Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content




  1. After reviewing the available information for the site, ATSDR considers the GSX landfill to be an indeterminate public health hazard. ATSDR uses this category for sites with incomplete information. However, available evidence is not sufficient to conclude that people have or have not been exposed to contaminants related to the GSX landfill at levels that could cause illness or disease. ATSDR did not identify completed human exposure pathways for this site. The potential human exposure pathways represent either an indeterminate public health hazard, no apparent public health hazard, or no public health hazard.
  2. Nearby residents and on-site employees could have been exposed to air contaminants potentially released when waste oils were burned in an on-site rotary kiln. This past potential exposure pathway will always represent an indeterminate public health hazard because no information documents exposure levels or duration. The kiln was shut down in 1990 and removed from the site in 1991, thus this source of air contamination no longer exists.
  3. On-site air has been found in the past to contain VOCs. Respirable dust has also been detected above OSHA PELs. However, the past potential human exposure pathway represents an indeterminate public health hazard because available data do not adequately characterize past on-site air contamination. Based on the site's implementation of engineering controls (the use of protective clothing and equipment and the recent construction of a waste treatment area containment building mitigate this exposure), present and future potential human exposure pathways should be eliminated.
  4. Off-site air represents an indeterminate public health hazard. ATSDR cannot determine if air contaminants migrated off site due to the lack of off-site air monitoring data. However, air monitoring is a requirement of the landfill's 1994 operating permit and an Ambient Air Monitoring Plan is under review by regulators and ATSDR. ATSDR will review air monitoring results when they become available and update the findings of this petitioned public health assessment.
  5. Human exposure to toxic substances in air, water, or soil may have occurred in the past from accidental releases of toxic substances during waste transportation activities. These past releases represent a no apparent public health hazard because no evidence is available to indicate that humans have been exposed contaminants from such releases. In addition, if human exposure occurred, it is unlikely that the duration of the human exposure or the levels of the contaminant levels have been sufficient to result in adverse health effects.
  6. On-site groundwater represents a no apparent public health hazard. SCDHEC routinely samples the well and no contamination has been detected. While on-site workers may have used the well for drinking water purposes in the past, workers are supplied bottled water for drinking water purposes.
  7. Off-site groundwater contamination does not, at present, extend beyond the property boundary to nearby water wells and represents a no public health hazard. An array of downgradient monitoring wells are sampled quarterly.
  8. Although VOCs have been detected in on-site surface water, it represents a no apparent public health hazard.
  9. There is no evidence of VOC contamination of off-site surface water, sediment, or fish tissue from previous sampling and monitoring and it currently represents a no public health hazard.
  10. The chemicals detected in blood and hair analyses of residents cannot be attributed to the GSX Landfill because many of the detected compounds are widespread in the environment. Levels seen in the area were consistent with those seen in general population studies.
  11. There are no community-specific health outcome data to indicate that the site has had an adverse impact on physical health. The overall poor health status in the community is consistent with the rural, agricultural, lower-socioeconomic character of the area. Some evidence exists that concerns about waste management activities at the landfill have resulted in stress for some members of the community. The magnitude and extent of stress within the community is not known.
  12. Trucks transporting hazardous waste to the GSX Landfill present a physical hazard to othermotorists when the trucks travel in excess of the posted speed limit. Speeding alsoincreases the chance of a motor vehicle accident, with subsequent release of hazardoussubstances to the environment.


A. Recommendations and HARP Statement


  1. Perimeter or off-site compound-specific air monitoring should be conducted to determine whether airborne contaminants are migrating off-site. When available, those analytic data should be reviewed to ensure that air particulate and contaminant concentrations are at levels that will not endanger public health. An air monitoring plan is currently under review by regulators.
  2. Corrective action to extract and treat contaminated on-site groundwater should continue. Quarterly monitoring of on-site groundwater quality should continue, to ensure that site-related contaminants are identified before they can migrate off site. State and federal regulators should continue to review these monitoring reports. With approval from EPA and the SCDHEC, Laidlaw will complete a Corrective Measure Study (CMS) of on-site contamination. ATSDR will review the environmental data generated by the CMS when it becomes available, and will determine whether public health actions are necessary.
  3. The existing on-site water well should not be used for drinking water purposes. Water samples from this well should continue to be collected and analyzed.
  4. Monitoring on-site surface water before its release off-site should continue. On-site monitoring will detect on-site contaminant migration to off-site surface water.
  5. Speed limits on highways and roads leading to the GSX Landfill should be obeyed and strictly enforced to reduce the potential for motor vehicle accidents involving waste transporters.
  6. Federal and state agencies with authority to regulate transportation of hazardous wastes should ensure that wastes are securely carried to the GSX Landfill.
  7. Additional follow-up activities should be considered if data become available suggestingthat people have been or are being exposed to site-related contaminants.

