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Public Health Assessment
NAVAL WEAPONS STATION YORKTOWN, CHEATHAM ANNEX
WILLIAMSBURG, YORK COUNTY, VA
CERCLIS NO. VA3170024605


Appendices

Appendix A - Figures

Figure 1. Cheatham Annex and Vicinity

Figure 2. Current and Past Property Ownership, with Installation Restoration Program (IRP) sites and Areas of Concern (AOCs)

Figure 3. Demographic Data

Figure 4: ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process

Appendix B - Tables
Table 1. Evaluation of Potential Exposure Pathways at Cheatham Annex
  Exposure Pathway Elements    
Pathway Name Source of Contamination Enviroment al Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Exposed Population Time of Exposure Comments
Drinking Water Navy and Penniman Shell Loading Plant operations and waste management at Cheatham Annex (CAX) Surface water drawn from Jones Pond CAX taps and any taps at areas formerly part of CAX (e.g., at the Fuel Farm) that received drinking water from the Jones Pond treatment plant Ingestion
Inhalation
Dermal Contact
CAX employees, residents, and visitors Past Past: Jones Pond was the source of drinking water at CAX from the 1940s through 2002. Water was processed at a treatment plant and tested for chlorination byproducts and physical parameters before being distributed. Periodically, treated water was also sampled for common chemical contaminants, such as metals and VOCs; the measured concentrations have been consistently within regulatory limits since at least 1993. The few available samples from Jones Pond and nearby drainage ways contained low levels of metals and explosive compounds (nitroaromatics). Samples collected at the treatment plant were not analyzed for nitroaromatics. The nitroaromatics may have originated from Penniman-era wastes found in the nearby AOC 1. The concentration of nitroaromatics in the sediment and surface water were well below levels of concern for drinking water at the time of the sampling (1999-2000) and likely for the recent past. However no sampling information in available to identify whether nitroaromatic were present in the drinking water in the past.
Current/Future: CAX currently receives water from the City of Newport News, which draws water from sources more than 4 miles from CAX. Newport News treats its drinking water before distributing it and analyzes samples regularly. Because Jones Pond is no longer used as a drinking water source, there is no exposure to contaminants in Jones Pond and therefore no risk of adverse effects.
Air Past air emissions Air Locations downwind of past sources of air emissions Inhalation CAX employees, residents, and visitors Past Past: Navy documents indicate that there was an active incinerator at CAX (incinerator waste was buried at Site 1 from 1942 to 1951). Little is known about the nature and quantity of material incinerated, how often the incinerator was used, or when burning activities ended; however the incinerator was dismantled around 1990. Navy bachelor housing is approximately mile or more from the incinerator, and family housing units still in use are at least 1 mile from the incinerator. There are no records of the actual emissions from the incinerator, so it is not possible to estimate if people could have been affected by the emissions. However, emissions usually disperse quickly in air, greatly reducing the potential for health effects to people living on or visiting CAX.
Soil Operations and waste management at CAX, waste associated with former Penniman Shell Loading Plant Soil Locations where soil was contaminated by Navy or Penniman activities Ingestion
Dermal Contact
CAX employees, residents, and visitors Past
Current
Future
Past/Current: Exposure to soil at CAX IRP sites or AOCs would not cause adverse health effects because the contaminant concentrations are below levels of health concern for the exposures that are expected for CAX residents and visitors, or access to the site is restricted to authorized personnel only. Base residents and visitors will not contact site-related contaminants in the soil at levels that could cause health concerns.
Future: If land use patterns change or additional disposal areas or contaminant levels are identified in the future, ATSDR expects that EPA and VDEQ approved remedial actions will ensure that no exposures that could result in adverse health effects will occur.
Surface water and sediment at on-site ponds Operations and waste management at CAX Surface water and sediment Cheatham Pond, Jones Pond, Penniman Lake, and Youth Pond Dermal contact, incidental ingestion Recreational users, including anyone wading or boating Past
Current
Future
Past/Current/Future: Surface water and sediment samples collected from the three on-site ponds and Penniman Lake have contained measurable concentrations of a variety of contaminants, including metals in all four water bodies, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Youth Pond and Penniman Lake, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Penniman Lake. Very low levels of compounds associated with explosives, below levels of health concern, were also measured in all four water bodies. Swimming is and was in the past prohibited. Recreational users could be exposed to surface water and sediment through incidental ingestion of very small quantities of sediment or water. This limited exposure to the relatively low levels of contaminants measured in surface water and sediment is unlikely to cause adverse health effects. People who disregard posted signs and go swimming would also not be exposed to contaminants at levels that could cause health effects.
Fish caught in on-site ponds Operations and waste management at CAX, waste associated with former Penniman Shell Loading Plant Biota Cheatham Pond, Jones Pond, Penniman Lake, and Youth Pond Ingestion Consumers of fish harvested from on-site ponds Past Current Future Past/Current/Future: Navy families who live at or who visit CAX to take advantage of its recreational facilities may fish at any of four on-site water bodies described above. Since 2000, fishing at Penniman Lake and Youth Pond has been designated for 'catch and release' only, due to PCBs detected in sediment samples from those ponds. No fish tissue samples have been collected from any of the on-site water bodies. Therefore, it is not possible to identify if past consumption of fish from Penniman Lake or Youth Pond posed a health concern. Surface water and sediment samples from Jones Pond and Cheatham Pond have not identified any contaminants measured at levels that would be expected to pose a concern for people who eat the fish they catch from those ponds. While it is not possible to evaluate the actual exposure people may have had in the past to contaminants that may have been in the fish from Penniman Lake or Youth Pond, it is likely that people did not eat enough fish from either source to cause any health effects. Based on the surface water and sediment sampling results from Cheatham Pond and Jones Pond, health effects are not expected for people who did, or do, consume fish from those areas.
Physical hazards Operations and waste management at CAX, waste associated with the former Penniman Shell Loading Plant Physical hazards, such as needles, partially buried objects, waste washed downgradient of disposal sites, and waste associated with shell loading Areas used to bury or destroy unneeded materials, and the down-gradient area Physical hazard Employees, residents, and visitors at CAX and nearby areas Past Current Future Past: Physical hazards (e.g., syringe needles and buried trash) were present in the past at several locations. Base residents and visitors had limited contact with these materials. Although these materials represented a safety concern for people at the time of any exposures, no injuries were reported to ATSDR. Current/Future: Most, but not all, of the waste materials that could be a safety hazard to base residents and visitors has been removed. Buried items from previous Penniman activities still exist near the cabin area. The Navy erected at fence to protect visitors from the steep bank leading to the York River, which also limits contact with the buried materials. Erosion from Hurricane Isabel (in 2003) damaged portions of the fence. The Navy plans to repair the fence. ATSDR recommends that these repairs be made quickly to prevent future hazards. ATSDR expects that EPA and VDEQ supervised investigations and remediation of any areas where physical hazards might be present will be conducted in a manner that will be protective of residents and visitors.
Abbreviations:
AOC area of concern
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
CAX Cheatham Annex
IRP Installation Restoration Program
PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
PCB polychlorinated biphenyl
TNT 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene
VOC volatile organic compound


Table 2.

Installation Restoration Program sites and Areas of Concern at Cheatham Annex
Site Site Description adn Waste Disposal History Investigation and Monitoring Results Corrective Activities Public Health Evaluation
Site 1 Landfill Near Incinerator This landfill was used from 1942 to 1951 as a disposal area for burn residues. There was formerly a nearby incinerator that was dismantled between 1989 and 1992. From 1951 to 1972, Site 1 was a general landfill. An estimated 34,500 tons of solid waste were buried here. Until 1981, waste such as paint and paint thinner cans, cartons of ether, other drugs, railroad ties, tar paper, sawdust, lumber, rags, and concrete were burned and/or disposed of at the site. In 1981, the landfill was closed, and 2 feet (ft) of soil and vegetation were placed over the roughly 1.3-acre site. Surrounding Site 1 are woods and a steep 25-foot drop to the York River. Wave action and lack of vegetation caused erosion and created a natural berm between the site and the river. During storms, runoff from the site flows to the river. The site was only partially fenced until 1997, when a fence with a secured gate was installed around the flat part of the site (including most of the landfill).

The Navy will address a disposal area north of Site 1 that contains junk cars and helicopter parts as Area of Concern (AOC) 5.
Landfill waste was buried up to 20 feet below ground surface (bgs). Groundwater samples were collected between 15 and 30 ft bgs. Surface soil and sediment from the nearby marsh contain metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Contaminants detected above comparison values (CVs) are shown below, along with their maximum detected concentrations.

