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We consider this site to be an indeterminate public health hazard because the available data do not indicate that humans are being or have been exposed to levels of contamination that would be expected to cause adverse health effects, however, there is insufficient data on on-site and off-site surface soil and groundwater to which humans may be exposed. This classification may change when further information becomes available. There are no completed pathways at present time; however, the potential exists for exposure through the surface soil and groundwater pathways. Periodic monitoring would help to ensure that exposures do not occur until the site has been remediated or made inaccessible to the public.


  1. Restrict public access and future development of the site until the site is remediated to minimize possible public exposure to the site contamination.
  2. Additional and subsequent follow-up sampling is needed of the private wells in the vicinity of the site until the site is remediated to better determine the potential for future contaminant exposures due to off-site migration of the contaminated groundwater.
  3. KSCI should conduct air monitoring, off-site surface (0-3") and subsurface soil sampling, and a detailed survey of private wells and local groundwater use to more accurately characterize contamination at the site.
  4. Any person on a "low salt" or "low sodium" diet should consult their physician before consuming water in areas near this site.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) Recommendations

    In accordance with CERCLA, as amended, the data and information contained in the Kalama Specialty Chemicals, Inc. Site Public Health Assessment have been evaluated by the ATSDR Health Activities Recommendation Panel for appropriate follow-up with respect to health actions. No follow-up health actions are indicated at this time because there is no evidence that people have been or are currently being exposed to contaminants associated with the site. If information becomes available indicating exposure at levels of concern, ATSDR will evaluate that information to determine what actions, if any, are necessary to protect human health.


The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the KSCI site contains a description of actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) at and in the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of this public health assessment. Based on the recommendations made in the public health assessment for KSCI, no public health actions are indicated at this time because there is no evidence indicating past or current exposures. ATSDR and SCDHEC will review any additional information as it becomes available.


Robert F. Marino, MD, MPH
Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

John F. Brown, DVM, PhD
State Toxicologist
Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

Charles C. Lewis, MPH, PA-C
Environmental Quality Manager

Lovyst L. Howell
Project Administrator

Douglas Blansit
Research Specialist

Yanqing Mo

ATSDR Regional Representative:

Chuck Pietrosewicz
Regional Services
Office of the Assistant Administrator

ATSDR Technical Project Officer:

Richard R. Kauffman
Technical Project Officer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Remedial Programs Branch


This Kalama Specialty Chemicals, Inc. public health assessment was prepared by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Richard R. Kauffman
Technical Project Officer, SPS, RPB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Health Assessment Guidance Manual. Atlanta: ATSDR, February 1991

  2. ATSDR, 1988. Preliminary Health Assessment, Kalama Specialty Chemicals, Burton, South Carolina.

  3. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Benzene, ATSDR/TP-88/03, May 1989.

  4. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Carbon Tetrachloride, ATSDR/TP-89/05, December, 1989.

  5. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloroethane, ATSDR/TP-90/10, December 1989.

  6. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for 1,1-Dichloroethene, ATSDR/TP-89/11, December, 1989.

  7. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Ethylbenzene, ATSDR/TP-90/02, December 1990.

  8. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Lead, ATSDR/TP-88/17, June 1990.

  9. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Mercury, ATSDR/TP-89/16, December 1989.

  10. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride, ATSDR/TP-88/18, April, 1989.

  11. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride, ATSDR/TP- 88/25, August 1989.

  12. PBS&J, 1991. Remedial Investigation Report, Kalama Specialty Chemicals, Inc.

  13. SCDHEC, Hydrology Division, 1979. Kalama (Vega) Chemical Company, Beaufort County, South Carolina, Ground-Water Contamination Investigation.

  14. SCDHEC, Division of Hydrogeology, Superfund and Solid Waste Section, Section files on the Kalama Site.

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