HARP Statement

The data and information developed in the GSX landfill petitioned public health assessment havebeen evaluated by the Health Activities Recommendation Panel for appropriate public healthactions. Currently information is insufficient to indicate whether residents living off site havebeen, are being, or will be exposed to hazardous substances at concentrations and for durationsthat would likely cause illness or injury in relation to the GSX landfill. Potential exposurepathways continue to exist through groundwater, air, and surface water. The Health ActivitiesRecommendation Panel has determined that members of the potentially exposed population needassistance in understanding their potential for exposure and in assessing any possible adversehealth effects in their community. To prevent further stress to nearby residents, informationshould be distributed to them on the precautions taken by landfill operators and federal and stateagencies to ensure integrity of the landfill and to prevent off-site contamination. Anenvironmental health education program is also needed to advise public health professionals andthe local medical community on the nature and possible consequences of exposure tocontaminants at the GSX site. The value of obtaining complete and accurate exposure historieswill be stressed as part of this program. In addition, information provided on the contaminants ofconcern may include, but not be limited to, the physical nature of the contaminant, potentialexposure pathways (i.e., soil, water, air, food) and exposure routes (i.e., inhalation, ingestion,dermal), potential health effects, symptoms of exposure and testing and treatment, if known. TheATSDR Division of Health Education and Promotion (DHEP) will conduct these activities inconjunction with the local medical community. In addition, ATSDR will determine the need andfeasibility for a health study involving residents living adjacent to the landfill. Furthermore,ATSDR will evaluate any new data or information it receives about this site to determine whetheradditional public health actions are appropriate.

B. Public Health Action Plan

The purpose of the Public Health Action Plan is to ensure that this petitioned public healthassessment not only identifies public health hazards but also provides a plan of action designed tomitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardoussubstances in the environment.

Actions Undertaken

ATSDR held a public availability session on March 28, 1991, in the community of Rimini, SouthCarolina. ATSDR staff discussed community health concerns associated with the GSX landfill.

Actions Planned

There is some evidence that concerns about waste management activities at the landfill haveresulted in stress for some members of the community. In order to assist community memberswith stress, ATSDR will provide information to the local community about hazards that may bepresent, and the likelihood of exposure, and will assist the community in assessing possibleadverse health outcomes associated with exposure to hazardous substances. The GSX PetitionedPublic Health Assessment will serve as a major tool in conveying this information to thecommunity.

At SCDHEC's request, ATSDR will review the Ambient Air Monitoring Plan for the landfill. After SCDHEC approves this plan and air samples are collected, ATSDR will review the data andupdate the findings of this Petitioned Public Health Assessment as necessary.

When exposure data become available, the ATSDR Division of Health Education and Promotionwill consider an environmental health education program to advise public health professionals andthe local medical community of the nature and possible consequences of exposure to contaminantsat the GSX site.

As more data on offsite exposures become available, the ATSDR Division of Health Studies willconsider the need for and feasibility of a health study of the community around the site.

ATSDR will contact the SCDHEC to ensure that SCDHEC is aware of ATSDRrecommendations regarding environmental sampling on and around the GSX site.

ATSDR will forward a copy of the GSX Petitioned Public Health Assessment to the SouthCarolina Department of Highways and Traffic to inform them of ATSDR recommendationsregarding enforcement of speed limits and regulation of transportation of hazardous wastes onhighways and railways leading to the GSX Landfill.

ATSDR will contact appropriate federal and state officials to obtain additional data or new dataas it becomes available. In addition, ATSDR will collaborate with appropriate federal, state, andlocal agencies to pursue the implementation of the recommendations outlined in this public healthassessment.