Groundwater (parts per billion [ppb]): Aluminum (21,700), Antimony (232), Arsenic (473), Cadmium (45.7), Chromium (115), Copper (675), Iron (80,800), Lead (2,520), Manganese (4,480), Nickel (329), Thallium (2.1), Vanadium (120), Zinc (37,700), Methylene Chloride (27), Bis(2-ethlyhexyl)phthalate (1,145; the second highest concentration was 72)

Surface Soil (parts per million [ppm]): Antimony (69.5), Arsenic (31.2), Cadmium (30.5), Copper (4,250), Iron (43,400), Lead (2,720), 4,4'-DDT (2.2), Arochlor 1260 (4.2), Benzo(a)pyrene (94), Benzo(a)anthracene (120), Benzo(b)fluoranthene (120), Benzo(k)fluoranthene (45), Carbazole (36), Chrysene (120), Dibenz(a,h)anthracene (17), Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (58), 2-Methylnaphthalene (9.6)

Surface Water (ppb): Arsenic (14.1)

Shallow Sediment (ppm) (collected from a depth of 0-4 inches): Arsenic (11.7), Iron (29,800), Arochlor 1260 (0.81), Benzo(a)pyrene (2.4), Benzo(a)anthracene (3.3), Benzo(b)fluoranthene (5.6), Dibenz(a,h)anthracene (0.57), Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (2)

Nearby tributary: According to the Navy, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present. However sampling results were not available
In 1998 a geophysical survey delineated site boundaries. In 1999 and 2000, debris present on the beach area along the northeast perimeter of the site was removed. Sand-filled tubes were installed to stabilize the bank of the York River and to reduce the potential for buried waste to reach the river. The Navy dug test trenches in 2001 to obtain additional information about the landfill. The Navy removed an estimated 20,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil, landfill material, and debris during the summer of 2003. The fence was removed after this occurred. The Navy plans to address potential groundwater and sediment contamination, including contamination in an adjacent wetland, in the future. Remedial actions are ongoing. A draft RI was issued in 2002, but a final RI has not yet been released. There is no public health hazard from this site. Contaminated soils were removed. The limited amount of public access expected in the wetlands is not at levels of health concern. Prior to the soil removal, access by the public to the soil contaminants was limited by the fence. Contaminated groundwater does not impact local drinking water sources.
Site 2 Contaminated Food Disposal Area Site 2 is located in a grassy area of the woods behind a cold storage warehouse. At the time it was initially investigated, the area was overgrown. In 1970, a leak that developed in a cold storage room contaminated approximately 100 cubic yards of frozen food with ammonia. The contaminated frozen food, with cellophane wrappers and boxes intact, was subsequently buried in a pit approximately 50 ft in diameter and 12 to 15 ft deep. Not Available (N/A) No corrective activities have been conducted or are planned, as the Navy expects that wastes buried at the site would naturally decompose. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (VDEQ) concurred, in September 2003, with the Navy's decision to assign this site No Further Response Action Planned (NFRAP) status. There is no public health hazard from this site. Public access is prevented by the soil cover and vegetation. Potential groundwater contamination is not expected to impact local drinking water sources.
Site 3 Submarine Dye Disposal Area Drums containing fluorescein dye were formerly stored in 55-gallon drums on 2 to 3 pallets. Drums were repeatedly stored and removed through the early 1970s. The drums corroded, and sometimes dye leaked into the ground and the storm sewer system. During rain events, puddles containing green dye were observed, and dye leaking into the storm sewer system reportedly sometimes turned the York River green. The submarine dye disposal area is currently used as a storage lot. N/A No further action is planned at this site, because the dye released at this site degrades rapidly, and the releases involved a small volume of dye. The Navy, with EPA and VDEQ concurrence, assigned this site NFRAP status in September 2003. There is no public health hazard from this site. Fluorenscein is a commonly used dye for food, cosmetics, medical procedures, and water transport studies. The infrequent exposures expected to the dye in the soil, runoff, or river water were likely below levels of concern.
Site 4 Medical Supplies Disposal Area Site 4 is located along an unnamed pond just upgradient of Youth Pond, but inside the fenced warehouse area of the facility. In 1968 or 1969, apparently unused medical supplies were dumped down a bank and covered with soil. Likely wastes include syringes, empty intravenous bottles, and bits of charred material. As much as 7,000 cubic yards of medical waste may have been disposed. During a 1998 site visit, packages of unused needles wrapped in foil were found in a drainage swale leading to the unnamed pond. Prior to a 1998 removal action by the Navy, syringe needles were reportedly getting stuck in deer's hooves. After heavy rains, syringes were sometimes seen in the unnamed pond, Youth Pond, and the culvert where water from Youth Pond drains to the York River. Nearby is AOC 3, where 1-inch metal bands were disposed of.

In 1998, the Navy identified additional medical supplies buried at AOC 4. The Navy will address all of the medical waste together with Site 4. The medical supplies and surface soil overburden at Site 4 are estimated to together comprise a volume of 2,000 cubic yards.
In 1999, 7 surface soil samples and 8 sediment samples were collected and analyzed. The sediment samples were collected at four locations in the upstream pond. Half of the samples were collected at depths of 0 to 4 inches, and the other half were collected at depths of 4 to 8 inches. Contaminants detected at levels above CVs are shown below, along with their maximum detected concentrations. These samples suggested that iron had not migrated from the scrap metal banding pile to sediment, but both soil and sediment samples contained PAHs and PCBs. Storage and parking areas drain to the site, and they may be the source of PCB contamination.

