampling and soilboring samples. Based on TNRCC Risk Reduction Standards 1 and 2, a request for a finding of No Further Action (NFA)was made on six of the nine SWMUs in this operable unit. The remaining three SWMUs were closed by Interim CorrectiveMeasures (ICMs) in FY95 and RFI Reports were submitted on September 14, 1994 and June 30, 1995.

3. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-3, FORMER COOLING TOWER IN ZONE 12 (ADS 1207)

The former cooling tower site is in Zone 12 in the east central portion of the Pantex Plant area. It operated from 1950through 1964 and has since been dismantled. Only a rectangular concrete foundation (approximately 25 feet x 120 feet)remains.

Contamination resulting from the operation of the former cooling tower could have occurred from overflow of the waterreservoir, leakage through or adjacent to the foundation, or air-blown dispersion of the cooling water. The specificcomposition of the cooling water is unknown; however, varying mixtures of chromates, sulfuric acid, and sodium hydroxidesalts are commonly used to control and remove algae and calcium deposits from cooling tower condenser systems. Phase Ifieldwork consisted of five shallow borings and one boring of a monitoring well as part of the Zone 12 north groundwaterassessment. Sample analyses for potential contaminants of concern were evaluated, and the concentration of eachcontaminant detected was compared to the TNRCC's risk reduction standards. The comparison indicated contaminant levelsto be less than the TNRCC's Risk Reduction Standards, indicating that the contaminants in the soil do not pose a threat tohuman health or the environment. An RFI Report including an NFA request was submitted to TNRCC October 15, 1993. The NFA request is pending. A separate ICM of the ancillary piping associated with the Former Cooling Tower will beconducted in FY97 to remove chromium contaminated soils to a depth of 5 feet.

4. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-4, OLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE BEDS (ADS 1220)

The Old Sewage Treatment Plant (OSTP) sludge beds are in Zone 13 in the extreme northeast corner of the Pantex Plant area. The OSTP operated from 1942 until 1987 and is now out of service. The facility treated wastewater from the PantexOrdnance Plant, Amarillo Air Force Base, and the Pantex Plant. The OSTP consists of six rectangular, sloped, concrete-linedunits filled with pea-sized gravel. Each bed is approximately 40 feet x 100 feet. Sludge entered the OSTP sludge beds fromthe anaerobic sludge digester and was discharged to the individual beds. Sludge residue was retained on top of the gravel,while excess liquid trickled through the gravel. The liquid then flowed along the sloped concrete liner surface and wascollected in sumps at the edge of each bed before being returned to the plant for processing.

The potential contaminants of concern at this site were VOCs, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), pesticides, PCBs,metals, and HEs. Phase I fieldwork conducted in June and July 1992 included taking 35 soil boring samples and 12 sludgebed samples. A Draft Final RFI Report was submitted to TNRCC on September 2, 1993. Phase I results have indicatedslight metals contamination to 40 feet. Phase II fieldwork is scheduled for FY98 to confirm and define the extent of metalscontamination.

5. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-5, FIRE TRAINING AREA BURN PITS (ADS 1203)

This SWMU grouping consists of two fire training Area burn pits, a drainage ditch, a crawl tube, and a drum storage area. Training exercises typical of those conducted by all fire departments allowed Pantex Plant firefighters to practiceextinguishing different types of fuel or chemical fires in a controlled environment. Training exercises, conductedapproximately twice a year beginning in 1973, ceased at pits 1 and 2 in 1987 and 1990, respectively.

The RFI Fieldwork completed in 1992-1993 included a passive soil gas survey and a soil sampling program. Twenty sevensoil borings were drilled. The potential contaminants of concern at this site were VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, dioxins/furans,and metals. An interim corrective measure was completed in 1995, achieving contaminant concentrations below RiskReduction Level 2. The upper 2 feet of soil was excavated at hot spots, disposed of off-site, followed by confirmationsampling and analysis. A small area required excavation to 5 feet.

6. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-6, ZONE 12 GROUNDWATER ASSESSMENT (ADS 1230)

Zone 12 covers approximately 280 acres in the southeastern portion of the Pantex Plant area. Its southern portion is ahigh-security area. The buildings in Zone 12 consist of, or have consisted of, administration and support facilities, vehicleand high explosive development operations locations, chemical and photographic laboratories, and quarters for otherindustrial operations.