ATSDR will reevaluate and expand the Public Health Action Plan when needed. Newenvironmental, toxicological, or health outcome data, or the results of implementing the aboveproposed actions, may determine the need for additional actions at this site.


Environmental Reviewers:

Maureen Kolasa, RN, MPH
Environmental Health Scientist
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR

Joe Hughart, MS, MPH, PG
Deputy Director
Office of Federal Programs, ATSDR

Health Effects Reviewer:

Virginia Lee, MD, MPH
Medical Officer
Division of Health Studies, ATSDR

Health Assessment Reviewers:

Maurice C. West, P.E., DEE
Section Chief
Petition Response Branch, ATSDR

William T. Going III, M.P.H.
Environmental Health Scientist
Petition Response Branch, ATSDR

ATSDR Regional Representative:

Robert Safay
Senior Regional Representative

Carl Blair
Regional Representative


(1) Ebasco Services, Inc. A study of the environmental characteristics of the hazardous wasteland disposal facility at Pinewood, South Carolina. September 1986.

(2) South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Bureau of Solid andHazardous Waste Management. Assessment of interim status transfer regarding the change inownership/operational control of Pinewood Hazardous Waste Facility. August 13, 1985.

(3) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Trip report for GSX Landfill. March 5, 1990.

(4) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Trip report for GSX Landfill. March 30,1990.

(5) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Trip report for GSX Landfill. April 23,1990.

(6) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Trip report for GSX Landfill. June 27,1990.

(7) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Trip report for GSX Landfill. January26, 1993.

(8) Bureau of the Census. 1990 Census of population and housing. Summary Tape File 1 (SouthCarolina), 1991.

(9) Clement Associates, Inc. Potential for gradual environmental impairment arising from theoperation of the Pinewood Landfill, final report. March 5, 1985.

(10) GSX Services, Inc. Exposure information report. Sumter County, SC, August 6, 1985.

(11) EPA Hazardous Waste Ground-Water Task Force. Evaluation of GSX Services of SouthCarolina, Inc., Pinewood, South Carolina, August 6, 1986.

(12) U.S. EPA Region IV. Administrative order on consent, U.S. EPA Docket No. 87-27-R, Inthe matter of GSX Services of South Carolina, Inc., June 1988.

(13) Adults' ailments not related to GSX, MUSC tests conclude. The Sumter Daily Item. Sumter,SC, September 19, 1986.

(14) Illnesses not linked to GSX, study finds. Columbia Record. Columbia, SC, September 12,1986.

(15) Doctors find no illnesses connected to Sumter landfill. The Greenville News. September12, 1986.

(16) 5 Residents examined after complaints about hazardous waste landfill. The Evening Post. Charleston, SC, September 11, 1986.

(17) Doctor reports no common illness found among residents near GSX. The News andCourier. Charleston, SC, September 12, 1986.

(18) Group's survey reports illnesses near GSX site. The Sumter Daily Item. Sumter, SC,August 13, 1986.

(19) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Memorandum to : Barry L. Johnson,PhD, from Virginia Lee, Medical Officer, concerning physician interviews for GSX Petition Site,South Carolina, April 4, 1990.

(20) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Personal communication, citizens toATSDR representatives, May 1990.

(21) GSX Services of South Carolina, Inc. Water table aquifer assessment and continued interimcorrective measures proposal, Pinewood Secure Landfill. June 22, 1990.

(22) GSX Services of South Carolina, Inc. Progress report for September 1990, interimcorrective measures work. Pinewood, SC, October 10, 1990.

(23) South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. 1984-1985 Summaryreport on environmental monitoring of South Carolina SCA Services, Inc., Pinewood, SouthCarolina. October 1984.

(24) Davis and Floyd, Inc. Report of data, priority pollutant analysis, old pond water and newpond water, samples collected July 11, 1986 (no report date).

(25) South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. Ambient air samplingand analysis in the vicinity of GSX, Sumter County, SC, July 30-September 22, 1985, (report notdated).

(26) GSX Services of South Carolina, Inc. Dust from waste treatment process, Sumter County,SC, November 18, 1986.

(27) GSX Services, Inc. Memorandum to Lin Longshore from Pat Twomey concerning airmonitoring in Pinewood, SC, August 30, 1985.