Surface Soil (ppm): Arsenic (4.1), Iron (67,100), Aroclor-1242 (1), Aroclor-1260 (2.7), Benzo(a)anthracene (8.8), Benzo(a)pyrene (7), Benzo(b)fluoranthene (6.8), Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (16), Dibenz(a,h)anthracene (1.4), Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (3.4)

Sediment (ppm): Arsenic (12.2), Benzo(a)pyrene (0.34)
In 1998, approximately 200 pounds of surface debris and 13 pounds of sharp metal and plastic items were removed from the site and incinerated. Soil and sediment sampling was conducted in 1999.

In 2001, test trenches were dug to obtain additional information about the horizontal extent and depth of buried waste, which was found up to 5 feet bgs (the level at which groundwater is encountered). The trenches were then filled. The Navy has recommended that an engineering evaluation/ cost analysis (EE/CA) be completed to assess ways to remediate this site and prevent buried materials from being washed into the upstream pond. The Navy has submitted a draft ecological risk assessment for this site, Site 9, and Site 11.
This area is fenced and access to this is limited to authorized personnel. Contaminant concentrations in the soil at this site are below levels of public health concern for infrequent exposures by potential recreational users of Youth Pond. The presence of syringes, especially needles, and glass bottles does represent a safety hazard. However, ATSDR expects that the EPA and VDEQ approved remedial action will eliminate all concerns at this site and in areas to which waste from this site might be transported.
Site 5 Photographic Chemicals Disposal Area Site 5 is reportedly at the south end of Second Street, west of Site 11. In 1967 or 1968, photographic chemicals (developers and fixers) were said to have been disposed of in a "marl pit" at this location. The pit was thought to have received between 20 and 40 gallons (1 pallet) of these types of chemicals.

In 1998, the Navy conducted a site visit, but was unable to locate any evidence of contamination.
N/A No corrective actions have been conducted or are planned because of the small quantity of chemicals reportedly disposed of and the lack of evidence of contamination. This site received NFRAP status in September 2003. There is no public health hazard from this site. It is located in the industrial area of the base, and contact with this site by past base residents or current visitors is expected to be minimal. Potential exposure to these contaminants is below levels of health concern.
Site 6 Spoiled Food Disposal Area This spoiled food disposal area is located south of First Street. Around 1970, approximately 750 cubic yards of food that spoiled in cold storage were buried in a 12 to 15 ft deep pit. No connection between this site and Site 2 is discussed in the first document describing potential IRP sites, the initial assessment study (IAS), or in more recent documents available to ATSDR. N/A No investigations have been conducted or are planned because the Navy concluded that decomposing food was not hazardous. This site is included among those which were assigned NFRAP status in September 2003. There is no public health hazard from this site. Public access is prevented by the soil cover. Potential groundwater contamination is not expected to impact local drinking water sources.
Site 7 Old DuPont Disposal Area Site 7 is a disposal area reportedly receiving unspecified waste from the City of Penniman and the Penniman Shell Loading Plant. The 1984 IAS states that ammunition waste was disposed of at the site, but gives no details. Specific information on the types and quantities of waste received was not available.

The actual location of Site 7 has been difficult to identify. Original records positioned it between two cabins along the York River. Two disposal sites have been identified in this area and will be addressed as Site 7.

One site was identified as Site 13 in some documents; both sites are now identified as Site 7.

Records indicate the original Site 7 was a disposal area post-dating World War I and also used as a borrow area.

There are steep banks on all but the southern side, and there is a berm along the northern perimeter. Debris outcrops on the eastern side.

See Site 13 for information specific to that area.
In 1999, 10 test pits were excavated to try to determine where debris was buried. One spent shell (a 75 mm salute round) was found. In two test pits in the northern portion of the site, heavy debris was encountered. Charred fragments were encountered in a third, and piping surrounded by stained soil was encountered at two others. There was fill with occasional trash in the other test pits.

Sediment: One sample was a collected east of the buried debris, in an area that receives runoff from the site. The sample was analyzed for organics, inorganics, and explosive compounds; only arsenic (20 ppm) and Aroclor 1260 (0.54 ppm) exceeded their CVs.
In 1999, 10 test pits were excavated to try to determine where debris was buried. The pits were backfilled after the investigation. According to the Navy, further investigation and possible removal of sources of contamination may be required, and a future investigation is planned.

