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The PCS site is classified as an indeterminant public health hazard. This classification was based on the fact that the available data do not indicate that humans are being or have been exposed to levels of contaminants that could be expected to cause adverse health effects. However, data are not available for all environmental media to which humans may be exposed. Surface soil (0-3") and surface water samples are needed to better characterize the extent of contaminant migration. In addition, groundwater flow and the extent of groundwater contamination need to be fully characterized. Private well use in the area needs to be determined.

Analyses of environmental sampling data, demographic data, and plausible environmental pathway data show groundwater migration to be the most likely mechanism in which off-site populations may be exposed to the contaminants of concern. It is also possible, although somewhat unlikely, that significant windborne migration of contaminated dirt may occur.

Currently available evidence does not conclusively demonstrate exposures to any individual or group of individuals from site-related contaminants. Since no individuals are currently known to be exposed to contaminants, there are no health effects expected at the present time.

  1. Characterize the directional flow of the groundwater contaminants to determine the extent of migration of contaminants in groundwater.
  2. Determine the extent of private well use in the area.
  3. Resample the private wells at the two residences along Howard Drive.
  4. Collect off-site, surface soil and surface water samples to better characterize the extent of contaminant migration.
  5. Restrict future development of the site.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) Recommendations

In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended, Para-Chem Inc., has been evaluated for appropriate health follow-up activities. There are no indications humans have been or are being exposed to on-site and/or off-site contaminants. Therefore, this site is not being considered for follow-up activities at this time. However, if data become available suggesting that human exposure to hazardous substances at levels of public health concern is currently occurring or has occurred in the past, ATSDR will re-evaluate this site for health follow-up activities.


The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the PCS site contains a description of actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or SCDHEC at and in the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of this public health assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. Included, is a commitment on the part of ATSDR and/or SCDHEC to follow-up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented. The public health actions to be implemented by ATSDR and/or SCDHEC are as follows:

  1. SCDHEC will continue to monitor groundwater sampling data for evidence of contamination and notify residents of any threat, or potential threat to their health.
  2. SCDHEC will determine whether an adequate amount of data has been collected to perform a final public health assessment of the site. We will communicate additional conclusions or recommendations to the local residents through fact sheets, mailings, meetings, or other available means as necessary.

ATSDR and SCDHEC will follow-up with the EPA and other agencies to confirm implementation of other recommendations contained in this public health assessment.


        Robert F. Marino, MD, MPH
        SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

        John F. Brown, DVM, PhD
        State Toxicologist
        SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

        Charles C. Lewis
        Environmental Quality Manager
        SCDHEC, Health Hazard Evaluation

        Bryant D. Blansit
        Research Specialist
        SCDHEC, Health Hazard Evaluation

        ATSDR Regional Representative:

        Robert Safay
        Public Health Advisor
        Office of the Assistant Administrator

        ATSDR Technical Project Officer:

        Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
        Technical Project Officer
        Remedial Programs Branch
        Division of Health Assessment & Consultation


This Para-Chem Southern, Inc. Public Health Assessment was prepared by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
Technical Project Officer
Remedial Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR

  1. Dennis, F J, Letter of October 22, 1987, Letter to SCDHEC regarding the discovery of buried drums on PCS property.

  2. Gibbons, G, Memorandum of December 15, 1987, in regards to Area #4 removal of wastes.

  3. Gorman, A, Memorandum of July 23, 1990, Hydrogeologic Portion of Health Assessment - Para-Chem Southern, Inc.

  4. King, M J, Memorandum of November 6, 1989, in reference to Notice of Violation in regards to SCDHEC inspection of drum removal.

  5. Koch, Neil C. 1986. Groundwater Resources of Greenville County, South Carolina Bulletin No. 38. State Development Board and USGS, Columbia, S.C.

  6. Nichols, D G, Gibbons, G E, and Banker, F R, Documentation Report For Waste Removal - PARA-CHEM SOUTHERN, INC. December 1987.

  7. Ott, E E, and Nichols, D G, Results Of Electromagnetic Survey For PARA-CHEM conducted March 1985.

  8. Overstreet, W.C., and Bell, H., 1965. The Crystalline Rocks of South Carolina, USGS Bulletin No. 1183, 126 p.

  9. Richardson, C W, Memorandum of September 22, 1988, in reference to private well testing results.

  10. Richardson, C W, Memorandum of October 10, 1988, in reference to private well testing results.

  11. Rivers, M, Memorandum of July 14, 1988, in reference to Review of Phase III Groundwater Assessment and Remediation Program Status Report.

  12. Rivers, M, Memorandum of November 22, 1989, in regards to Preacquisition Environmental Assessment for the Kelly Property.

  13. Rivers, M, Memorandum of February 22, 1989, regarding sampling results of the Kelly Property required by Consent Order #86-17-W,SW.

  14. Wise. P F, Letter of February 27, 1986 regarding SCDHEC Consent Order #86-17-W,SW.

  15. ATSDR. 1993a. Toxicological Profile for Benzene. ATSDR\TP-92-03

  16. ATSDR. 1993b. Toxicological Profile for Lead. ATSDR\TP-92\12

  17. ATSDR. 1993c. Draft Toxicological Profile for Toluene.

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