(28) Rossnagel & Associates. Report of industrial hygiene tests at SCA, Inc., in Pinewood, SCon November 14, 1980. Test Report #4359. Charlotte, NC, December 9, 1980.

(29) Wateree District EQC. Memorandum to file from Christopher M. Lock concerning privatewell samples located adjacent to GSX Services, Sumter County, SC. September 10, 1986.

(30) Wateree District EQC. Memorandum to file from Christopher M. Lock concerning privatewells adjacent to GSX Services, Inc., Sumter County, SC. July 8, 1986.

(31) South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. Priority pollutantanalyses of fish tissue from Lake Marion, South Carolina. Autumn 1986.

(32) South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. Memorandum to RonaldW. Kinney from Douglas P. Darr concerning fish from GSX picked up by public. November 24,1987.

(33) South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. Memorandum to NoelHurley from Edward Younginer concerning sample collections in the vicinity of GSXCorporation, Pinewood, South Carolina. July 2, 1986.

(34) South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. Memorandum to RussellW. Sherer from Harry L. Gaymon concerning sediment and fish tissue data in Lake Marion. January 7, 1986.

(35) U.S. EPA Region IV. Memorandum to James H. Scarbrough from Hoke Howardconcerning reconnaissance investigation, GSX Services, Pinewood, South Carolina. June 6,1986.

(36) South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. Organic analysis of fishtissue from Lake Marion. December 12, 1987.

(37) Large fish kill occurs on lake in Rimini area. The Sumter Daily Item. Sumter, SC, August25, 1986.

(38) South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. SCA inspection log. October 25, 1982.

(39) Railroad car rolls in Rimini. Sumter Daily Item. Sumter, SC. February 11, 1985.

(40) Landfill evacuated after fire breaks out. Sumter Daily Item. Sumter, SC. August 21, 1985.

(41) Truck's tarp catches fire at landfill. Sumter Daily Item. Sumter, SC. June 21, 1985.

(42) Waste buried at GSX 3 days after leaking. Sumter Daily Item. Sumter, SC. August 21,1985.

(43) Leaks may prompt legal action. Sumter Daily Item. Sumter, SC. December 9, 1986.

(44) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for selected PCBs(Aroclor -1260, -1254, -1248, -1242, -1232, -1221, and -1016). June 1989.

(45) Sittig M. Handbook of toxic and hazardous chemicals and carcinogens. 2nd edition. ParkRidge, NJ: Noyes Publications, 1985.

(46) Shalat SL, True LD, Fleming LE, PE Pace. Kidney cancer in utility workers exposed topolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Br J Ind Med 1989; 46:823-4.

(47) Lawton RW, Ross MR, Feingold J, JF Brown. Effects of PCB exposure on biochemicaland hematological findings in capacitor workers. Environ Health Perspect 1985; 60:165-84.

(48) Fischbein A. Liver function tests in workers with occupational exposure to polychlorinatedbiphenyls (PCBs): Comparison with Yusho and Yu-Cheng. Environ Health Perspect 1985;60:145-50.

(49) Fischbein A, Wolff MS, Lilis R, Thorton J, IJ Selikoff. Clinical findings amongPCB-exposed capacitor manufacturing workers. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1979; 320:703-15.

(50) Reggiani G, R Bruppacher. Symptoms, signs, and findings in humans exposed to PCBs andtheir derivatives. Environ Health Perspect 1985; 60:225-32.

(51) Kimbrough RD. Human health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) andpolybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1987; 27:87-111.

(52) Emmett EA, Maroni M, Schmith JM, Levin BK, J Jeffreys. Studies of transformer repairworkers exposed to PCBs: I. Study design, PCB concentrations, questionnaire, and clinicalexamination results. Am J Ind Med 1988; 13:415-27.

(53) Fischbein A, Wolff MS, Berstein J, Selikoff IJ, J Thornton. Dermatological findings incapacitor manufacturing workers exposed to dielectric fluids containing polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs). Arch Environ Health 1982; 37(2):69-74.

(54) Fischbein A, Rizzo JN, Soloman SJ, MS Wolff. Oculodermatological findings in workerswith occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)." Br J Ind Med 1985;42:426-30.