See Site 13 for information about the effects of Hurricane Isabel (in September 2003) on this disposal area and Site 13.
Contaminant concentrations in the soil at this site are below levels of public health concern for infrequent exposures by recreational users. The presence of certain types of waste material, especially the potential for explosives and ammunition, does represent a safety hazard. At present, a fence that keeps visitors away from the site is damaged. ATSDR recommends that it be fixed promptly. ATSDR expects that the EPA and VDEQ approved remedial action will eliminate future concerns. ATSDR also expects that the environmental investigation and remedial actions will be carried out in a manner that is protective of area visitors.
Site 8 Landfill Near Building CAD 14 Site 8 is less than of an acre. The site surface is level and overgrown with tall grasses, with no surficial evidence of waste or stressed vegetation. The former landfill was active at various times between the early 1940s and 1980. It was used most heavily before the landfill at Site 1 was opened and is believed to contain non-hazardous materials (e.g., spoiled meat, spoiled candy, clothing). Specific disposal practices were not documented, but the disposal area is known to have consisted of a series of trenches 2,000 ft long and 10 ft deep. The IAS concluded that additional study was not needed at this site because the disposed wastes were not hazardous. No further action is planned at this site because of the inert nature of the materials reportedly buried here (clothing and spoiled food), which are not considered hazardous. NFRAP status was accorded to this site in September 2003. There is no public health hazard from this site. Access by the public to the waste materials is prevented by the soil cover and vegetation. Groundwater at this site does not impact local drinking water sources. ATSDR expects that the EPA and VDEQ approved remedial actions will eliminate the potential for the landfill to impact the river or Cheatham Pond.
Site 9 Transformer Storage Area The transformer storage area encompasses approximately 7,000 square ft. It is approximately 1,000 ft from Cheatham Pond. Between 6 and 30 electrical transformers, some containing PCBs, were stored at the site for repair or disposal between 1973 and 1980. The storage was enclosed by an earthen wall, but was not paved. Since 1980, the area has been graded and covered with gravel. No transformers were stored at the site after 1980. Surface Soil: In 13 samples analyzed in 1986 for PCBs and dioxins, all concentrations measured were below CVs. In 1999, the Navy recommended that no additional sampling be conducted at Site 9 because of the low levels of contaminants detected. However, in 2000, VDEQ and EPA recommended conducting further investigations and an ecological risk assessment. The ecological risk assessment for this site, Site 4, and Site 11 has been drafted. There is no public health hazard from this site. Concentrations of contaminants detected in the surface soil are below levels of health concern.
Site 10 Decontamination Agent Disposal Area Near First Street Site 10 is located south of First Street. Before 1982, an estimated 75 to 100 gallons of decontamination agent (DS-2) were reportedly buried here. It is not known if DS-2 was neutralized prior to disposal. DS-2 is used to remove contamination from equipment exposed to nerve or blister agents. It is comprised of 70% diethylenetriamine, 28% ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, and 2% calcium hydroxide.

The actual location and extent of the disposal area is also not known. Some time prior to 1997, concrete slabs were laid on the site. It is now used by reserve troops for field billeting. Surface runoff from the site flows to Kings Creek.
1992 and 1997 samples revealed low levels (beneath CVs) of only a few VOCs in soil and groundwater. Metals were also detected in these media. The contaminants detected at the site do not appear to be associated with the DS-2 that is suspected of being buried there. The following contaminants were detected above their respective CVs; their maximum detected concentrations are shown in parentheses.

Surface Soil (ppm): Arsenic (8.4), Iron (38,600)

Groundwater (ppb): Aluminum (8,420), Arsenic (7.9), Chromium (32.6), Iron (19,900), Lead (35.2), Vanadium (31.1)
In December 1985, a magnetometer survey beneath mounds of soil was conducted to try to locate the metallic containers of DS-2, but little iron was detected beneath the mounds. The buried containers have not been located to date.

In 1992 and 1997, site investigations were performed, during which soil and groundwater samples were collected. The contaminants detected did not seem to be related to DS-2.

Future investigations at the site are not planned. The Navy, EPA, and VDEQ agreed in 2003 that NFRAP status is appropriate for the site.
Contaminant concentrations in the soil and groundwater at this site below levels of public health concern.
Site 11 Bone Yard The bone yard is located approximately 250 ft south of Antrim Road, behind the public works facility. It is an estimated 2.7 acre area that is approximately 80% wooded. Between 1940 and 1978, the site was reportedly used for the disposal of oil, asphalt and tar. Numerous barrels of gasoline (15 at the time of the IAS) and at least two 500-gallon above-ground tanks containing oil and/or asphalt were disposed of at this site. Some of these containers are reported to have leaked. Scrap metal, abandoned cars, asphalt, and other debris were also observed at the site in 1984. Ten 5-gallon containers labeled "paraplastic" (a concrete sealant) were also found, as were 60 drums (half of which were empty) and three tanks that contained tar. Unspecified wastes may also have been buried at the site. Until 1997, the above-ground tanks, drums, construction materials, scrap metal, and other debris were present on site. Surface water at Site 11 drains into Penniman Lake via two small drainage ditches. Soil sampling revealed PAHs, PCBs, selected metals, and explosive compounds (such as TNT), but only metals and PAHs exceeded CVs. Groundwater samples contained a few VOCs (that may have been lab contaminants) at very low concentrations in 1992, but not in 1997. Metals have consistently been detected in groundwater. Contaminants detected above CVs are shown below, along with maximum levels detected.

Surface Soil (ppm): Arsenic (59.4), Iron (46,600), Lead (1,070), Benzo(a)anthracene (39), Benzo(a)pyrene (39), Benzo(b)fluoranthene (30), Benzo(k)fluoranthene (27), Dibenz(a,h)anthracene (1.4), Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (24)

Groundwater (ppb): Aluminum (21,800), Arsenic (282), Cadmium (3.5), Chromium (71.4), Iron (99,400), Lead (20.8), Manganese (1,110), Thallium (2.2), Vanadium (108), Bis(2-ethlyhexyl)phthalate (49), Methylene chloride (22)

Surface Water (ppb):
From Penniman Lake, near Site 11: Arsenic (22.7), Thallium (1), Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (3), Methylene chloride (5), Total phenols (4,000), Trichloroethylene (16)
From a nearby tributary to the lake: Arsenic (2)

Shallow Sediment (ppm):
From Penniman Lake: Arsenic (12.9), Iron (23,500), Benzo(a)pyrene (0.67), Benzo(a)anthracene (1)
From a nearby tributary to the lake: Arsenic (3.3), Benzo(a)pyrene (0.14)
From the nearby marsh: Arsenic (8.3), Iron (26,500), Benzo(a)pyrene (0.18), Benzo(b)fluoranthene (0.37)
Several removal actions have been conducted at this site since 1987.

Surface water, sediment, groundwater, soil, soil gas, and drum samples have been collected as part of various site investigations in 1986, 1988, 1992, and 1997. Contaminant levels were lower in 1992 than in 1997. Additional surface water and sediment samples were collected recently, but results are not yet available.

The Navy believes that removal actions have eliminated sources of contamination. To further evaluate the site, an RI and feasibility study are planned. A draft RI was scheduled to be submitted in November 2003, but has not yet been released. A draft ecological risk assessment for this site, Site 4, and Site 19 has also been submitted.
Contaminant concentrations in the soil at this site are below levels of public health concern for infrequent exposures by recreational users.
Site 12 Disposal Site Near Water Tower Site 12 is approximately 2,000 ft west of Jones Pond. It was used for surface disposal of scrap metal, including auto parts and iron pipe. Approximately 10 to 110 cubic ft of material has been disposed at the site.

A historic report notes that a small mound of dark-toned material was present at this site in 1955, but not in 1963. There has been speculation that waste from the site was moved to AOC 2.

The part of Navy property near the water treatment plant is fenced, and this site is within the fence. However, Navy personnel and their families using Jones Pond for recreation can reach this site.
N/A Materials disposed of are reportedly non-hazardous. However, the Navy decided to would conduct limited sampling to assess the impact of past storage activities. A limited field investigation is in progress, along with a report documenting its findings. It was originally scheduled for completion in December 2003, but has not yet been released. According to the Navy, contaminants (including metals) associated with Site 12 are present not far from Jones Pond, as well as along nearby railroad tracks. TGiven the location, topography and vegetation at this site, it is unlikely that recreational users would have a significant amount of contact with these waste materials. However insufficient data are available to identify if contaminants are present at levels that could have affected the water quality of Jones Pond, which was used as the base drinking water source until 2002. ATSDR expects that the EPA and VDEQ approved NFRAP or remedial actions will address any health and safety concerns associated with this site.
Site 13 Penniman Disposal Area This disposal area was originally identified in the 1984 IAS and was named Site 7 at that time. The IAS indicated that it received unspecified waste from the Penniman Shell Loading Plant and the City of Penniman. According to the IAS, wastes were thought to be non-hazardous, but may have included ammunition. The Site 7 disposal area was described as being located between two cabins along the York River. During the 1990s, the Navy did not find a disposal area meeting this description. Instead, the Navy located a nearby disposal area containing waste post-dating the Penniman era and renamed that area Site 7. In 2000, a disposal area fitting the IAS description of Site 7 was discovered. Debris such as melted glass and engine parts dating back to World War I was found between the two cabins and the York River. That site, termed the Penniman Disposal Area, was temporarily designated Site 13.

This site is on a steep bank overlooking the York River. The top of the cliff is about 20 feet above the water surface.

In the future, Site 13 will be addressed jointly with Site 7 (as a part of Site 7).
N/A As of 2001, the Navy was planning to investigate contamination at this site.

Access to much of the debris at this site had been limited by a fence installed to prevent cabin visitors from getting too close to the cliff. However, Hurricane Isabel (in September 2003) caused significant, visible erosion of this site. The cliff was eroded to the extent that some portions of the fence dangle over eroded sections. In these sections children could crawl under the fence and possibly fall down the cliff, so the dangling fence poses a safety hazard. The Navy plans to repair the fence. Also, the hurricane may have carried some of the waste present in this area or the Site 7 area into the York River; the Navy is evaluating actions to take, given present site conditions. Current Navy plans include repairing the fence.
This site is located near cabins used by on-base vacationers. It is expected that people would have infrequent contact with waste material located between the fence and the cabins. ATSDR expects that the EPA and VDEQ approved remedial action will eliminate this concern. ATSDR recommends that the fence repairs planned by the Navy will be accomplished shortly and expects they will be protective of area visitors.
AOC 1 Scrap Metal Dump AOC 1 is a debris disposal area in the southern part of CAX, west of Chapman Road and along unnamed tributaries of Jones Pond. It covers approximately 1.25 acres in 2 ravines approximately 1,000 ft from Jones Pond. There is an extensive amount of wood, metal debris, gas cylinders, steel drums, and construction debris present, some of which protrude from the banks of the ravines. Among the waste observed there in 1998 were drums containing a grease-like substance and a drum that held "black powder," a type of explosive.

While the public is kept from the site by locks and a chain-link fence, Navy personnel using Jones Pond for recreation can reach this site.
Surface Water (ppb): In 4 samples, arsenic (19), iron (25,900), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (98) exceeded CVs.

Surface Soil (ppm): In 7 samples, arsenic (23.5), iron (35,200), lead (501), benzo(a)pyrene (0.87), benzo(b)fluoranthene (1.7), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (12), and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (0.35) exceeded CVs.

Sediment (ppm): The only contaminant detected at concentrations exceeding CVs in 9 sediment samples was arsenic (10.5).
A 1999 site investigation included a geophysical survey and soil, surface water, and sediment sampling.

Additional investigation is planned. The Navy also plans to conduct a limited investigation to evaluate disposal options for contaminated media.
Contaminant concentrations in the soil at this site are below levels of public health concern for infrequent exposures by recreational users. The presence of certain types of waste materials may represent a safety hazard. ATSDR expects that the EPA and VDEQ approved remedial action will eliminate this concern.
AOC 2 Dextrose Dump This site, identified in late 1997, is in the woods north of Garrison Road, along the southern perimeter of the main portion of CAX. It is near several rows of concrete foundation piers that formerly supported the Penniman Shell Loading Plant Shipping House (demolished between 1918 and 1925). Most buried waste is beneath Deer Pit Road. Investigations conducted through 2001 indicate that the majority of the waste is bottles of dextrose water, with minor debris nearby. There are also separate areas where military clothing, respirator cartridge canisters, and empty 55-gallon drums are buried. A few of the drums had tar residue on them. The metal-plated respirator cartridges were designed for use in the event of chemical warfare. It is estimated that there is less than 1,500 cubic yards of buried waste, in sum.

A secured cable running across the road prevents vehicles from accessing this site.
In 1998, soil samples were collected from six borings. Temporary monitoring wells were also installed within four of the borings. The wells drew from the shallowest aquifer encountered (the unconfined Cornwallis Cave aquifer) at depths between 20 and 38 ft bgs. Contaminants detected above their respective CVs are listed below. A tar sample from a buried drum was analyzed for contaminants associated with chemical warfare materials, and none were detected. Most chemicals detected in soil and groundwater samples have been detected at concentrations consistent with what might be naturally occurring

Groundwater (ppb): Aluminum (189,000), Antimony (13.8), Arsenic (430), Cadmium (8.7), Chromium (595), Iron (380,000), Lead (94.6), Manganese (1,360), Nickel (170), Thallium (2J), Vanadium (417)

Surface Soil (ppm): Arsenic (20), Iron (44,000)
In 1998, the Navy removed 470 bottles from the site and confirmed that they contained dextrose, as labeled.

Geophysical surveys and other field investigations in 1998, 1999, and late 2001 have probed the nature and extent of buried debris. Soil and groundwater samples were collected in 1998. In 1999, six test pits were excavated. An unspecified number of dextrose bottles and 43 empty drums were removed and disposed of off site. Also found were boxes of unopened respirator cartridges. The Navy endeavored to determine their lateral extent, but was not able to remove all the cartridges found because of weather-related constraints.

The Navy plans to conduct an EE/CA as part of determining additional actions to take at this site.
Contaminant concentrations in the soil at this site are below levels of public health concern for infrequent exposures by recreational users. The presence of certain types of waste materials may represent a safety hazard. ATSDR expects that the EPA and VDEQ approved remedial action will eliminate this concern.
AOC 3 CAD 11/12 Pond Bank AOC 3 is located near Site 4, along the northern bank of an unnamed pond between two buildings known as CAD 11 and 12. It is 20 ft by 20 ft wide and includes a 10 ft tall pile of metal banding. There are also a few empty drums present. The area was designated an AOC in 1998. This AOC is adjacent to Site 4. During the 1999 field investigation of Site 4, one surface soil sample and one shallow sediment sample were collected next to the metal banding pile at this site. Contaminants detected at concentrations exceeding CVs are listed below.

Surface Soil (ppm): Arsenic (2.7), Iron (61,700), Thallium (35.7), Benzo(a)anthracene (8.8), Benzo(a)pyrene (7), Benzo(b)fluoranthene (6.8), Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (1.4), Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (3.4)

Shallow Sediment (ppm): Arsenic (12.2), Cyanide (15,400), Lead (2,790), Benzo(a)pyrene (0.16)
The Navy is determining what actions to take at this site as part of its evaluation of Site 4; however, this area will be managed separately from Site 4. This site is scheduled for an EE/CA and removal action. Contaminant concentrations in the soil at this site are below levels of public health concern for infrequent exposures. The presence of the waste material may represent a safety hazard. ATSDR expects that the EPA and VDEQ approved remedial actions will eliminate this concern.
AOC 4 Medical Supplies Disposal Area The medical supplies disposal area is being addressed inclusively with Site 4, discussed above. See Site 4 for information about investigation and monitoring results. No further action is planned at this site. In 1998, AOC 4 was identified. Based on a review of site history and information, the Navy determined that AOC 4 is the same area as Site 4 and will not be addressed as a separate entity. See Site 4 for information about potential public health hazards.
AOC 5 Debris Area AOC 5 is a large debris area north of the Site 1 landfill. Debris at the site includes cables, convex boxes, an empty storage tank, automobiles, airplane and boat parts, and other miscellaneous items. AOC 5 is being addressed in conjunction with Site 1, discussed above, and will no longer be addressed as a separate unit from it. Soil samples collected near this debris area have contained elevated levels of PAHs (such as benzo[a]pyrene at a concentration of 1.2 ppm), Arochlor 1260 (4.2 ppm), DDT (2.2 ppm), and metals, including antimony (59 ppm), arsenic (31.2 ppm), and lead (2720 ppm). Sediment samples have also contained levels of benzo(a)pyrene and arsenic exceeding CVs. See Site 1 for further information about investigation and monitoring results. A 1998 field investigation of AOC 5 included a geophysical survey, soil sampling, and sediment sampling. The Navy subsequently decided that this site will no longer be managed separately from Site 1. See Site 1 for information about potential public health hazards.
Penniman AOC The Navy identified five sub-areas where activities during the Penniman era might have caused contamination. See Table 7 for more information. EPA conducted sampling of the former Penniman Shell Loading Plant in 1999 are presented in Table 7. The Navy has not yet conducted any sampling. Site investigations for this AOC are planned, but have not yet been scheduled. Potential Penniman disposal sites have been identified in industrial or heavily vegetated areas. These sites only have a limited opportunity for direct contact with the contaminants. Available environmental sampling results suggest area visitors are not expected to be exposed to contaminants at concentrations that could cause health concern. ATSDR acknowledges that in the future, additional disposal areas or contaminants could be identified, or land use conditions could change. ATSDR expects that EPA and VDEQ approved remedial activities will eliminate potential health concerns. If requested ATSDR can review additional data after it becomes available, if it is likely to modify this health evaluation.


Sources: ATSDR 2000a; Baker 1991, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2003; CH2M Hill 2000; CH2M Hill and Baker 1999, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003b; CH2M Hill, Baker, and CDM 2001, 2002; EPA 2000b; LANTDIV 2003; USGS 2001; VDEQ 2000; Weston 1999a, 1999b
Note: A Background Study Report has also been drafted by the Navy, but a final version has not yet been issued.

 

Abbreviations:
AOC area of concern
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPIC Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center
ft feet
N/A not available
NFRAP no further remedial action planned
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
VDEQ Virginia Department of Environmental Quality


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