Phase I and Phase II fieldwork has been completed. The RFI Report for groundwater was submitted to TNRCC inNovember, 1995. Included in the Phase II fieldwork was the drilling and installation of numerous borings and monitoringwells on the east side of the plant to identify any off-site migration of contaminants. The following types of contaminantswere detected during the investigations: VOCs, metals, and explosives. A groundwater treatability system using granulatedactivated carbon was installed in September 1995 which reduces the explosives in the groundwater to below drinking waterstandards. The treated water is being injected in the up gradient monitoring well in PTX06-1004 which has been converted toan injection well. Currently, another 10 extraction wells have been installed along with another up gradient injection well toenhance the treatability system.

7. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-7, LANDFILLS (ADS 1200)

Because the Pantex Plant was established in 1942, a significant amount of sanitary and industrial solid waste generated therewas disposed of in landfills located throughout the facility. Sixteen of the 23 landfills at the Pantex Plant are included in thisgroup. The major types of waste buried in the landfills are sanitary waste (waste from the cafeteria and other general trash,such as paper, plastic, empty containers, and food), construction debris (material such as metal scrap, lumber, roofingmaterials, concrete, railroad ties/rails, drums, insulation, plastic, and wire), high explosive contaminated waste, chemicalwaste, used batteries, residual ash, pesticides, asbestos, depleted uranium, and other miscellaneous trash and debris. Theseburial practices have been discontinued. In addition to using the Amarillo Landfill, Pantex now has only one type of activelandfill, and waste disposal practices meet the requirements of 30 Texas Administrative Code 335.2(d), 335.5, and 335.6.

Phase I fieldwork, completed during the period January through August 1994, consisted of geophysical surveys, soil gassurveys, surface and/or subsurface soil sampling, and groundwater monitoring. Phase II fieldwork, completed during theperiod June through September 1995, consisted of surface and subsurface soil sampling, trenching, and screening surveys in 7of 16 landfills. Both investigative phases were designed to determine the nature and extent of contamination. Two RCRAFacility Investigation Reports (RFIR) were prepared outlining two discreet landfill groupings as follows: RFIR for Group IILandfills (Nos. 5,6,7,9,10,12 and 15) was submitted to TNRCC January 30, 1996; RFIR for Group III Landfills (Nos.1,2,3,13, Original Zone 10, and sanitary) was submitted TNRCC June 28, 1996.

The following types of contaminants were detected during the investigations: VOCs, SVOCs, metals, pesticides, PCBs,asbestos, and radionuclides; however, concentrations in all but one landfill were below action levels. Maintenance coverswere placed on Landfills 1, 2, 12, and 13 in November 1996. Landfill 3 has been recommended for further evaluation andcorrective measures study.

8. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-8, DITCHES AND PLAYAS (ADS 1216)

This SWMU grouping consists of the constructed ditches and the natural flow system that drain the plant area. Most Plantsite rainfall and runoff enter the ditches and natural drainage system and ultimately flow to four on-site playas. Historically,drainage was also diverted off-site to Pantex Lake northeast of the plant. In the past, the industrial operations in Zones 11and 12 caused chemical releases that potentially entered the drainage ditches and playas at the plant. Surface runoff from theBurning Grounds flowed into playa #3, and effluent treated at the OSTP (inactive since 1987) was pumped to Pantex Lake. The specific contamination at each site is dependent on the history of the site. However, some of the compounds beingevaluated are VOCs, SVOCs, high explosives, pesticides/PCBs, metals, nitrites and nitrates.

Phase I fieldwork was conducted from June 1992 through March 1993. The large number of SWMUs being investigatedunder this RFI have been grouped into six flow systems. Each flow system contains a playa and the ditches that drain to thatplaya. Flow System 6 consists of the groundwater data from the nine perched aquifer monitoring wells installed during thisRFI. Phase I fieldwork did not provide enough information to characterize this SWMU Grouping properly. Phase IIfieldwork began in December 1994 and was completed in February 1995. Additionally, data were collected from surfacesamples and soil borings from ditches and playas unaffected by industrial activities. Data from the investigations conductedwere incorporated in the RFIR and submitted for TNRCC review in September 1995. These data have been used to supportthe Risk Reduction Rule Standards Guidance document in establishing background constituent levels.

The plant has completed ICMs that removed hot spots in the ditches and source areas of contamination. Most ditches andsource areas have been closed to RRS2. This has resulted in closure to RRS2 for 18 SWMUs. Another 7 SWMUs requirefurther consideration in the Corrective Measures Study. The ditch and playa system will be evaluated in the baseline riskassessment.

9. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-9, FIRING SITES (ADS 1205)

The firing sites are located in the north central portion of the Pantex Plant area and were operational as early as 1952. Thesites historically were used for testing high explosives in connection with quality control and research and developmentactivities. Some radioactive materials, primarily depleted uranium, were involved in the testing program. This investigativegrouping consists of seven SWMUs:

SWMU 69, Firing Site 4
SWMU 70, Firing Site 5
SWMU 71, Firing Site 6
SWMU 72, Firing Site 10
SWMU 73, Firing Site 15
SWMU 74, Firing Site 21
SWMU 75, Firing Site 22

The potential contaminants of concern include high explosives, metals, and small amounts of radionuclides. Phase Ifieldwork, including a radiological survey, an electromagnetic survey, and a surface and subsurface soil investigation, beganin June 1995 and was completed in August 1995. Results of the field work was outlined in the RFIR submitted for TNRCCreview in February 1996. Limited soil removals were conducted to address residual surficial contamination from November1995 through January 1996. Because some of the sites are still active, a request to investigate only the inactive Firing Sites 5,6, and 15 was forwarded to the regulators in 1996. A soil investigation is scheduled for FY98. ICM activities began on FS-5in FY-96 and will be completed during FY98.

FS-5 will be closed using Texas Risk Based Closure Criteria for RCRA constituents and EPA Closure Criteria forRadiological constituents. The remaining sites will be closed and investigated when they are no longer operational.

10. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-10, LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (ADS 1223)

Two Pantex Plant locations known to have experienced gasoline leaks are a garage in Zone 12 (Building 12-35) and theVehicle Maintenance Facility (Building 16-1). From 1951 to 1976, five underground steel tanks for storing gasoline, dieselfuel, and motor oil were installed southeast of Building 12-35. Two gasoline leaks occurred: one in 1974 or 1975 and one in1985. Because of those leaks, all tanks were removed by 1988. In 1980, two fiberglass tanks for storing diesel fuel andunleaded gasoline were installed south of Building 16-1. One diesel fuel leak occurred in 1985. Because of that leak, bothtanks were removed in 1989.

Phase I fieldwork at the Underground Storage Tank (UST) locations in June 1992 consisted of soil borings, perched aquifermonitoring well installation, and sampling of both soil and groundwater. Phase II fieldwork, conducted in July 1993,consisted of a soil gas survey and a records search. This fieldwork was sufficient to characterize the site. No significant soilcontamination could be attributed to the USTs previously located at those sites. Low concentrations of benzene, toluene,xylene (BTEX) constituents were detected in the perched aquifer beneath Building 12-35. This groundwater contaminationhas been investigated under the Zone 12 North Groundwater Assessment. The Draft Final Corrective Action Report wassubmitted to TNRCC October 11, 1994.

11. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-ll, HIGH EXPLOSIVE/RADIATION SITES (ADS 1212)

The High Explosive (HE)/radiation sites are located in Zones 4, 10, 11, and 12 and northwest of Zone 7. Activities at all ofthe HE/radiation sites involved handling, storing, and disposing of HE and/or radioactive waste.

The following waste sites will be evaluated: temporary HE burn sites, the nuclear accident residue storage area, a subsurfaceleaching bed, six trinitrotoluene (TNT) settling ponds/pits; two HE wastewater filter buildings, and an HE fabricationbuilding. The investigation will consist of geophysical and radiological surveys, sediment sampling, surficial soil sampling,and borings. If there is a need for groundwater monitoring, it will be part of the Zone 12 North Groundwater Assessment. Fieldwork began in January 1995. A RFIR was submitted for TNRCC review in January 1996.

Site characterization to date indicates that radiological levels are well below health concern. The plant is currentlycompleting residual radiation (RESRAD) calculations. All but two sites are being considered for Risk Reduction Standard 2(RRS2) closure. Sites 12-43 and 12-24 are being recommended for further evaluation. As a result of the Playas and DitchesICM fieldwork, 18 SWMUs have been closed to RRS2. An additional 7 SWMUs will require further consideration in theCorrective Measures Study. The ditch and playa system will be evaluated in the baseline risk assessment.

12. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-12, MISCELLANEOUS CHEMICAL SPILLS/RELEASES (ADS 1198)

The miscellaneous chemical spills/release sites consist of several locations where spills or releases occurred or may haveoccurred during routine Pantex Plant operations. These sites are located in Zones 4, 10, 11, and 12 and in the central andsouthern portions of the Pantex Plant area.

