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ATSDR recognizes that infants and children may be more sensitive to environmental exposure than adults in communities faced with contamination of their water, soil, air, or food. This sensitivity is a result of the following factors: (1) children are more likely to be exposed to certain media (e.g., soil or surface water) because they play outdoors more often than adults; (2) children are shorter than adults, which means that they can breathe dust, soil, and vapors close to the ground; and (3) children are smaller and exposure results in higher doses of chemical exposure per body weight. Children can sustain permanent damage if these factors lead to toxic exposure during critical growth stages. ATSDR is committed to evaluating the special interests at sites such as TAFB as part of the ATSDR Child Health Initiative.

ATSDR evaluated the likelihood that children living on TAFB may have been or may be exposed to contaminants at levels of health concern. Based on the evaluation of the exposure pathways discussed in Section II, ATSDR did not identify any situations in which children were likely to be or have been exposed to chemical contaminants at levels of health concern. However, the potential migration of landfill gas from the Wherry Landfill to houses in the Bay View housing area is a data gap TAFB has said they will investigate.


ATSDR conducts a review of existing health outcome data (e.g., birth and death certificates, birth defects registries, cancer registries), when available, if people have been exposed to site contaminants or if the community has concerns related to specific health outcomes. The evaluation of health outcome data may give a general picture of the health of a community, or it may confirm the presence of excess disease or illness in a community. However, elevated rates of a particular disease may not necessarily be caused by hazardous substances in the environment. Other factors, such as personal habits, socioeconomic status, and occupation, also may influence the development of disease. In contrast, even if elevated rates of disease are not found, a contaminant may still have caused illness or disease.

At TAFB, ATSDR did not review health outcome data because the exposures identified were at levels that would not be expected to cause adverse health effects.


A.T. Kearney 1994. RCRA Facility Assessment, Tyndall Air Force Base, October 12, 1994.

Army 1999. The BSAF Database, Windows Version 2.0. The Aquatics Contaminants Team, Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, March 23, 1999. Available at

ATSDR 1994. Toxicological Profile for Carbon Disulfide.

Baughman 1995. Letter, Jan 30, 1995, from James D. Baughman, Lt Col USAF, Base Civil Engineer, to Mr. Alan Farmer, Chief, RCRA Branch, Waste Management Division, US EPA. Comments on Draft RFA of October 12, 1994.

BCM no date. Draft - LF-01, Site Inspection/Confirmatory Sampling Report, Tyndall AFB, Panama City Florida.

BCM 1999. Draft - LF-01, Site Inspection/Confirmatory Sampling Report Technical Addendum, Tyndall AFB, Panama City, Florida, February 1999.

Black & Veatch 1996, General Plan - Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, June 1996.

Booz Allen & Hamilton 1996. Management Action Plan - Tyndall Air Force Base, October 31, 1996.

CH2M Hill 1981, Installation Restoration Program Records Search for Tyndall Air Force Base, December 1981.

de Venoge 2000. Memorandum from Major Thomas P. de Venoge, USAF to Brian Kaplan, ATSDR regarding comments on Public Comment version of the Tyndall AFB Public Health Assessment, February 10, 2000.

EPA 1997. Environmental Sampling Environmental Investigations Standard Operating Procedures and Quality Assurance Manual, U.S. EPA Region 4, March 1997.

EPA 1998. Volume 1: National Sediment Quality Survey, United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-823-F-98-001, January 1998.

EPA 1999. "Permit Compliance System (PCS) Detailed Reports," Water Discharge Permits, Envirofacts Warehouse. Accessed, April 1, 1999.

Fugitt 2000. Letter from Joseph F. Fugitt, Remedial Project Manager, Department of Environmental Protection, State of Florida to Joseph McLernan, Tyndall Air Force Base regarding ATSDR's draft public health assessment. March 1, 2000.

FWS 1990. Environmental Contaminants Evaluation Sediment DDT concentrations in Fred Bayou, St. Andrew Bay, Tyndall Air Force Base, Bay County, Florida, US Fish and Wildlife Service, December 1, 1990.

Geraghty & Miller 1991. Final Remedial Investigation Report for Sites OT-4, LF-5, and OT-25, Tyndall Air Force Base, April 11, 1991.

Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB) ® Carbon Disulfide. In: Hall AH & Rumack BH (Eds): TOMES ® System. MICROMEDEX, Englewood, Colorado (Edition expired January 31, 1999).

Hazardous Substance Data Bank ® Chloromethane. In: Hall AH & Rumack BH (Eds): TOMES ® System. MICROMEDEX, Englewood, Colorado (Edition expired January 31, 1999).

Houghton Mifflin Company 1996. Excerpted from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition © 1996 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Electronic version licensed from INSO Corporation. All rights reserved.

Rust Environment & Infrastucture 1993a. A-E Final Preliminary Assessment /Site Investigation Report, Shoal Point Bayou: Site 29, April 1993.

Rust Environment and Infrastructure 1993b. Multi-Site Investigation: Sites 20, 26, 28, and 29, Appendices A-E Analytical Results Report, Tyndall Air Force Base, August 1993.

Rust Environment & Infrastructure April 1995. Letter to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers regarding biota resampling efforts, April 20, 1995.

Rust Environment & Infrastructure 1996. Technical Memorandum, Analytical Results, Site 29 - Fred Bayou, Tyndall Air Force Base, Panama City, Florida. December 1996.

Rust Environment & Infrastructure 1998. Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment, OT-29, Fred Bayou, Tyndall Air Force Base, Panama City, Florida, April 1998.

Saranko, Christopher J., N. Christine Halmes, J. Keith Tolson, and Stephen M. Roberts 1999. Technical Report: Development of Soil Cleanup Target Levels (SCTLs) for Chapter 62-777, F.A.C, Final Report. Prepared for the Division of Waste Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection by the Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, May 26, 1999.

Sirrine Environmental Consultants 1992. Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation Report, Sites 26, 27, and 28, Tyndall Air Force Base, February 1992.

Tyndall Air Force Base 1997. Material collected from the ATSDR site visit in January 1997.

U.S. Government Printing Office 1997. Federal Register / Vol. 62, No. 62 / Tuesday, April 1, 1997 / Rules and Regulations, pages 15572 - 15576.

Water and Air Research 1984. Installation Restoration Program, Phase II -- Confirmation/Quantification, Stage I, Tyndall Air Force Base, August 1984

Wilkinson 1995. EPA Memorandum to File by Donna Wilkinson, August 1, 1995


Brian Kaplan
Environmental Health Scientist
Department of Defense Section A
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Diane Jackson
Chief, Department of Defense Section A
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Carole Hossom
Environmental Health Scientist
Department of Defense Section A
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Beverly Harris
Office of Policy and External Affairs

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