(55) Taylor JS. Environmental chloracne: update and overview. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1979;320:295-307.

(56) Taylor PR, Stelma JM, CE Lawrence. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birthweight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers. Am J Epidemiol1989; 129(2):395-406.

(57) Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW, Humphrey HEB. Effects of in utero exposure topolychlorinated biphenyls and related contaminants on cognitive functioning in young children. JPediatr 1990; 116:38-45.

(58) Gladen BC, Rogan WJ, Hardy P, Thullen J, Tingelstad J, M Tully. Development after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethenetransplacentally and through human milk. J Pediatr 1988; 113:991-5.

(59) Kreiss K. Studies on populations exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. Environ HealthPerspect 1985; 60:193-9.

(60) Stehr-Green PA, Burse VW, E Welty. Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls attoxic waste sites: investigations in the United States. Arch Environ Health 1988; 43(6):420-4.

(61) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for P.P.'-DDT,P.P.'-DDE, P.P.'-DDD. Clement Associates, December 1988.

(62) Hayes WJ, Dale WE, Pirkle CI. Evidence of safety of long-term, high, oral doses of DDTfor man. Arch Environ Health 1971; 22: 119-35.

(63) Murphy R, Harvey C. Residues and metabolites of selected persistent halogenatedhydrocarbons in blood specimens from a general population survey. Environ Health Perspect1985;60:115-20.

(64) Murphy RS, Kutz FW, Strassman SC. Selected pesticide residues or metabolites in bloodand urine specimens from a general population survey. Environ Health Perspect 1983;48:81-6.

(65) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for chlordane. Clement Associates, December 1988.

(66) Doull J, Klaasen CD, Amdur MO. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. New York: MacmillanPublishing Co., Inc., 1980.

(67) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile forheptachlor/heptachlor epoxide. Dynamac Corporation, April 1989.

(68) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile forhexachlorobenzene. Life Systems, Inc., October 1989.

(69) Isselbacher, Kurt, et al. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. New York: McGraw-HillBook Company, 1980.

(70) Kroneld. Volatile pollutants in suburban and industrial air. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol1989;4:868-72.

(71) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Volatile organic compound: watercontamination site: Doylestown, Pennsylvania. July 1988.

(72) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Final report: technical assistance to theSouth Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. Reynolds Road GroundwaterContamination Site; Barnwell County, South Carolina. September 1989.

(73) Antoine S, DeLeon I, O'Dell-Smith, R. Environmentally significant volatile organicpollutants in human blood. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1986;36: 364-71.

(74) Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control. Memorandum to Virginia Lee fromJohn A. Liddle, PhD, Assistant Director for Emergency Response and State Programs, concerningreview of biological laboratory data: GSX Facility, Pinewood, South Carolina.

(75) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for toluene. Clement Associates, December 1988.

(76) Proctor NH, Hughes JP, Fischman ML. Chemical hazards of the workplace. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1988.

(77) Hseieh GC, Sharma RP, Parker RDR. Immunotoxicological evaluation of toluene exposurevia drinking water in mice. Environ Res 1989;49: 93-103.

(78) Hersh JH, et al. Toluene embryopathy. J Pediatr 1985;106:922-7.

(79) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile for totalxylenes. Clement Associates, October 1989.

(80) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile forethylbenzene. Clement Associates, October 1989.

(81) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft toxicological profile fortetrachloroethylene. Syracuse Research Corp., December 1987.

(82) Kido Y, et al. Correlation of tetrachloroethylene in blood and in drinking water: a case ofwell water pollution. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1989;43:444-53.

(83) Wrensch M, et al. Pregnancy outcomes in women potentially exposed tosolvent-contaminated drinking water in San Jose, California. Am J Epidemiol1990;131(2):283-300.

(84) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for1,4-dichlorobenzene. Life Systems Inc., January 1989.

(85) WHO Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria on Styrene. Environmental healthcriteria 26: styrene. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1983.

(86) Shrestha KP, Schrauzer GN. Trace elements in hair: a study of residents in Darjeeling(India) and San Diego, California (U.S.A.). Sci Total Environ 1989;79:171-7.

