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ToxFAQs™ for 1,2-Dichloroethene
CAS#: 540-59-0 (mixture); 156-59-2 (cis); 156-60-5 (trans)
This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about 1,2-dichloroethene. For more information, you may call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present.
Exposure to 1,2-dichloroethene occurs mainly in workplaces where it is made or used. Breathing high levels of 1,2-dichloroethene can make you feel nauseous, drowsy, and tired. cis-1,2-Dichloroethene has been found in at least 146 of the 1,430 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). trans-1,2-Dichloroethene was found in at least 563 NPL sites. 1,2-Dichloroethene was found at 336 sites, but the isomer (cis- or trans-) was not specified.
What is 1,2-dichloroethene?
1,2-Dichloroethene, also called 1,2-dichloroethylene, is a highly flammable, colorless liquid with a sharp, harsh odor. It is used to produce solvents and in chemical mixtures. You can smell very small amounts of 1,2-dichloroethene in air (about 17 parts of 1,2-dichloroethene per million parts of air [17 ppm]).
There are two forms of 1,2-dichloroethene; one is called cis-1,2-dichloroethene and the other is called trans-1,2-di-chloroethene. Sometimes both forms are present as a mixture.
What happens to 1,2-dichloroethene when it enters the environment?
- 1,2-Dichloroethene evaporates rapidly into air.
- In the air, it takes about 5-12 days for half of it to break down.
- Most 1,2-dichloroethene in the soil surface or bodies of water will evaporate into air.
- 1,2-Dichloroethene can travel through soil or dissolve in water in the soil. It is possible that it can contaminate groundwater.
- In groundwater, it takes about 13-48 weeks to break down.
- There is a slight chance that 1,2-dichloroethene will break down into vinyl chloride, a different chemical which is believed to be more toxic than 1,2-dichloroethene.
How might I be exposed to 1,2-dichloroethene?
- Breathing 1,2-dichloroethene that has leaked from hazardous waste sites and landfills.
- Drinking contaminated tap water or breathing vapors from contaminated water while cooking, bathing, or washing dishes.
- Breathing 1,2-dichloroethene, touching it, or touching contaminated materials in the workplace.
How can 1,2-dichloroethene affect my health?
Breathing high levels of 1,2-dichloroethene can make you feel nauseous, drowsy, and tired; breathing very high levels can kill you.
When animals breathed high levels of trans-1,2-dichloroethene for short or longer periods of time, their livers and lungs were damaged and the effects were more severe with longer exposure times. Animals that breathed very high levels of trans-1,2-dichloroethene had damaged hearts.
Animals that ingested extremely high doses of cis- or trans-1,2-dichloroethene died.
Lower doses of cis-1,2-dichloroethene caused effects on the blood, such as decreased numbers of red blood cells, and also effects on the liver.
The long-term (365 days or longer) human health effects after exposure to low concentrations of 1,2-dichloroethene aren't known. One animal study suggested that an exposed fetus may not grow as quickly as one that hasn't been exposed.
Exposure to 1,2-dichloroethene hasn't been shown to affect fertility in people or animals.
How likely is 1,2-dichloroethene to cause cancer?
The EPA has determined that cis-1,2-dichloroethene is not classifiable as to its human carcinogenicity.
No EPA cancer classification is available for trans-1,2-dichloroethene.
Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to 1,2-dichloroethene?
Tests are available to measure concentrations of the breakdown products of 1,2-dichloroethene in blood, urine, and tissues. However, these tests aren't used routinely to determine whether a person has been exposed to this compound. This is because after you are exposed to 1,2-dichloroethene, the breakdown products in your body that are detected with these tests may be the same as those that come from exposure to other chemicals. These tests aren't available in most doctors' offices, but can be done at special laboratories that have the right equipment.
Has the federal government made recommendations to protect human health?
The EPA has set the maximum allowable level of cis-1,2- dichloroethene in drinking water at 0.07 milligrams per liter of water (0.07 mg/L) and trans-1,2-dichloroethene at 0.1 mg/L.
The EPA requires that any spills or accidental release of 1,000 pounds or more of 1,2-dichloroethene must be reported to the EPA.
The Occupational Health Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the maximum allowable amount of 1,2-dichloroethene in workroom air during an 8-hour workday in a 40-hour workweek at 200 parts of 1,2-dichloroethene per million parts of air (200 ppm).
Carcinogenicity: Ability of a substance to cause cancer.
CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service.
Fertility: Ability to reproduce.
Ingest: To eat or drink something.
Milligram (mg): One thousandth of a gram.
ppm: Parts per million.
Solvent: A chemical that can dissolve other substances.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1996. Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloroethene. Update. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
Where can I get more information?
If you have questions or concerns, please contact your community or state health or environmental quality department or:
For more information, contact:
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Some PDF files may be electronic conversions from paper copy or other electronic ASCII text files. This conversion may have resulted in character translation or format errors. Users are referred to the original paper copy of the toxicological profile for the official text, figures, and tables. Original paper copies can be obtained via the directions on the toxicological profile home page, which also contains other important information about the profiles.
The information contained here was correct at the time of publication. Please check with the appropriate agency for any changes to the regulations or guidelines cited.
- Page last reviewed: March 3, 2011
- Page last updated: October 24, 2011
- Content source: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry