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Table 1.

Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards Associated With the Operable Units at Fort Riley
Site Site Description/Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/ Environmental Monitoring Results Current Status Evaluation of Public Health Hazard

Operable Unit (OU) 1
Southwest Funston Landfill

Southwest Funston Landfill is located in the southern portion of Fort Riley, adjacent to the southwest corner of the Camp Funston cantonment area. This approximately 120-acre landfill was operated from the mid-1950s to 1981 for the disposal of municipal and industrial waste. Under Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE)guidance, the Army closed the landfill in 1983. Materials disposed at the landfill that are potential sources of contamination include waste from vehicle and aircraft maintenance shops, print shops, furniture repair shops, laundry and dry cleaning facilities, pesticides storage, and wastewater treatment plants.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily vinyl chloride, and metals were detected at levels above comparison values (CVs).

The 1995 record of decision (ROD) called for future native soil cover, institutional controls to prevent on-site groundwater use, long-term groundwater monitoring, and further hydrogeologic characterization of surface water/groundwater interaction in conjunction with the long-term groundwater monitoring.

The groundwater monitoring continues on a semiannual basis. Since some contamination will remain on-site, statutory reviews will be required at 5 year intervals.

A bank stabilization action was accomplished in 1994 and again in 1997. Annual inspections and periodic maintenance of the bank stabilization and cover are being conducted.

OU 1 does not pose any public health hazards because the area is inaccessible to the general public, workers are unlikely to contact contaminants in soil frequently or for long periods of time, and no one drinks water drawn from beneath the site.

OU 2
Pesticide Storage Facility (Mixing)

The Pesticide Storage Facility site is situated in an industrially-zoned area of the Main Post, approximately 2,000 feet north and west of the Kansas River. The site consists of approximately 2/3 acres around Building 348, which was constructed in 1941. Although records do not exist to indicate when pesticides were first used, Fort Riley personnel revealed that the area has been used for washing pesticide trucks and storing pesticides since the 1970s. Until the mid-1970s, pesticide wastewaters and mixed pesticides were allowed to run onto the ground in the equipment-washing area behind the facility. Surface runoff from the site runs into a channel that eventually empties into a tributary of the Kansas River.

Surface Soils: Pesticides, including chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor, were detected at levels below CVs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were also detected, but only sporadically at levels above CVs.

Surface Water: Pesticides and metals were detected at levels below CVs.

Sampling conducted in 1983 and 1984 detected pesticide contamination in the soils in the area behind the building and in sediments in the lined channel behind the building.

A removal action consisting of excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil took place in 1994.

A No Further Action ROD was signed in September 1997. This decision is based on continued industrial land use and will be annotated in the installation master plan for consideration if land use changes. Because residual contamination remains in place, 5-year reviews are required.

No public health hazards exist because only low levels of contaminants were detected and the area is not accessible to the general public.

OU 3
Dry Cleaning Facility





The former Dry Cleaning Facility covers approximately 7 acres in the southwest corner of the Main Post cantonment area, about 800 feet north of the Kansas River. Prior to 1980, still bottom residues from the solvent distillation process were reportedly dumped on the ground behind Building 180. Contamination also resulted from leaks in the sewer system.


Groundwater, Surface Soil, and Surface Water: VOCs were detected at levels above CVs.

A pilot study for groundwater and soil vapor extraction (SVE) was completed. The groundwater pumping tests, conducted in the overburden and bedrock aquifers, indicated that groundwater extraction would be an ineffective remedy as the pumping rate was approximately 0.75 gallons per minute. SVE was successful in removing most of the soil contamination contributing to groundwater contamination. The results have been incorporated into the feasibility study (FS).

Following review of the remedial investigation (RI) and the draft FS it was determined, in concert with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and KDHE, that additional characterization of the adjacent alluvial aquifer ("The Island") was warranted. Investigations in the spring of 1996 showed that contaminant levels exceed EPA’s maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Leakage from a nearby sewer servicing the laundry was corrected in 1996. Natural attenuation was evaluated in the FS. Additional characterization of the alluvial aquifer east of "The Island" is continuing now to provide a better baseline for a proposed cleanup plan and for long-term monitoring.

Periodic groundwater monitoring is continuing pending the execution of the ROD.

No public health hazards exist. Contaminant levels in groundwater exceed MCLs, but no exposure has occurred or is likely to occur because 1) no one drinks water from beneath the site, 2) long-term monitoring is in place to monitor contaminants migration, 3) a contingency calls for institutional controls to prohibit future groundwater use, and 4) recent data show that groundwater contaminant levels are steadily declining.

OU 4
Marshall Army Airfield-Former Fire Training Area

This site consisted of a former fire training area (FFTA) and former drum storage area located at Marshall Army Airfield (MAAF) near the installation boundary. The fire training area, primarily an unlined crushed-stone pit, operated from the mid-1960s to 1984. The current road around MAAF is constructed over a portion of the former fire training area. A drum of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was accidentally released into the fire training pit in 1982. Only a portion of the spilled material is believed to have been recovered.


Groundwater and Surface Soil: Some VOCs, PAHs, and metals were detected above CVs.

The Installation Wide Site Assessment (dated 1992) indicated that the activities at MAAF-FFTA potentially impacted the soils and groundwater in the vicinity of the site. Further site investigation activities conducted between 1993 and 1995 indicated off-post contamination and samples collected from private wells confirmed the presence of contamination. A SVE and Bioventing Pilot Study were performed in late 1994 and early 1995 to address the vadose zone soils in the immediate vicinity of the former fire training area and drum storage area. Preliminary RI activities conducted in May and November 1996, including the installation of multiple depth wells, were performed to characterize the vertical and horizontal extent of the groundwater contamination. RI activities continued in 1999 to characterize the leading edge of the groundwater plume.

A removal action was proposed in 1997 and 1998 to provide alternate water supply to the auto speedway owner. This proposed action consists of drilling wells outside the area of groundwater contamination and piping the water to the existing structures.

OU 4 poses no public health hazards. Contaminants associated with the OU migrated off-post with groundwater to private wells located at a nearby auto speedway. ATSDR has determined that drinking water from the auto speedway wells in the past posed no increased likelihood of developing health effects. No exposure is occurring now because the owner of the speedway no longer uses the wells for drinking water. Fort Riley will install a new replacement well upon owner approval.

OU 5
Building 354 Area Solvent Detections

Solvent storage and dispensing previously occurred near Building 354 in the public works yard area. PCE and/or its breakdown products have been detected in the groundwater near underground storage tanks (USTs). The source is unknown but may be resulting from previous activities in the public works yard.

Groundwater and Surface Soils: VOCs were detected at levels above CVs.

Initial field investigations completed in 1997 were not successful at locating a source but the nature and extent of contamination was generally defined. RI/FS are activities are underway to locate the source of contamination. Following RI/FS activities, the Army will prepare a ROD. In lieu of a site investigation, Superfund groundwater monitoring is being conducted in concert with UST monitoring. They will perform quarterly monitoring for one year, and then semiannually through 2014.

No public health hazards are expected to occur because the groundwater beneath the OU is not used for drinking water and the areas is not accessible to the general public.

CVs= comparison values
FFTA= Former Fire Training Area
FS= feasibility study
KDHE= Kansas Department of Health and Environment
MAAF= Marshall Army Airfield
MCLs= EPA’s maximum contaminant levels
OU= operable unit
PAHs= polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
PCE = tetrachloroethylene
RI= remedial investigation
ROD = record of decision
SVE= soil vapor extraction
UST= underground storage tank
VOCs= volatile organic compounds

Table 2.

Exposure Pathways Evaluation Table

Pathway Name

Source of Contamination Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure

Potentially Exposed Population


Completed Exposure Pathways

Private Drinking Water Wells

TCE , PCE, and 1,2-DCE: Fort Riley


Local private wells

Ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation

Visitors and workers at the nearby auto speedway

Past :

• High levels of VOCs were detected in private wells R-1 and R-2 located at a nearby auto speedway. Visitors and workers at the auto speedway may have been exposed to VOCs when they drank water originating from R-1. ATSDR has determined that the intermittent exposure to contaminant concentrations are unlikely to cause harmful effects. No exposure is believed to have occurred after 1993.

Current and Future :

• No exposure to harmful levels of contaminants is occurring or is expected to occur. The R-1 well is no longer used for drinking water and Fort Riley proposes to install a new replacement well.

Surface Soil

Lead associated with former firing range activities and the Southeast Funston Landfill and Incinerator Area, and pesticides associated with past pesticide applications and storage practices at Fort Riley

Surface soil

For lead, the Colyer Manor Housing Area and other areas of lead concern. For pesticides, the Pesticide Storage Facility

Incidental ingestion and/or dermal contact

Children and adults


• Elevated levels of lead and pesticides were detected in soil but no significant exposure to contaminated soil is likely to have occurred because either the 1) the area of contamination was inaccessible to the general public (PSF), and/or the area of contamination was extremely limited and covered with grass, further limiting exposure (Colyer Manor Housing Area), and/or exposure to the area was sporadic (Southeast Funston Landfill and Incinerator Area). Furthermore, the most elevated lead levels found at Colyer Manor Housing Area are not expected to harm even young children who played in the area.

Current and Future:

• The Army removed or will remove contaminated soil; therefore, no exposures are likely to occur.

Table 3.

Summary of Contaminants in Shallow Groundwater Beneath and Downgradient from the MAAF-FFTA


Concentration Range1 (ppb)

Comparison Value (ppb)

On-Post Shallow Groundwater Monitoring Wells

Off-Post (Downgradient) Shallow Groundwater Monitoring Wells


Carcinogenic (CREG)


<0.5 - 4,100

<0.5 - 685

70 MCL



<1.1 - 320

<1.1 - 56

400 RMEG




<0.6 - 96

<0.6 - 190



Source: Louis Berger & Associates, Inc., 1997a; Burns & McDonnell, 1998a, 1998b, 1999

1 The data summarizes the analytical results for samples collected between October 1993 and May 1999 from on-post and off-post groundwater monitoring wells

ppb = parts per billion; CREG = ATSDR’s cancer risk evaluation guide; RMEG = ATSDR’s reference dose media evaluation guide; MCL = EPA’s maximum contaminant level.

Table 4.

Summary of Contaminants in Off-post Private Wells
Contaminant Concentration Range2 (ppb)

Comparison Value (ppb)

R-2 M-1 Noncarcinogenic Carcinogenic (CREG)


10 - 290

1.5 - 150

<0.5 - 19

70 MCL



1.6 - 330

1.1 - 230


400 RMEG




3.7 - 76

0.6 - 96




Source: Louis Berger & Associates, Inc., 1997a; Fort Riley, 1999d.

1 ATSDR reviewed the water quality data (summarized in this table) and exposure information and concluded that drinking water from the auto speedway tap in the past has not caused harm to its visitors’ or workers’ health.

2 The data summarize the analytical results for samples collected between October 1993 and May 1999 from off-post (downgradient) private wells. It should be noted that at the time of this public health assessment, results from the most recent groundwater sampling (May 1999) show that 1,2,-DCE (1.5 - 12 ppb), PCE (1.1 - 1.6 ppb), and TCE (<0.6 - 5 ppb) concentrations in R-1, R-2, and M-1 are below their respective MCL.

Key: ppb = parts per billion; CREG = ATSDR’s cancer risk evaluation guide; RMEG = ATSDR’s reference dose media evaluation guide; MCL = EPA’s maximum contaminant level; < = less than.


Figure 1. Area Map

Source: Louis Berger & Associates, Inc., 1997a

Figure 2. Site Map

Source: Louis Berger & Associates, Inc., 1997a

Figure 3. ATSDR’s Exposure Evaluation Process

Figure 4. Location of Marshall Army Airfield-Former Fire Training Area

Source: Louis Berger & Associates, Inc., 1997a

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