(87) Muramatsu Y, Parr RM. Concentrations of some trace elements in hair, liver and kidneyfrom autopsy subjects - relationship between hair and internal organs. Sci Total Environ1988;76:29-40.

(88) Wilhelm M, Ohnesorge FK. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in human scalpand pubic hair. Sci Total Environ 1990;92:199-206.

(89) Stewart-Pinkham SM. The effect of ambient cadmium air pollution on the hair mineralcontent of children. Sci Total Environ 1989;78:289-96.

(90) Gibson RS, Ferguson EF, Vanderkooy PDS, MacDonald AC. Seasonal variations in hairzinc concentrations in Canadian and African children. Sci Total Environ 1989;84:291-8.

(91) Stauber JT, Florence TM. Manganese in scalp hair: problems of exogenous manganese andimplications for manganese monitoring in Groote Eylandt aborigines. Sci Total Environ1989;83:85-98.

(92) Carvalho FM, et al. Cadmium in hair of children living near a lead smelter in Brazil. SciTotal Environ 1989;84:119-28.

(93) Taylor A. Usefulness of measurements of trace elements in hair. Clin Biochem1986;23:364-78.

(94) Moon J, Davison AJ, Smith TJ, Fadl S. Correlation clusters in the accumulation of metals inhuman scalp hair: effects of age, community of residence, and abundances of metals in air andwater supplies. Sci Total Environ 1988;72:87-112.

(95) Yongxian W, Jinfa Q, Simin W, Linbao Y. Study on the relation of Se, Mn, Fe, Sr, Pb, Zn,Cu, and Ca to liver cancer mortality from analysis of scalp hair. Sci Total Environ1990;91:191-8.

(96) Doi R, et al. A study of the sources of external metal contamination of hair. Sci TotalEnviron 1988;77:153-61.

(97) Hambridge KM. Hair analysis. Pediatr Clin North Am 1980;27(4):855-60.

(98) Manson P, Zlotkin S. Hair analysis -- a critical review. Can Med Assoc J 1985;133:186-8.

(99) Limic N, Valkovic V. Environmental influence on trace element levels in human hair. BullEnviron Contam Toxicol 1986;37:925-30.

(100) Brown AC, Crounse RG, eds. Hair, trace elements, and human illness. New York: Praeger Scientific, 1980.

(101) Heber RFM, et al. Trace element levels in hair of eight-year-old children. Int Arch OccupEnviron Health 1983;53:127-37.

(102) Kovner A, ed. Health care delivery in the United States. New York: Springer Publishing, 1990.

(103) Lieberman A. Results of laboratory studies in residents of Rimini community done in1986.

(104) Weitzner JM. Alopecia areata. Am Fam Physician 1990;41:1197-201.

(105) Stroud JD. Hair loss in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 1983;30:641-57.

(106) Goh CL. Occupational dermatoses - an update. Ann Acad Med 1988;17(4):557-62.

(107) Zugerman C. Chloracne: clinical manifestations and etiology. Dermatol Clin1990;8(1):209-13.

(108) Schachner L , Press S. Vesicular, bullous and pustular disorders in infancy and childhood. Pediatr Clin North Am 1983;30(4):609-29.

(109) Angle CR. Indoor air pollutants. Adv Pediatr 1988;35:239-80.

(110) Hallman WK. Coping with an environmental stressor: perception of risk, attribution ofresponsibility, and psychological distress in a community living near a hazardous waste facility. Dissertation: University of South Carolina, 1989.

(111) Terr AI. Environmental illness: a clinical review of 50 cases. Arch Intern Med1986;146:145-9.

(112) Berman SH, Wandersman A. Fear of cancer and knowledge of cancer: a review andproposed relevance to hazardous waste sites. Soc Sci Med 1990;31(1):81-90.

(113) Dunne MP, Burnett P, Lawton J, Raphael B. The health effects of chemical waste in anurban community. Med J Aust 1990;152:592-7.

(114) Somervell, Philip et al. Psychologic distress as a predictor of mortality." Am J Epidemiol1989;130(5):1013-23.

(115) Kasl, S. Stress and health. Annu Rev Public Health 1984; 5:319-41.

(116) Fait A, Grossman E, Self S, Jeffries J, Pellizzari ED, Emmett EA. Polychlorinated biphenylcongeners in adipose tissue lipid and serum of past and present transformer repair workers and a comparison group. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1989;12:42-55.