Phase I fieldwork, performed from July through September 1994, included a soil gas survey, a ditch sediment investigation,and a soils investigation. The Draft Final RFI Report was submitted to TNRCC September 1, 1995. Many of the ditchesnear the chemical spill sites are being sampled as part of the ditches and playas RFI and were not sampled under this RFIunless additional sampling was needed to identify analytes specifically for the chemical spills. In 1996, additional fieldworkwas performed at nine sites to support NFA request. Additional sampling was performed at five sites. ICMs (hot spotremovals) were completed at four sites. The sites were recommended for closure under RRS1 or RRS2 standards. An NFArequest for 14 sites was submitted along with the closure report to TNRCC December 1996.

13. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-13, SUPPLEMENTAL VERIFICATION SITES (ADS 1222)

The Supplemental Verification Sites (SVS) SWMU Grouping includes eight landfills and other miscellaneous surface sitesrequiring verification throughout the facility. The sites have received or are suspected of having received hazardousconstituents, or they present unspecified potential for contaminant risks. Various operations and maintenance activities atPantex Plant have resulted in on site chemical usage, incidental disposal of spent materials, and demolition of structures withdisposal in on-site rubble landfills.

Phase I fieldwork consisted of preliminary field screening activities, including geophysical surveys (e.g., magnetometer,ground penetrating radar, soil gas, and radioactive screening); surface soil sampling; sampling of landfill materials; and soilborings. The TNRCC is reviewing data packages detailing RFI results. The RFI Report recommending those sites for NFAwas submitted to TNRCC May 2, 1996.

14. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-14,
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS AT OTHER LOCATIONS (ADS 1227)

Four underground storage tanks (USTs) were located in Zone 12, and one was at the current Vehicle Maintenance Facility. Four USTs were recommended for NFA in the Draft Final Corrective Action Plan submitted to TNRCC October 14, 1994. Phase II fieldwork for UST #9 was completed in November 1994. The Draft Final Corrective Action Plan for UST #9 wassubmitted to TNRCC April 24, 1995. All five tanks have been removed.

Phase I fieldwork, conducted in April and May 1993, consisted of passive soil gas surveys and soil borings. Based on theresults of the Phase I fieldwork, four USTs were recommended for NFA in the RFI Report submitted to TNRCC October 14,1994. Phase II fieldwork for UST #9 was completed in November 1994 with the RFI Report submitted to TNRCC April 28,1995. A draft Final Corrective Action Plan has been prepared and submitted to TNRCC. Based on the results of the Phase IIfieldwork, this plan recommends no corrective action or further investigation of UST #9.

15. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT GROUPING AL-PX-15,
11-14 HYPALON POND

This unit is a RCRA-regulated surface impoundment in Zone 11 in the central portion of the facility. It was constructed in1975 as a neutralization and settling basin for acidic wastewater generated at Building 11-36. The unit is defined as the 11-14Pond due to its location near Building 11-14; however, it never managed waste from that building. The unit has not beenused since March 1989, and wastewater, sludge residue, and the hypalon liner were removed and disposed of at a permittedfacility. The pond was backfilled and graded in March 1990.

Phase I fieldwork activities consisted of removing the ancillary pipeline, collecting surface and subsurface soil samples,drilling boreholes through the former pond, constructing four perched groundwater monitoring wells, and performing severalrounds of sampling. Subsurface soil samples identified low concentrations of acetone and barium. Based on the results ofthe investigation, Pantex prepared and submitted a closure plan to the TNRCC in June 1991; regulatory approval wasreceived in December 1991. Closure activities occurred in March, April, and July 1992. Partial Closure Documentation wassubmitted to the TNRCC in October 1992. Based on site characterization data, contamination of soil was observed in excessof closure plan target levels for several inorganic and organic constituents. Low concentrations of 1,2-dichloroethane andtrichloroethane were detected in the groundwater samples. These same chemical contaminants have also been detected atsimilar concentrations in other Pantex groundwater monitoring wells located upgradient of the 11-14 Pond. Contaminantsdetected in the groundwater do not appear to be attributable to the pond operation and will be monitored under the Zone 12North Groundwater Assessment. A risk assessment was submitted to the TNRCC for review. Approval of the RiskAssessment allowed formal RCRA closure of the unit pursuant to 30 TAC 335, Subchapter S, Risk Reduction Standards in June 1995.



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