(117) Emmett EA, Maroni M, Jeffreys J, Schmith J, Levin BK, Alvares A. Studies oftransformer repair workers exposed to PCBs: II.results of clinical laboratory investigations. Am JInd Med 1988; 14:47-62.

(118) Kreiss K, Roberts C, Humphrey HEB. Serial PBB levels, PCB levels, and clinicalchemistries in Michigan's PBB cohort. Arch Environ Health 1982; 37(3):141-7.

(119) Jacobson JL, Humphrey HEB, Jacobson SW, Schantz SL, Mullin MD, Welch R. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), anddichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) levels in the sera of young children. Am J Public Health1989; 79(10):1401-4.

(120) Jensen AA. Background levels in humans. In: Kimbrough RD, Jensen AA, eds. Halogenated biphenyls, terphenyls, naphthalenes, dibenzodioxins, and related products. NewYork: Elsevier, 1989:345-380.

(121) Selby L, et al. Comparison of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in maternal blood andplacental tissues. Environ Res 1969;2:247-55.

(122) Radomski JL, et al. Human pesticide blood levels as a measure of body burden andpesticide exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1971;20:175-85 .

(123) D'Ercole, AJ, et al. Insecticide exposure of mothers and newborns in a rural agriculturalarea. Pediatrics 1976;57(6):869-74.

(124) Ahmad N, et al. Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. Bull EnvironContam Toxicol 1988;41:802-8.

(125) Phillips, DL, et al. Chlorinated hydrocarbon levels in human serum: effects of fasting andfeeding. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 1989;18:495-500 .

(126) Stanley JS. Broad scan analysis of the FY 82 National Human Adipose Tissue Surveyspecimens: Volume I - executive summary. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency, Office of Toxic Substances. EPA-560/5-86-035. 1986.

(127) Ansari GA, James GP, Hu LA, Reynolds ES. Organochlorine residues in adipose tissue ofresidents of the Texas Gulf Coast. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1986;36(2):311-6.

(128) Rutten GA, Schoots AC, Vanholder R, DeSmet R, et al. Hexachlorobenzene and1,1-di(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene in serum of uremic patients and healthy persons:determination by capillary gas chromatography and electron capture detection. Nephron1988;48:217-21.

(128a) Figure adapted from Laidlaw of South Carolina, Inc. Informational audit package. Pinewood Secure Landfill, Pinewood, South Carolina. June 20, 1997.

(128b) Environ Corporation. Time-of-travel study. Pinewood Secure Landfill, Pinewood, SouthCarolina. 1993.


(129) EPA Region IV. Memorandum: RCRA compliance overview inspection of South CarolinaSCA Services, Inc., June 18, 1982.

(130) Testimony of the Environmental Defense Fund before the Subcommittee on Oversight andInvestigations of the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representativesconcerning groundwater monitoring at hazardous waste land disposal facilities, April 27, 1989.

(131) Environmental Technology Engineering. GSX Services of South Carolina, Inc., PinewoodFacility Final Remediation Plan. April 6, 1988.

(132) Letter to Ted Harris from William Myers, with comments, re GSX Landfill, Nov. 29, 1986.

(133) Wallace LA, et al. The TEAM study: personal exposures to toxic substances in air,drinking water, and breath of 400 residents of New Jersey, North Carolina, and North Dakota. Environ Res 1987;43:290-307.

(134) SCDHEC, Memorandum from Jacqueline Dickman, Assistant General Counsel andElizabeth Levy, Staff Counsel to Douglas E. Bryant, Commissioner et al., re: Hearing officer'sreport in the GSX case, September 24, 1993.

(135) ERG, Letter from Naida Gavrelis, Senior Public Health Scientist, Eastern Research Groupto Maurice West, Section Chief, Petition Response Branch, ATSDR, re: GSX Landfill, August15, 1997.

(136) SCDHEC, Letter from Jack P. Pettit, District Engineer, to Todd Going, EnvironmentalHealth Scientist, Petition Response Branch, ATSDR, re: Drinking water well at Laidlaw,September 9, 1997.

Next Section          Table of Contents The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341
Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888-232-6348

A-Z Index

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #